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Twentieth%20Century%20Technology

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Title: Twentieth%20Century%20Technology


1
The Rise of Western Science
  • Twentieth Century Technology

2
Science in China
  • China slow to adopt Western sciences
  • First industry and military sciences
  • Medicine one of the last sciences to be adopted
    in China
  • America invested Boxer Rebellion indemnity in
    Chinese education
  • Chinese students began studying at American
    universities
  • Rebellion of 1911 brought a republican government
    to power in China under Sun Yat-sen
  • Led to increased interest in Western ideas

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Science in India
  • British colonial governors like Lord Curzon
    believed it was the duty of the British to bring
    law, religion, literature, and science to the
    British colonies
  • British rule in India brought Western science to
    forefront of Indian thinking
  • Colonial government invested heavily in
    scientific education
  • By 1930 Chandrasekhara Venkata, an Indian
    intellectual became first non-Westerner to
    receive the Nobel Prize in physics

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Science and Islam
  • Ottoman Empire does not fully embrace Western
    science until the Young Turks take power in
    1908
  • Pace of scientific adoption radically increases
    after WWI when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk begins
    building a secular republic
  • Fundamentalist Islam hostile to Western science
  • Not until after WWII will the Arab world fully
    incorporate Western science into its education
    and cultural institutions
  • Western medicine was the most successful
    harbinger of science in the Middle East and Africa

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New Technologies at the Turn of the Century
  • 1901 Wireless Radio broadcast by Guglielmo
    Marconi
  • 1903 Wright Brothers successfully fly first
    airplane
  • 1907 Plastics are invented
  • 1911 Combine harvester invented
  • Atom smasher, skyscraper, hamburger, and
    Coca-Cola all invented prior to WWI

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Physics
  • 1902 Henri Poncaire postulated the doctrine of
    scientific skepticism evidence can be explained
    by numerous hypotheses
  • 1905 Albert Einstein posits first theory of
    relativity
  • Mass and time relative to speed
  • Speed of light only constant in the universe
  • Matter and energy are interchangeable
  • 1911 Ernest Rutherford develops first theories of
    quantum mechanics
  • Subatomic particles
  • Atomic structures

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Physics continued
  • 1929 Edward Hubble discovered the red shift and
    the expanding universe
  • Leads to development of big bang theory
  • Embraced by both religious (Pope John XXIII) and
    secular communities
  • 1980s Chaos theory challenged the basic
    assumption that science can be used to make
    predications
  • butterfly effect
  • Chain of cause and effect too complex for human
    perspective
  • Physics continues to search for the Grand
    Unified Theory of Everything

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Biology
  • Major medical advances
  • 1922 Insulin isolated for diabetes treatment
  • 1931 Penicillin, the first antibiotic invented
  • Evolutionary controversy
  • 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial
  • Conflict between fundamentalist Christianity and
    evolutionary scientists
  • Development of the science of Genetics
  • 1944 Erwin Schrodinger predicted DNA chains
  • Controversy over genetic screening and designer
    babies
  • Human cloning controversy
  • Developments of neuroscience increased
    understanding of the human brain
  • Cognitive research
  • Artificial intelligence

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Biology continued
  • Primatology
  • Close study of monkeys and apes revealed cultural
    features
  • Jane Goodall and Diane Fossey
  • Sparked inquiry into premise of human moral
    superiority
  • Challenged idea of human rights
  • Brought out animal rights movement
  • Paleoanthropology
  • Discovered that more primitive species like
    Neathderthals had cultural markers previously
    thought only belonging to Homo Sapiens
  • Raised questions of what precisely a human is

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Anthropology
  • 19th Century anthropologists believed white
    Europeans to be biologically superior to other
    races
  • 1910 Franz Boas demonstrated that no difference
    in biological intelligence existed between races
  • Cultural tradition, not biology dictated
    differences
  • Society and environment explain dominance
  • Cultural Relativismidea that cultures cannot be
    ranked or judged by outside terms
  • 20th Century anthropology spells the end of the
    civilizing mission for colonial acquisitions
  • Margaret Mead and Coming of Age in Samoa

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Psychology
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) founded modern
    psychology
  • Posited the theory of subconscious motivations
  • Developed psychoanalysis
  • Attempt to achieve awareness of subconscious
  • Id, ego, and superego
  • Oedipal Complexes
  • Psychology came to influence all parts of Western
    society from medicine to education to child
    rearing

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Philosophy in the Early 1900s
  • William James popularized Pragmatism in 1907
  • Truth is relative
  • Whatever is useful is good
  • Positivism dominated philosophy in 1920s-30s
  • Perception reality
  • Reason can prove that our sense show truth
  • Existentialism became popular post-WWII
  • Only truth is from birth to death
  • Jean Paul Sartres views came to dominate Western
    thinking
  • An individual action is a statement about the
    type of species an individual wants to belong to
  • People must create their own identities
  • Never popular beyond the Western world

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Art in the Early 20th Century
  • Art mirrored the world of science
  • Modernism dominated art at the beginning of the
    20th Century
  • Belief that the new was superior to the old
  • In 1907 Cubism became popular
  • Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque
  • Reflected in fragmentary and shivered angles the
    disorder that atomic theory suggested
  • In 1909 Emilio Marinetti developed Futurism
  • The traditional needed to be abandoned or
    destroyed
  • Gloried in war, power, chaos, destruction,
    machines
  • Function of progress is to destroy the past

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Guernica by Picasso
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Futurismo by Marinetti
48
Art continued
  • Dadaism rose to prominence after WWI
  • Disillusioned, brutal, ugly, and meaningless
  • Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters, Max Ernst
  • Surrealism succeeded the Dada movement in the
    late 1920s and early 1930s
  • Attempted to replicate the subconscious mind
    through fantastic imagery
  • Salvador Dali, Meret Oppenheim
  • After the 1930s art splintered in many directions
    as technology, taste, and consumerism began to
    drive artistic movements at an ever increasing
    pace

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The Fountain by Marcel Duchamp
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The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali
51
Consumer Art
  • Cinema and mass entertainment became dominant art
    post WWII
  • Walt Disney (1901-1966) possibly the worlds most
    influential artist
  • Musical theater displaced opera
  • Pop music ousted classical music
  • Television advertising became most profitable art
  • Escapism rather than philosophical, social, or
    political message dominated the end of the 20th
    century
  • Fantasy literature became popular in reaction to
    a century dominated by science

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Walt Disney
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The West Turns to the East
  • Revival of Eastern Wisdom in the West at the
    end of the 20th century
  • Western scientists began to reconcile Eastern
    philosophy with modern science
  • Cyclic nature of time and space
  • Oppenheimers Now I am become Death, the
    Destroyer of Worlds quotation from Baghavad Gita
  • Recognition of the Chinese roots of Western
    learning
  • Zen Buddhism, Daoism, and Hindi culture appealed
    to reactionary elements in the West
  • Eastern medicine begins to influence the West
  • Traditional herbalism
  • Acupuncture
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