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Earth, Sun, and Moon

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Title: Earth, Sun, and Moon Author: CHS Last modified by: Melissa R. Wikler Created Date: 4/19/2005 4:05:28 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth, Sun, and Moon


1
Earth, Sun, and Moon
2
Physical Properties of Earth
  • Diameter (pole to pole) 12,714 km
  • Diameter (equator) 12,756 km
  • Circumference (poles) 40,008 km
  • Circumference (equator) 40,075 km
  • Mass 5.98 x 1027 g
  • Density 5.52 g/cm3
  • Average distance to sun 149,600,000 km
  • Period of Rotation 23 hr 56 min
  • Period of Revolution 365 days 6 hr 9 min

3
Motions of the Earth
  • Rotation
  • Turning or spinning on its axis
  • Revolution
  • Earth revolving around the sun in an elliptical
    orbit
  • Precession
  • Slight movement over a period of 26,000 years of
    Earths axis

4
Rotation
  • 2 ways of measuring
  • 1) Solar Day time from one noon to the next
  • 2) Sidereal Day- time it takes Earth to complete
    one full rotation (360 degrees) with respect to
    another star other than our sun
  • Time required for a star to reappear at the
    identical position in the sky where it was
    observed the day before
  • 23 hours 56 minutes

5
Revolution
  • Earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical
    orbit at an average speed of 107,000
    kilometers/hour
  • Average distance from the sun is 150 million
    kilometers
  • Perihelion- Earth is closest to the sun 147
    million kilometers away (January)
  • Aphelion- Earth is farthest from the sun about
    152 million kilometers away (July)

6
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7
Precession
  • Earth wobbles on its 23.5o axis and North pole
    points to different stars in 26,000 year period
  • Now points towards Polaris
  • In 14,000 will point to Vega
  • By 28,000 will point to Polaris again
  • Has a slight affect on seasons

8
Seasons
  • The northern hemisphere experiences summer when
    Earth is farthest from the sun.
  • It experiences winter when Earth is closest to
    the sun.
  • The seasons are a result of the Earths tilt on
    its axis.
  • Remember Earths axis is at a 23.5o tilt.

9
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10
Equinox
  • Equinox is the time when the sun is directly on
    Earths equator.
  • Number of daytime hours Number of nighttime
    hours
  • Northern and Southern Hemispheres are not tilted
    toward the sun.
  • Spring Equinox Around March 20, 21
  • Fall Equinox September 22, 23

11
Solstice
  • The point when the sun reaches its greatest
    distance north or south of the equator.
  • Summer Solstice June 21, 22
  • Long days, shorter nights
  • Winter Solstice December 21, 22
  • Short days, longer nights
  • http//esminfo.prenhall.com/science/geoanimations/
    animations/01_EarthSun_E2.html

12
Earth-Sun Motion
  • Earth, Sun, and solar system speeds in the
    direction of the bright star Vega at 20
    Kilometers per second
  • Also- Sun revolves around the galaxy
  • Galaxies themselves are also in motion
  • We are approaching Andromeda

13
Earths Moon (Luna)
  • Earths only natural satellite (objects that are
    in Earths orbit)
  • Density is 3.3X greater than mantle rocks of
    Earth
  • Gravitational attraction is 1/6 of that on Earth-
    150lb on Earth 25 lb on the moon

14
Earths Moon
  • The moon rotates on its axis, and revolves around
    the earth.
  • Moons rotations 1 rotation every 27.3 days
  • Moons revolution 1 rev. every 27.3 days
  • Because the revolution and rotation times are the
    same, we always see the same side of the moon.
  • The moon shines because of light being reflected
    from the sun.
  • Moon phases are the changing appearances of the
    moon as seen from Earth.

15
Phases of the Moon
  • New Moon the lighted half of the moon is facing
    the sun and dark side faces the earth.
  • Occurs when the moon is between Earth and the
    sun.
  • Waxing Shortly after the new moon, more and
    more of the moons lighted side becomes visible
    (about 24 hours after new moon)
  • Waxing occurs until we see the full moon

16
Waning Phases
  • Happens after the full moon, when the moons
    lighted side becomes smaller.
  • Waning gibbous occurs after the full moon.
  • Then third quarter phase occurs
  • Next comes waning crescent
  • Finally the waning phase ends with a new moon.

17
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18
New Moon
19
Waxing Crescent (Anything small than a quarter)
20
First Quarter
21
Waxing Gibbous (More than one-quarter is visible)
22
Full Moon
23
Names for the Full Moon
  • January Wolf or Hunger moon. During this month
    the wolves once roamed the countryside, thus
    suggesting the name wolf moon. In cold and
    temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, it
    was difficult to find food during January, thus
    the name hunger moon.
  • February Snow Moon. In certain parts of the
    world, snow is usually the deepest in this month,
    thus the name snow moon.
  • March Sap or Worm Moon. Because sap rises in
    March, this full moon is called the sap moon. The
    ground softens during this month, and worms begin
    to burrow out of the ground, thus the name worm
    moon.
  • April Pink Moon. Many flowers turn pink and
    bloom in April, thus the name pink moon.
  • May Flower Moon. Because many flowers bloom in
    May, after the April downpours, May's moon is
    called the flower moon.
  • June Strawberry or Rose Moon. Because
    strawberries bloom in June, this month's moon is
    the strawberry moon. Also, the French call this
    moon la lune rose, which translates into English
    as "the rose moon."  

