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Title: Government


1
CHAPTER 2
  • Government

2
INSTITUTIONS
  • The established laws, customs, and practices of a
    society.
  • These early English settlers brought these ideas
    with them to the colonies.
  • These institutions helped to influence the
    government that would later be established.

3
3 BASIC CONCEPETS TO EARLY GOVERNMENT IN THE
AMERICAN COLONIES
  • Ordered GovernmentThey saw a need for an orderly
    government that could work with one another.
  • Local offices they had been exposed to in England
    emerged. These included sheriff, coroner,
    justice of the peace, creation of counties and
    townships.

4
3 BASIC CONCEPETS TO EARLY GOVERNMENT IN THE
AMERICAN COLONIES
  • Limited Governmentbelief that the government is
    not all powerful and is limited by the people in
    what it can and cannot do.
  • Each individual has certain rights that the
    government cannot take away. It is a system in
    which the governments powers are restricted and
    an individuals rights are protected.

5
3 BASIC CONCEPETS TO EARLY GOVERNMENT IN THE
AMERICAN COLONIES
  • Representative Governmenta system in which
    policies are made by officials accountable to the
    people who elected them.
  • However, dont forget at this time, they were
    elected by the property owners.
  • This is the idea that government should serve the
    people.

6
LANDMARK ENGLISH DOCUMENTS
  • Magna Carta (June 15, 1215)it represents the
    first attempt to limit the absolute power of the
    British monarchy.
  • It was signed by King John on Runnymede Field
    after he was chased and captured by nobles angry
    with him for his absolute rule.
  • The document protected nobles from arbitrary acts
    by the king (such as taxing without consent),
    guaranteed rights (such as trial by jury), and
    forbade the king from taking life, liberty, or
    property without good reason.

7
LANDMARD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS
  • Petition of Rightit was written in 1628 and
    Charles I was forced to sign it. The Petition of
    Right extended certain rights to commoners who
    were not part of the nobility.
  • It addressed a number of what the House of
    Commons considered as royal abuses of power, such
    as the quartering of troops in private homes and
    the forcing of loans to the crown.
  • Largely framed by Sir Edward Coke, the Petition
    had four provisions that parliamentary approval
    was required for the levying of taxes or the
    granting of loans, that legal cause was required
    for the imprisonment of subjects (habeas corpus),
    that members of the armed forces could not be
    billeted in private houses without payment, and
    that martial law could not be declared in
    peacetime.

8
LANDMARD ENGLISH DOCUMENTS
  • English Bill of Rightsit was created in 1688.
    The English Bill of Rights opened the road to
    constitutional monarchy in England under the
    joint rule of William III and Mary II (William
    Mary of Orange).
  • It required that Parliamentary elections be free,
    guaranteed the right to a fair and speedy trial,
    freedom of excessive bail, and freedom from cruel
    and unusual punishments.

9
Of the 17th-century colonies on the Atlantic
coast of North America, England founded all but
two.
  • The first settlement was established at Jamestown
    in 1607.
  • The second settlement was at Plymouth in 1620
    the colony was absorbed by Massachusetts in 1691.
  • Virginia (1607)
  • Massachusetts (1630)
  • Maryland (1634)
  • Connecticut (1635)
  • Rhode Island (1636)
  • the Carolinas (1663)
  • New Hampshire (1679)
  • Pennsylvania (1682)
  • New Jersey (1702)
  • Georgia (1732)
  • North and South Carolina became separate colonies
    in 1730
  • New York (1624) was originally settled by the
    Dutch as New Netherland.
  • The Swedes established Delaware as a colony
    (1638). These areas were eventually taken over by
    the English in 1664.

10
Mayflower Compact
  • A voluntary agreement to govern themselves it
    was America's first written agreement to
    self-government.
  • The threat of James I to "harry them out of the
    land" sent a little band of religious dissenters
    from England to Holland in 1608. They were known
    as Separatists because they wished to cut all
    ties with the established church. In 1620, some
    of them, known now as the Pilgrims, joined with a
    larger group in England to set sail on the
    Mayflower for the New World.
  • A joint stock company financed their venture. In
    November, they sighted Cape Cod and decided to
    land an exploring party at Plymouth Harbor.
  • A rebellious group picked up at Southampton and
    London troubled the Pilgrim leaders, however, and
    to control their actions 41 Pilgrims drew up the
    Mayflower Compact and signed it before going
    ashore.

