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Special Nutritional Needs


Special Nutritional Needs Foods I Obj. 4.02 Additional Information Barbie s body would have room for only half of a liver and only a few inches of intestines As ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Special Nutritional Needs

Special Nutritional Needs
  • Foods I
  • Obj. 4.02

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Refer to picture
  • Each person requires a different amount of
    nutrients and food

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Stages of the Life Cycle
  • Pregancy
  • Lactation
  • Infancy (0-12 months)
  • Toddler (1-3 years)
  • Preschool (3 years)
  • School-aged
  • Teen-aged
  • Adults
  • Older Adults (50 years)

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Pregnancy
  • Choosing low-fat, nutrient dense foods
  • Increase calories based on Drs recommendation
  • Extra helpings of dairy items
  • Reduce Caffeine intake
  • Iron needs to double
  • Folic acidWhy?
  • Contaminants in foods can cause problems
  • Fish (tuna, swordfish, etc.)

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Pregnancy
  • Poor eating habits place the baby at risk for
    serious problems
  • Inadequate nutrition can damage the mothers
    health also.
  • Baby pulls nutrients from mothers supply
  • Teen pregnancy
  • Teens need added nutrients for their own growth
    and development
  • Increase in low birth weight, physical, and
    learning problems

LactationFeeding Your Child
  • Nutritional Needs
  • Increase water, calcium, protein, folic acid.
  • Increase calories based upon body weight.
  • Foods to Avoid
  • Eat no more than two meals per week of fish high
    in mercury.

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Infancy
  • (0-12 months)
  • The infant body grows more at this period of time
    than any other in life.
  • Good nutrition is critical for keeping the infant

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Infancy
  • Breast-feeding vs. Bottle-feeding
  • Both provide all the nutrients needed
  • Yet, breast milk is recommended
  • Why?
  • This milk has the right balance of fat, carbs,
    and protein for the baby.
  • Lowers the rate of infections
  • Mother passes immunities to baby through
  • Lactation
  • Mother is burning calories while producing milk
    therefore she still needs to eat nutritiously.
  • Watch out for spicy foods, acidic foods, etc.
  • No alcohol or drugs!!!

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Infancy
  • 4-6 months--Add solid foodsmash, iron-fortified
  • Introduce one food at a timeWhy?
  • 9 monthsself feeding
  • Example of finger foods.
  • Watch for food allergies these could be deadly

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Infancy
  • Foods to Avoid
  • Avoid honey or corn syrup.
  • Beware of choking risks.
  • Eat no more than two meals per week of fish high
    in mercury.
  • Withhold juice until 6 months of age.
  • Need whole milk for infants up to two years of age

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Toddler
  • (1-3 years)
  • Nutritional Needs
  • Increase iron.
  • Introduce new flavors and textures in order to
    increase the variety of foods.
  • Increase self-feeding. This becomes an important
    developmental milestone.
  • Foods to Avoid
  • Eat no more than two meals per week of fish high
    in mercury.
  • No hot dogs, nuts, seeds, chunks of meat or
    cheese, whole grapes, hard, gooey, or sticky
    candy, popcorn, chunks or peanut butter, raw
    vegetables, raisins, or chewing gum.
  • No more than 16-24 ounces of milk or 4-6 ounces
    of juice/day.
  • Servings should be ΒΌ size of adults.

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Preschool
  • (3 years)
  • Nutritional Needs
  • Need same variety of foods as adults but in
    smaller proportions.
  • Serve about 2/3 of a serving.
  • Entice them with foods that are bright in color,
    to make it more appealing.
  • Encourage children to try new foods.

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Pre-school
  • Children have small stomachs and short attention
  • Try small meals and regular snacks throughout the
  • Appetite varies depending on growth
  • During growth spurts they may eat more

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • School-aged
  • 2nd most rapid growth period of life
  • Need for calcium and iron for bone growth is of
    most importance
  • Like toddlers, teens have growth spurtsincrease
    in caloric needs
  • Continue healthy eating habits
  • Dieting, losing weight, etc can be harmful

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • School Age
  • Girls need 2200 kcal per day
  • Boys need 2800 kcal per day
  • Foods to Avoid
  • High-sugar snacks
  • Fatty foods

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Teens
  • Nutritional Needs
  • Eat more carbohydrates.
  • Females need more calcium and iron.
  • Foods to Avoid
  • Avoid fried and saturated fats, excessive salt
    and sugars.