24
Names for the Full Moon Continued
  • July Buck Moon. Male deer, or bucks, grow their
    first antlers during this month, thus the name
    buck moon.
  • August Sturgeon Moon. Because it is sturgeon
    season in certain parts of the world in August,
    its moon is called the sturgeon moon
  • September Harvest or Corn Moon. Native Americans
    began to harvest their crops during this month
    every year. (If this full moon occurs late in
    August it is called the harvest moon.). If the
    full moon occurs earlier in September, it is
    called the corn moon because the corn crop is
    ready for picking at that time.
  • October Hunter's Moon. The hunting season begins
    in October, thus the name hunter's moon.
  • November Beaver Moon. Beaver traps were once set
    in this month to catch enough beaver to make warm
    clothing for the upcoming winter.
  • December Cold Moon. The approach of cold weather
    in the Northern Hemisphere gives this month's
    full moon its name. Compton's Interactive
    Encyclopedia

25
Waning Gibbous
26
Third (Last) Quarter
27
Waning Crescent
28
New Moon (Cycle starts over again!!!)
29
Eclipses
  • Shadow effects
  • When the moon moves in a line directly between
    Earth and the Sun it casts a shadow on Earth-
    Solar Eclipse
  • When the moon moves within Earths shadow- Lunar
    Eclipse
  • The revolution of the moon causes eclipses
  • What does the moon revolve around?

30
Solar Eclipses
  • Umbra Darkest portion of the moons shadow
    (Total Eclipse)
  • Penumbra Surrounds the umbra and is lighter
    shadow on Earths surface (Partial Eclipse)

31
  • Caution Regardless of where you are standing,
    never look directly at a solar eclipse. The
    light will permanently damage your eyes.

32
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33
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34
Lunar Eclipse
  • Happens when the shadow of Earth falls on the
    moon.

35
  • Moon moves into Earths penumbra.
  • Continues to move, enters the umbra, and you see
    a curved shadow on the moons surface.

36
Partial Lunar Eclipse Only a portion of the moon
moves into Earths umbra
37
Total Lunar Eclipse (January 2000)
38
Structure of the Moon
  • Dont believe everything you read.
  • Discovery of life on the Moon was announced to
    the American public by the New York Sun in 1835.
    This fanciful illustration is supposed to have
    shown what astronomers were seeing with new and
    more powerful telescopes.

39
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40
Structures of the Moon
  • Maria are dark-colored, relatively flat regions
    on the moon.
  • Formed when ancient lava flows from the moons
    interior filled large basins on the moons
    surface.
  • Some are 3 to 4 Billion years old and are the
    youngest rocks on the moon
  • Highlands- densely pitted light-colored areas
  • Regolith- soil-like layer composted of igneous
    rock, glass beads, and fine lunar dust

41
Maria
Maria
42
Craters
  • Most obvious features on the moon
  • Depression formed by meteorites, asteroids, and
    comets, which struck the moon.
  • Cracks have formed in the moon, during impacts
  • Many more than Earth because the moon has no
    atmosphere to burn up debris and no destruction
    by tectonic forces

43
South Pole of the Moon
44
Surface seen by Apollo 11 on its decent to the
moon
45
Apollo 11
46
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47
Moon Interior
Core
Mantle
Crust
48
Moons Interior
  • Earthquakes allow scientists to map the moons
    interior.
  • Seismographs were left by Apollo astronauts
  • Crust
  • 60 km thick on the side facing Earth
  • 150 km thick on the far side
  • Mantle solid mantle, maybe 1000 km thick
  • Core May be a solid iron-rich core

49
False Color Mosaic Taken by Galileo in 1992
Red Lunar Highland Blue Orange ancient lava
flows Blue regions contain more titanium than
orange Purple regions that formed during large
volcanic eruptions
50
Moon dust under microscope
Mostly titanium and iron oxides
51
Origins of the Moon
  • Three popular theories, prior to the Apollo
    missions
  • Moon was captured by Earths gravity
  • Moon condensed from loose material surrounding
    Earth during the formation of the solar system.
  • Blob of molten material was ejected from Earth
    while Earth was still in its early stage.

52
Impact Theory
53
Impact Theory
  • Moon formed around 4.6 billion years ago when a
    Mars-sized object collided with Earth
  • Melted part of Earths Mantle and the impacting
    object. Material ejected into space
  • Debris started orbiting the Earth, some debris
    fell back to Earth
  • Material formed a ring of hot dust and gas around
    Earth
  • In about 100 years, the particles in the ring
    joined together forming the moon

54
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55
Future Moon Missions
  • Will there be future missions to the moon?
  • Will there be colonies on the moon?
  • How can we sustain life on the moon?
  • Please take a few moments to think about these
    questions.
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