11
Great Fundamentals
  • The first basic system of laws in the English
    colonies (America) adopted by the Massachusetts
    Bay Colony in 1629.

12
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • The first formal constitution in the English
    colonies (America)
  • Laid out a plan for government that gave the
    people the right to elect the governor, judges,
    and representatives to make laws.
  • It was adopted by Puritans who left the
    Massachusetts Bay Colony to colonize Connecticut.

13
Virginia House of Burgesses
  • The first legislature in the English colonies
    (America) established in 1819.

14
Salutary Neglect
  • Refers to the English policy of interfering very
    little in colonial affairs from about 1690 to
    1760. During these years the colonists were given
    a good deal of autonomy in local matters, and the
    English king and parliament rarely legislated
    constraints of any kind. In turn, the colonists
    supported England. Let sleeping dogs lie.
  • During this period of time England fought a
    series of colonial wars. Most notable was the
    French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
    1754-1763. At the end of this war the British
    policy toward the colonies changed because they
    began to look at the colonies as a source of
    revenue.

15
George III (1738-1820)
  • Ruled Great Britain from 1760-1820, a member of
    the Hanoverian family, and successor to his
    grandfather, George II.
  • He began to strengthen the reign of the Monarch
    over the American colonies.

George III (1738-1820).. IRC(2005). Retrieved
May 28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
16
WAYS GREAT BRITAIN STRENGTHEND ITS REIGN OVER
AMERICAN COLONIES
  1. Proclamation of 1763a royal decree that
    prohibited the American colonists from
    establishing or maintaining settlements west of
    an imaginary line running down the crest of the
    Appalachian Mountains.

17
Proclamation of 1763
18
WAYS GREAT BRITAIN STRENGTHEND ITS REIGN OVER
AMERICAN COLONIES
  1. Sugar Act (1764) (Revenue Act of 1764)called for
    the strict enforcement of tax on sugar into the
    colonies

19
WAYS GREAT BRITAIN STRENGTHEND ITS REIGN OVER
AMERICAN COLONIES
  • Stamp Act (1765)tax on newspapers, legal
    documents, playing cards, etc
  • It required the use of stamped paper for legal
    documents, diplomas, almanacs, broadsides,
    newspapers and playing cards. The presence of the
    stamp on these items was to be proof that the tax
    had been paid.
  • Funds accumulated from this tax were to be
    earmarked solely for the support of British
    soldiers protecting the American colonies.

20
WAYS GREAT BRITAIN STRENGTHEND ITS REIGN OVER
AMERICAN COLONIES
  • Townshend Duties (1767)tax on imports of tea,
    glass, paper, lead, and paint.
  • The Townshend duties were repealed in 1770,
    except for the tax on tea

21
WAYS GREAT BRITAIN STRENGTHEND ITS REIGN OVER
AMERICAN COLONIES
  • Intolerable Acts (1774) (Restrictive Acts,
    Coercive Acts)Restrictive acts passed by the
    British Parliament in 1774 in retaliation for the
    Boston Tea Party.
  • Four acts closed Boston harbor until restitution
    had been made for the tea destroyed revoked the
    Massachusetts charter and established military
    government removed British Colonial officials
    from the jurisdiction of Colonial courts and
    provided for the quartering of British troops in
    occupied dwellings.
  • A fifth act, the Quebec Act, which had been under
    consideration before, placed the territory
    between the Ohio and the Mississippi under the
    jurisdiction of the province of Quebec.

22
New England Confederation(1643-1684)
  • Formed as a league of friendship for defense
    against Indians.
  • It was formed by the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth,
    New Haven, and Connecticut settlements.

23
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
  • The thought of Benjamin Franklin where delegates
    of each of the 13 colonies would meet annually in
    an assembly or conference.
  • They were concerned with trade and defense
    against the French and Indians.