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Adulthood
  • Dilemma
  • Need for nutrients but less calories
  • Need for exercise but no time
  • Solution
  • Choosing a variety of healthful, low-calorie food
  • Making regular physical activity a priority

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Older Adults
  • (50 years)
  • Nutritional Needs
  • More vitamin B6, B12, and vitamin D and calcium.
  • Follow dietary guideline daily.
  • Foods to Avoid
  • Eat no more than two meals per week of fish high
    in mercury.
  • No unpasteurized cheese, raw fish, raw milk, soft
    cheese, lightly cooked egg, raw meat or poultry
    or raw sprouts.

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Older Adults
  • Good nutrition longer life
  • Why
  • Should choose nutrient-dense foods
  • Thirst signals decline therefore adults need make
    sure to get 8-8oz cups a day

Eating Through the Life Cycle
  • Older adults
  • Men over 51 need 2300 calories per day
  • Women over 51 need 1900 calories per day
  • Problems
  • Low income
  • Disabilities
  • Depression

Foods IObj. 4.02 Nutrition and Chronic
5.02F Nutrition and Chronic Conditions
Nutrition and Chronic Conditions
  • The following chronic conditions may be affected
    by managing ones eating patterns include
  • High Blood Cholesterol
  • Hypertension/High blood pressure
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge Eating

Special Diets High Blood Pressure
  • A risk factor for heart disease
  • 1 killer of women in US
  • Reduce sodium and saturated fats
  • Diet rich in calcium, potassium, and magnesium

Special Diets High cholesterol
  • Causes
  • Eating Fatty (saturated fats) foods
  • Eating High cholesterol foods
  • Lack of Fiber in the diet
  • Increase risk of heart disease and stroke
  • Symptoms
  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Elevated HDL/LDL levels
  • Foods to include
  • Low-fat or Fat-free
  • Whole grains
  • Lean meats
  • Fish
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Foods to avoid
  • Partially hydrogenated oils
  • Processed snack foods
  • Highly marbled meats

Special DietsDiabetesType II
  • What is it?
  • A condition in which the body cannot control
    blood sugar levels
  • If left untreated it can cause severe damage to
    the bodyespecially the kidneys, eyes, and heart
  • To controlcarbs are rationed through regular
    meals and careful food choices
  • Causes
  • Eating foods high in sugar
  • Excessive body weight
  • Low consumption of fiber
  • Symptoms
  • Excessive thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Foods to include
  • Low-sugar and sugar-free
  • Protein foods
  • Whole grains
  • Reduced-fat and fat-free
  • Foods to avoid
  • Foods that are high in sugar
  • Foods that are high in carbohydrates

  • 65 of all adults are overweight
  • Number of children under the age of 18 who are
    overweight has doubled in the last 30 years
  • Why?

  • Foods to Include
  • Smaller portions
  • Reduced-fat or fat free
  • Whole grains
  • Fish
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Foods that Impact
  • Highly processed snack foods
  • Low-fiber content
  • High-fat foods

  • Health problems
  • Excess weight added strain on bones, muscles,
    and internal organs
  • Walking and breathing take extra effort
  • Heat and humidity increase stress
  • High blood pressure, heart disease, stroke,
    diabetes, certain types of cancers
  • Over 15 can raise chance of early death

Fad Diets
  • A diet that is popular for a short period of time
  • Cabbage Diet
  • South Beach Diet
  • Fad Diets

Ideal Body Myth
  • Fashion model (female)
  • 510 120
  • Average female
  • 54 152
  • Fashion model (male)
  • 60 155
  • Average male
  • 59 180
  • Barbie Measurements


Barbies Proportions
  • Real Women
  • Average womans height is 5'4?
  • Their weight is approx. 140 lbs.
  • They wear a size 14 dress
  • Their bust is between 36? and 37? (B cup)
  • Their waist is between 30? and 34?
  • Their hips average between 40? and 42?
  • Their shoe size is estimated to be between 8.5
    and 9.5
  • Barbie (as a human)
  • Barbies height would be 7'2?
  • Her weight would be 101 lbs.
  • She would wear a size 4 dress
  • Her bust would be 39? (FF cup)
  • Her waist would be 19? (same as her head)
  • Her hips would be 33?
  • Her shoe size would be a 5

