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Society and Groups


Society and Groups In a group, list all of the groups that you might be a member of. Society Defined For sociologists a society is defined in terms of its functions. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Society and Groups

Society and Groups
  • In a group, list all of the groups that you might
    be a member of.

Society Defined
  • For sociologists a society is defined in terms of
    its functions.  There are five
  • reproduction
  • sustenance
  • shelter
  • management of its membership
  • defense.

Organizations Within
  • There are three other types of organizations
  • Normative Organizations are organizations that
    people join because they perceive their goals as
    being socially or morally worthwhile (IE
  • Coercive Organizations are organizations that
    people typically are forced into against their
    will (prison)
  • Utilitarian Organizations are organizations that
    people typically join because of some tangible
    benefit which they expect to receive (Girl
    Scouts, PTA, or a political party).

Technology and Society
  • Technology availability greatly influenced the
    size and durability of these societies. 
  • Rocks, sticks, spears, axes, bows and arrows,
    darts, plows, hand tools, dowels and nails, steam
    engines, electricity, factories, watches,
    computer chips, and other technological advances
    have greatly changed the nature of societies over

Types of Societies
  • Hunting and Gathering Societies
  • Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
  • Agricultural Societies
  • Industrial Societies
  • Postindustrial Societies
  • Bioeconomic Societies

Why Do Societies Change or Remain Stable?
  • Auguste Comte
  • Social Statics, or the study of social structure
    and how it influences social stability
  • Social Dynamics, or the study of social structure
    and how it influences social change. 
  • A modern example of social statics might be the
    official governmental intervention of US economic
    recovery efforts  while social dynamics might be
    the new government bailout manipulation of the
    economy to establish economic security in
    volatile markets.
  • The Big Three Family, Politics, and Education

Emile Durkheims Thoughts
  • Emile Durkheims concept of Anomie social
    instability resulting from a breakdown of
    standards and values
  • Mechanical Solidarity is a shared conscious among
    society's members who each has a similar form of
  • Organic Solidarity, which is a sense of
    interdependence on the specializations of
    occupations in modern society. 

Karl Marx
  • Karl Marx argued the concept of Alienation, which
    is the resulting influence of industrialization
    on societys members where they feel disconnected
    and powerless in the final direction of their
  • To Marx, the social systems people created in
    turn controlled the pattern of their social life.

Ferdinand Tönnies
  • Gemeinschaft (Guh-mine-shoft) means "intimate
    community" and Gesellschaft (Guh-zell-shoft)
    means" impersonal associations." 
  • Gemeinschaft comes with a feeling of community
  • Whereas, Gesellschaft comes with a feeling of

What Are Societys Component Parts?
  • Social Cohesion - the degree to which members of
    a group or a society feel united by shared values
    and other social bonds.
  • Social Structure refers to the recurring patterns
    of behavior in society which people create
    through their interactions and relationships.

What Are Societys Component Parts?
  • Group, which is a set of two or more people who
    share common identity, interact regularly, and
    have shared expectations (roles), and function in
    their mutually agreed upon roles. 
  • Aggregates, or the number of people in the same
    place at the same time. 
  • A Category is a number of people who share common

(No Transcript)
Types of Groups
  • primary group
  • secondary group
  • reference group
  • in-group
  • out-group
  • social network
  • an electronic community

Primary Groups
  • Characterized by intimate face-to-face
    association and those are fundamental in the
    development and continued adjustment of their
  • Three basic primary groups
  • the family,
  • the child's play group, and
  • the neighborhoods or community among adults.

Secondary Groups
  • Characterized by anonymous, impersonal, and
    instrumental relationships, have become much more
  • For example a college class, the Democratic
  • Secondary groups tend to break down into several
    primary groups

Reference Groups
  • reference group is a concept referring to a group
    to which an individual or another group is
  • Sociologists call any group that individuals use
    as a standard for evaluating themselves and their
    own behavior a reference group.
  • Reference groups provide the benchmarks

In-group / Out-group
  • Loyal to In-group
  • Antagonistic to Out-group

Social Network
  • Cliques
  • Would include family, friends, acquaintances, and
    friends of friends
  • Who could help you get your foot in the door?

The Electronic Community
  • Newsgroups
  • Blogs
  • Facebook
  • Chat rooms
  • Game sites
  • Virtual Worlds (IMVU, RUNESCAPE)