Engraved Portrait of Benjamin Franklin.
Corbis(2006). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
24
Stamp Act Congress(October 7, 1765)
  • Meeting of American colonials to formalize
    protest against the Stamp Act (1765).
    Representatives from New York, New Jersey, Rhode
    Island, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Delaware,
    South Carolina, Maryland, and Connecticut met in
    New York City and issued the 14 point Declaration
    of Rights and Grievances, which condemned
    taxation by the British without Colonial
    representation in Parliament.
  • Parliament refused to acknowledge the grievances
    but, under pressure from British merchants,
    repealed the Stamp Act in March of 1766.

25
Committees of Correspondence
  • Committees set up by towns, cities, and
    legislatures in Colonial America.
  • Formed originally to communicate with other
    American colonies about opposition to British
    laws (Sugar Act, Stamp Act), they helped promote
    Colonial unity and organization of the
    Continental Congress.
  • Notable among them were the Boston committee,
    formed in 1772 by Samuel Adams, and the Virginia
    committee formed in 1773, on which Thomas
    Jefferson and Patrick Henry served. The Boston
    committee directed the Boston Tea Party in 1773.

26
First Continental Congress (Sept. 5, 1774-Oct.
26, 1774)
  • As a result of the Intolerable Acts (1774) a
    meeting was called for each colony to send
    delegates to Philadelphia to discuss the
    situation.
  • 55 total delegates were sent from every colony
    except Georgia.
  • They drafted a document called Declaration of
    Rights and Grievances which explained the
    colonial position and protested the British
    policies.

27
First Continental Congress(Continued)
  • They also imposed an embargo, an agreement
    prohibiting trade, on Britain, and agreed not to
    use British goods.
  • They agreed to meet again in May of 1775 if their
    grievances had not been met.

28
Second Continental Congress (May 10, 1775-March
1, 1781)
  • By the time they met in Philadelphia, the British
    had failed to compromise, and the first shots of
    the Revolutionary War had been fired at Lexington
    and Concord.
  • Most of the delegates from the First Continental
    Congress attended. The most notable newcomers
    were Benjamin Franklin (PA), John Hancock (MA),
    and Thomas Jefferson (VA).
  • John Hancock was chosen President of the
    Congress.

29
Second Continental Congress (Continued)
  • They organized a continental army and placed
    George Washington as commander-in-chief.

George Washington at the end of his presidency..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
30
Second Continental Congress (Continued)
  • The unicameral Congress exercised both executive
    and legislative powers through committees and the
    colonies (later states) had one vote.

31
Common Sense (1776)
  • Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in January of
    1776.
  • His writing influenced many colonists.
  • Paine, who was a one-time British corset-maker
    argued that monarchy was a corrupt form of
    government and that George III was an enemy to
    liberty.

Thomas Paine (1737-1809).. IRC(2005). Retrieved
May 28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
32
Common Sense (1776)(Continued)
  • Paine made the following points
  • Governments, even good ones, are at best
    necessary evils they were less desirable the
    farther the government was from the governed.
  • Ignoring the lingering loyalty many Americans
    still felt for the king, he argued ardently for
    independence. Monarchy was branded an absurd form
    of government and George III a Royal Brute.
  • It made no sense, in Paine's mind, for a small
    country like Britain, an island, to rule a
    continent like America.
  • Independence would foster peace and prosperity.
    An independent America could avoid the senseless
    progression of European wars and grow rich by
    trading with all countries, not just the mother
    country.

Thomas Paine (1737-1809).. IRC(2005). Retrieved
May 28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
33
Declaration of Independence
  • On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee (VA) proposed
    a resolution declaring that these United
    Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and
    independent states, that they are absolved from
    all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all
    political connection between them and the state
    of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally
    dissolved.

Declaration of Independence. Jupiterimages
Corporation(2006). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
Richard Henry Lee, head of the Virginia
radicals.. IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
34
The drafting of the document was entrusted to a
committee
John Adams (MA)
Thomas Jefferson (VA)
Roger Sherman (CT)
John Adams, Washington's vice president..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United
States. IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
Connecticut's Roger Sherman (1721-1793)..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
Robert R. Livingston (NY)
Benjamin Franklin (PA)
Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813).. IRC(2005).
Retrieved May 28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) .. IRC(2005).
Retrieved May 28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
35
Declaration of Independence(Continued)
  • On July 2, 1776, the delegates agreed to Lees
    resolution and on July 4, 1776, the Declaration
    of Independence was formally adopted.
  • It was designed to influence public opinion, both
    at home and abroad, especially in France, to
    which the United States looked for military
    support.
  • This was the creation of the United States of
    America, 13 separate states.