Additional Information
  • Barbies body would have room for only half of a
    liver and only a few inches of intestines
  • As opposed to the usual 26 feet.
  • The result chronic diarrhea and death from
    malabsorption malnutrition.
  • Barbies neck is twice as long as the average
  • Making it impossible to hold up her head.
  • Barbies waist is the same circumference as her
  • There are 3 billion women on the planet who dont
    look like Barbie only 8 women come close.
  • To look like a barbie proportionally, a healthy
    woman would need to
  • add 2 feet to her height,
  • subtract 6 inches from her waist,
  • add 5 inches to her chest, and
  • 3 inches to her neck length.
  • If a woman had the same measurements as Barbie,
    she would not have enough body fat to menstruate
    (and obviously to have children).
  • Barbies legs are 50 longer than her arms,
    whereas the average womans legs are only 20
    longer than her arms.
  • Barbie would be unable to walk upright (she would
    need to walk on all 4s)
  • Her feet are so proportionately small that her
    chest would pull her perpetually forward onto her

Why are these unreal for the average American?
  • Bodys type is combination of general body shape
    and height
  • Determined by parents through genes
  • Models achieve ideals through strict diets,
    exercise, and photo touch-ups.
  • How do they do it?
  • Dove clip
  • Evolution--Dove
  • Can you tell the difference?

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  • Who?
  • Models, jockeys, wrestlers, etc.
  • Problem
  • Not eating enough nutrients to meet bodys needs

  • Health problems
  • Suffer from infections
  • Tire easily
  • Cold
  • Why?

Eating Disorders
  • Conditions marked by extreme emotions, attitudes,
    and behaviors related to food, eating, and
  • May cause damage to health or threaten life

Anorexia Nervosa
  • An intense fear of gaining weightsee self as fat
  • Develop unusual eating habits
  • Strenuous exercising

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Starvation diet takes a toll on the body
  • Lower heart rate
  • Breathing rate
  • Blood pressure
  • Body temp
  • Lead to heart probs, osteoporosis, constipation
  • Stunt growth
  • Stop menstrual cycle

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Kills approximately 5 of all who suffer from it
  • Death by heart attack, electrolyte imbalance, and

Results of Eating Disorders
  • Karen Carpenter (32) musician
  • Went on a water diet to lose weight. Died of
    cardiac arrest due to anorexia and weighed only
    80 lbs.
  • Christy Henrich (22) gymnast
  • Told to lose weight in order to make the Olympic
    team. She died of multiple organ failure, as a
    result of anorexia. She weighed only 60 lbs.

Those Who Have Struggled With Eating Disorders
  • Paula Abdul
  • Dancer, choreographer and singer
  • battled bulimia
  • Kelly Clarkson
  • The 'American Idol' winner
  • struggled with bulimia for six months until
    friends discovered her secret and begged her to
    get help.
  • Oprah Winfrey
  • TV personality
  • "It's always a struggle. I've felt safer and more
    protected when I was heavy. Food has always been

Binge Eating Disorder
  • Eat abnormally large amounts of food in a short
  • Approximately 3,000-5,000 in one sitting
  • Occurs when alone followed by feelings of guilt,
    disgust, and depression

Binge Eating Disorder
  • Unbalanced diet and emotional distress can lead
  • Leads to excessive weight gain
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes

Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge eating is followed by purging to rid the
    body of the food and calories and prevent weight
  • 2 or more times a week
  • Purging includes
  • Self-induced vomiting
  • Abuse of laxatives
  • Diet pills
  • Diuretics (water-removal pills)_
  • Fasting
  • Excessive exercise

Bulimia Nervosa
  • Bulimia hides itself well
  • Fear getting fat but usually stay 10-15 pounds
    within healthy weight
  • Signs of bulimia
  • Missing food
  • Empty containers
  • Discovery of laxatives
  • Long periods in bathroom after meals

Bulimia Nervosa
  • Health problems
  • Vomit eats away at the teeth, gums, and stomach
  • Constant sore throats
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Irregular heart beat and possible heart failure
  • Physical signs include
  • Stained, decayed teeth
  • Scarred, blistered hands
  • Unusual swelling around jaws

Eating Disorders
  • Discussion--
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