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Methodologies

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Methodologies Setting up a Study – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Methodologies


1
Methodologies
  • Setting up a Study

2
Review
  • Problem Statement
  • Problem
  • Originality
  • Direction
  • Significance
  • Literature Review Theoretical Framework
  • Logical Structure
  • Research Questions
  • Population Sampling

3
Methodologies
  • Specific systems/ tools/ approaches to gathering
    and analyzing data.
  • Structure of the research
  • Builds on and draws from previous sections
    problem statement, research questions, literature
    review, theoretical framework
  • Influences analysis
  • How to choose an appropriate method?

4
Methodologies Options
  • Quantitative
  • Numbers, statistics
  • Qualitative
  • Words, narrative
  • Mixed Methods
  • Both Quantitative and Qualitative
  • Triangulation
  • More than one method, may be two of the same type

5
Methods Options
Quantitative Qualitative Mixed
Predetermined Instrument-based questions Performance data, attitude data, observational data, and census data Statistical analysis Emerging Open-ended questions Interview data, observation data, document data, and audiovisual data Text and image analysis Predetermined and emerging Open- and close-ended questions Multiple forms of data Statistical and textual analysis
-Creswell, J.W.
6
Methodologies Options
  • Quantitative
  • Surveys
  • Structured Interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Bibliometrics
  • Transaction Log Analysis
  • Qualitative
  • Case Studies
  • No Contact
  • Examining Documents
  • Citation Analysis
  • Diaries
  • One-to-one
  • Unstructured Interviews
  • Think-Aloud
  • Ethnographic methods
  • Observations
  • Group Interaction
  • Focus Groups
  • Delphi Method
  • Concept Mapping

7
Quantitative Bibliometrics
  • Quantitative study of literature
  • Patterns of publishing within a field or body of
    literature
  • Quantitative study of information associated with
    published works authorship, publishers,
    citations

8
Quantitative Transaction Log Analysis
  • Quantitative study of user behavior as exhibited
    through computer logs
  • Domains (.gov, .edu, .com)
  • Hits
  • Paths followed
  • Time spent (searching, viewing, downloading)
  • Errors
  • Applications used

9
Qualitative Case Study
  • In-depth review of a single situation program,
    process, phenomenon

10
Qualitative Examining Documents
  • Systematic review of text/ images content
    analysis
  • Classifies textual or visual material
  • Uses analytical constructs or rules to draw
    inferences about recurring aspects of text.

11
Types of Documents?
  • Policy Manuals
  • Digital reference transcripts
  • Comment/ complaint cards
  • Job ads
  • Published Literature
  • Blogs, listserv postings, etc.
  • Open-ended responses

12
Evaluation Research
  • Published
  • Books
  • Journal articles
  • Conference proceedings
  • Theses/dissertations
  • Web
  • ALA. ACRL. CIP Notes
  • CLIR. www.clir.org/pubs/pubs.html
  • ARL
  • Other
  • Peer Review
  • Unpublished
  • Internal reports
  • Local use only reports

13
Qualitative Analysis Examining Documents
  • Focus on
  • Word choice
  • Word frequency
  • Word sequence
  • Intensity of feeling/ expression (how to
    measure?)
  • Key word in context
  • Typology of concepts/ categories?

14
Example
  • Regional Accreditation Organizations Treatment
    of Information Literacy

15
Qualitative Study Citation Analysis
  • Systematic review of bibliographies/ references
    within published literature.
  • Focus on
  • Authorship
  • Form of publication (periodical, monograph, etc.)
  • Class of material (primary, secondary, etc.)
  • Language
  • Subject
  • Currency

16
Citation Analysis
  • What can citations tell us?
  • How scholarly is the cited literature?
  • How current are the citations?
  • How research-oriented is it?
  • How interdisciplinary is it?
  • How writes the literature? How collaborative?
  • Where does the literature appear?

17
Citation Analysis
  • Growth of literature on a subject
  • Dispersion of writings on a subject across form
    and journals
  • Obsolescence of literature
  • Scholarly networks who cites whom?
  • Publishing productivity

18
Citation Analysis
  • Advantages
  • Shows what is cited
  • Does not involve interaction with subjects
  • Profiles a literature
  • Shows changes in a field over time?
  • Disadvantages
  • How complete is the work from which citations are
    drawn?
  • How accurate are citations?
  • Are all materials cited?
  • Choosing easy to find/ retrieve items over better
    quality?
  • How easily retrievable are works?