36
The Declaration is composed of several parts
  • An introduction that states the reasons for
    embracing independence. Jefferson drew heavily on
    the natural rights philosophy of the English
    political philosopher John Locke. Governments, it
    was argued, had their origins in a social compact
    between the people and their rulers. The people
    were to offer their obedience in return for the
    governments' pledge to protect the natural rights
    of life, liberty and property Jefferson,
    however, softened Locke's list of rights by
    referring to "life, liberty and the pursuit of
    happiness." Governments that failed to provide or
    protect these rights could legitimately be
    abolished.
  • A series of indictments that justified the
    decision for independence. The Declaration
    presents a long list of charges against George
    III, Parliament and royal officials. Charging the
    king with offenses was a departure from previous
    positions that had excoriated the ministers and
    politicians, but not the monarch. Some of the
    complaints registered in the document may seem
    strange or even trivial to today's reader, but it
    must be remembered that the purpose of the
    Declaration was the molding of public opinion and
    not the recording of facts.
  • A conclusion. Based on the long series of
    infractions detailed in the Declaration, the
    words of Richard Henry Lee were echoed, "That
    these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to
    be Free and Independent States that they are
    Absolved from all Allegiance to the British
    Crown, and that all political connection between
    them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought
    to be totally dissolved...."

37
Articles of Confederation
  • Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation on
    November 15, 1777, but it was not ratified by all
    13 states, the last being Maryland, until 1781.
  • The Articles then took effect on March 1, 1781.
  • This was Americas first form of government and
    it had a unicameral legislature with no executive
    or judicial branch.
  • The Congress only had the powers designated to it
    by the Articles of Confederation.

The Articles of Confederation, 1777.. IRC(2005).
Retrieved May 28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
38
Articles of Confederation(Continued)
Congress could
  • make war and peace
  • send and receive ambassadors
  • enter into treaties
  • set up a monetary system
  • borrow money
  • fix uniform weights and measures
  • regulate Indian affairs
  • establish post offices
  • settle disputes among the states
  • raise a navy
  • raise an army by asking the states for troops.

39
7 WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
  1. No power to tax
  2. No power to regulate commerce (trade) domestic or
    foreign
  3. No power to enforce the laws it made
  4. No court system
  5. No executive branch
  6. 9 of 13 states had to approve laws
  7. 13 of 13 states had to approve amendments

40
3 SUCCESSES OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
  1. Led country through the Revolutionary War
  2. Land Ordinance of 1785allowed land sales in Ohio
    Mississippi River Valley
  3. Northwest Ordinance of 1787established territory
    northwest of Ohio River

41
Mount Vernon (March 1785)
  • representatives from Maryland and Virginia met at
    the home of George Washington to discuss
    difficulties over trade.
  • When they adjourned they called for another
    meeting that would involve all of the 13 states
    to discuss a federal plan to regulating
    commerce.

Mount Vernon Home of George Washington
(?) Retrieved May 28, 2009 from http//teachingam
ericanhistory.org/convention/images/mt_vernon2-s.j
pg
42
Annapolis (September 11, 1786)
  • All 13 states were invited but only 5 of 13
    states attended (NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA).
  • 4 states (NH, MA, RI, NC) appointed delegates
    but they did not attend.
  • They called for another meeting to take place in
    May of 1787 in Philadelphia for the purpose of
    revising the Articles of Confederation.

Annapolis State House.. IRC(2005). Retrieved May
28, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
43
Shays Rebellion(August 1786February 1787)
End of Shays's Rebellion, Springfield, MA..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
Daniel Shays' Rebellion 1786-87 Massachusetts
Farmers Rebel Against State Government Taxes.
Aims Multimedia(2000). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
  • An armed outbreak by debtor farmers in western
    Massachusetts in 1786-87 who were upset over
    monetary policy.
  • It was led by Daniel Shays, who was a former
    Captain in the Revolutionary War.
  • It spurred the drive for a stronger national
    government.

44
Shays Rebellion(August 1786February 1787)
45
Constitutional Convention(May 25, 1787-September
17, 1787)
  • All of the states except Rhode Island sent
    delegates to Philadelphia.
  • 70 delegates were chosen by the various states
    legislatures to attend, but for various reasons
    55 delegates attended the Convention.
  • The average age of the delegates was 41, with the
    oldest being Benjamin Franklin (PA) at 81.
  • George Washington (VA) was elected unanimously to
    preside over the meetings.
  • The convention was supposed to revise the
    Articles of Confederation, but they agreed to
    create a new government.

46
Constitutional Convention(Continued)
  • 7 had served as governors of their states
  • 39 had served in Continental Congress or Congress
    of the Confederation
  • 8 had signed Declaration of Independence
  • 6 had signed Articles of Confederation
  • 2 would eventually become President

The State House in Philadelphia, 1778..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
The Constitutional Convention. United
Learning(1999). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
47
Delegates at Constitutional Convention
  • Connecticut
  • William Samuel Johnson
  • Roger Sherman
  • Oliver Ellsworth (Elsworth)
  • Delaware
  • George Read
  • Gunning Bedford, Jr.
  • John Dickinson
  • Richard Bassett
  • Jacob Broom
  • Georgia
  • William Few
  • Abraham Baldwin
  • William Houstoun
  • William L. Pierce
  • Maryland
  • James McHenry
  • Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer
  • Daniel Carroll
  • Massachusetts
  • Nathaniel Gorham
  • Rufus King
  • Elbridge Gerry
  • Caleb Strong
  • New Hampshire
  • John Langdon
  • Nicholas Gilman
  • New Jersey
  • William Livingston
  • David Brearly (Brearley)
  • William Paterson (Patterson)
  • Jonathan Dayton
  • William C. Houston
  • New York
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • John Lansing, Jr.
  • Robert Yates
  • North Carolina
  • William Blount
  • Richard Dobbs Spaight
  • Hugh Williamson
  • William R. Davie
  • Alexander Martin
  • Pennsylvania
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Thomas Mifflin
  • Robert Morris
  • George Clymer
  • Thomas Fitzsimons
  • Jared Ingersoll
  • James Wilson
  • Gouverneur Morris

Did not sign U.S. Constitution
48
Delegates at Constitutional Convention(Continued)
  • South Carolina
  • John Rutledge
  • Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
  • Charles Pinckney
  • Pierce Butler
  • Virginia
  • John Blair
  • James Madison Jr.
  • George Washington
  • George Mason
  • James McClurg
  • Edmund J. Randolph
  • George Wythe
  • Rhode Island
  • Rhode Island did not send delegates to
    theConstitutional Convention.

Did not sign U.S. Constitution
The Constitutional Convention. United
Learning(1999). Retrieved May 28, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
49
Virginia Plan (May 29, 1787)
  • Proposed by Edmund Randolph (VA).
  • It would create 3 branches of government
    (executive, legislative, judicial).
  • The legislative branch would be made up of 2
    houses.
  • The lower house would be elected by popular vote,
    and the lower house would appoint the upper house
    (Senate).
  • The number of representatives in each house would
    be based on population or the amount of money
    each state gave to the central government.
  • The executive and the judicial branches would be
    appointed by the legislative branch.
  • This was rejected by the smaller states (for
    example DE, MD, NJ).

50
New Jersey Plan (June 15, 1787)
  • Proposed by William Patterson (NJ) and would be
    based on the major features of the Articles of
    Confederation.
  • It called for a unicameral legislature that would
    represent each state equally (one state, one
    vote)
  • Congress would be able to regulate trade and
    impose taxes
  • All acts of Congress would be the supreme law of
    the land
  • Several people would be elected by Congress to
    form an executive office, and the executive
    office would appoint a Supreme Court.

51
Connecticut Compromise(July 16, 1787)
  • This was a combination of the Virginia and New
    Jersey Plans that was introduced by Roger Sherman
    (CT) and the Connecticut delegation.
  • It stated that there should be a bicameral
    legislature consisting of the Senate and the
    House of Representatives.
  • In the Senate the states would be represented
    equally, and in the House representation would be
    based on a states current population
  • Money bills must originate in the House and could
    not be amended in the Senate.
  • It was passed on a 5-4-1 vote by the delegates.

52
Roger Sherman and Connecticut Compromise
53
OTHER COMPROMISES
  • 3/5 Compromiseeach state would count each of its
    slaves as 3/5 of a person for determining
    representation and taxation.
  • For purposes of determining the number of
    representatives in the House, every five slaves
    would be counted as three. (This did not confer
    the vote on slaves it was simply a formula for
    determining representation in the House of
    Representatives.) Final wording in the
    Constitution referred to all other persons and
    the words slave and slavery do not appear this
    same population computation would also be used
    for determining taxation.

54
OTHER COMPROMISES(Continued)
  1. Slave Trade Compromiseslave trade would stay
    intact for 20 years (until 1808)
  2. Commerce Compromisegave Congress the power to
    regulate interstate and foreign commerce, and
    also forbid Congress from taxing the exports from
    a state.

55
OTHER COMPROMISES(Continued)
  1. Electoral Compromiseestablished the Electoral
    College where each state selects electors to
    choose the President, and establishing a
    four-year term for the President.

56
  • After months of work the Constitution was
    finished on September 17, 1787, and thus went to
    the states for ratification.
  • 39 of 55 delegates signed the document.

United States Constitution. Jupiterimages
Corporation(2006). Retrieved May 29, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
The signing of the U.S. Constitution..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 29, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
57
Ratification
  • It would take 9 of 13 states to approve the new
    Constitution.
  • 2 groups developed as a result of the
    ratification process.

Anti-Federalist
Federalist
58
Federalist
  • People who supported ratification of the U.S.
    Constitution. They were led by James Madison,
    Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay (Remember
    Federalist Papers)
  • The Federalists were originally those forces in
    favor of the ratification of the Constitution and
    were typified by
  • A desire to establish a strong central government
    (unlike that which existed under the Articles of
    Confederation)
  • A corresponding desire for weaker state
    governments
  • The support of many large landowners, judges,
    lawyers, leading clergymen and merchants
  • The support of creditor elements who felt that a
    strong central government would give protection
    to public and private credit.
  • The term "Federalist" was later applied to the
    emerging political faction headed by Alexander
    Hamilton in George Washington's administration.

59
Anti-Federalist
  • People who opposed the ratification of the U.S.
    Constitution. They were led by Patrick Henry,
    John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and Richard Henry
    Lee.
  • The Anti-Federalists opposed ratification of the
    Constitution and were typified by
  • A desire to establish a weak central government
    (as had been created by the Articles of
    Confederation)
  • A corresponding desire for strong state
    governments
  • The support of many small farmers and small
    landowners
  • The support of debtor elements who felt that
    strong state legislatures were more sympathetic
    to them than a strong central government.
  • The term Anti-Federalist was later applied to the
    emerging political faction headed by Thomas
    Jefferson during the administration of George
    Washington. This faction would become the
    Democratic-Republican Party and later the
    Democratic Party.

60
ARGUMENTS OF ANTI-FEDERALIST
  1. Gave too much power to the central government
  2. Had no bill of rights
  3. Denial of states to print money

61
  • The first state to ratify the U.S. Constitution
    was Delaware (Dec. 7, 1787), the 9th state to
    ratify was New Hampshire (June 21, 1788), the
    last to ratify was Rhode Island (May 29, 1790) by
    a vote of 34-32 in its state legislature.
  • The new government convened in New York on March
    4, 1789. Congress met for the first time in
    Federal Hall with 59 members in the House and 22
    members of the Senate.

62
  • George Washington was a unanimous choice for
    President of the United States (April 6, 1789)
    with John Adams being the Vice President.
  • April 30, 1789George Washington (VA) takes
    office as President of the United States in New
    York.

The inauguration of George Washington..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 29, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
63
CAPITOLS OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
  1. New York (1789-1790)
  2. Philadelphia (1790-1800)
  3. Washington, D.C. (1800-Present)

Congress Hall in Philadelphia.. IRC(2005).
Retrieved May 29, 2009, fromDiscovery Education
http//streaming.discoveryeducation.com/
The inauguration of George Washington..
IRC(2005). Retrieved May 29, 2009,
fromDiscovery Education http//streaming.discove
ryeducation.com/
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