19
Citation Analysis Issues
  • From where are citations drawn? How far can you
    generalize findings?
  • Does citation reflect use?
  • Self-citations and/ or gratuitous citations
  • Half-life
  • Impact factor (to what extent are recent articles
    in journals cited?)
  • Calculated annually divide the number of current
    citations a journal receives to articles
    published in the previous two years by the number
    of articles published in those same years

20
Web Citations
  • How prestigious are different online sources-
    ejournals, open access, etc.
  • References to and from a Web site
  • Retrievability

21
Qualitative Study Diaries
  • Participants record activities, thoughts,
    reactions, etc. daily (weekly, etc.) over a set
    period of time.
  • Blogs- equivalent?
  • When to use?
  • Issues
  • How faithful are participants? How can you help
    ensure full participation?
  • How much guidance to give?
  • Too much/ too little detail.
  • Advantages and disadvantages?

22
Students World
  • Nicole Henning/ Photo Diary Study (MIT)
  • 16 students tracked their information seeking
    behavior for one week.
  • Used diaries and screen shots to record their
    thoughts and actions

23
Qualitative Study Interviews
  • Attempt to gain in-depth knowledge on a topic
  • In a less structured format, interviewer may act
    more as facilitator, asking open ended questions
    and drawing the participant out.
  • Structured, semi-structured, or unstructured?
  • Format- in person, telephone, email?

24
Interviews
  • Types of questions
  • Experience/ behavior
  • Feeling
  • Opinion/ value
  • Knowledge
  • Sensory
  • Demographic

25
Interviews
  • Issues
  • Logistics
  • Building trust
  • Delicate questions/ situations- ensuring honesty
  • Accuracy of transcripts
  • Advantages and disadvantages?
  • Appropriate uses?

26
Qualitative Study Think-Aloud
  • Asks respondent to verbalize their thoughts while
    performing an assigned activity or task
  • Attempt to gain more insight into thought
    processes
  • Correct for mistakes/ assumptions of observer

27
Think Aloud
  • Requires participants that are highly verbal in
    nature
  • Adding this layer of feedback may affect their
    cognitive processes and behaviors- more
    self-concious.
  • How to transcribe while observing? Accuracy?
  • Appropriate use of clarifying questions?
  • Appropriate uses?

28
Qualitative Study Ethnographic
  • Tools developed in the field of cultural
    anthropology
  • Attempt to better understand people/ behavior by
    observing it within natural setting
  • Can study observable material items, individual
    behaviors and performances, or ideas
  • Requires careful attention to detail within
    cultural context

29
Ethnographic
  • Possible Tools
  • Observation in context
  • Key informant interviewing
  • Drawing pictures
  • Taking photos
  • Using maps to track activities
  • Videotaping

30
Ethnographic Examples
  • Susan Gibbons and Nancy Fried Foster of
    University of Rochester Understanding Users to
    Develop Better Library Services (ACRL/NEC 2006)
  • User-centered studies of library use
  • Mapping Diaries
  • Photo Elicitation Interviews

31
Photo Elicitation
32
Mapping Diaries
33
Sweeping Studies
  • A type of spatial data analysis
  • Useful for mapping out the physical spaces of a
    library and investigating how people use those
    spaces

34
Qualitative Study Observation
  • Attempt to understand activities/ behaviors
  • Obtrusive or Unobtrusive
  • Role of the observer
  • Complete observer
  • Observer and participant
  • Participant with individual being observed

35
Qualitative Study Focus Groups
  • Attempt to learn about the attitudes/ beliefs/
    feelings of groups and how those influence
    behavior
  • Why groups? One individuals comments can
    trigger important responses from others.
  • Can explore large ranges of topics

36
Focus Groups
  • Issues
  • How structured?
  • Importance of facilitators role- how well
    trained?
  • Building trust
  • Finding reliable representative volunteers
  • Ensuring accuracy of transcription- audio/ video
    tape? Outside observation?
  • Facilities

37
Qualitative Study Delphi Method
  • A systematic interactive forecasting method.
  • Involves interviewing/ surveying of experts
    within a field- generally 9 to 99
  • Experts are provided with hypotheses, trigger
    statements, scenarios, etc. and asked to respond.
  • First round responses are shared with the group
    anonymously, so participants can revise earlier
    statements, react to responses.

38
Delphi Method
  • After several rounds, hypotheses may be refined,
    group may reach consensus
  • Facilitator reviews responses to each round- can
    filter out irrelevant content, choose
    presentation of information, ask questions.
  • Advantages and disadvantages?

39
Qualitative Study Concept Mapping
  • Any process that represents ideas in pictures of
    maps.
  • A method of organizing the ideas and thoughts of
    a group to form a common framework
  • Can be used to integrate ideas from less
    structured activities such as brainstorming

40
Concept Mapping
  • Typical steps
  • Focus determine desired outcomes/ questions to
    be addressed
  • Generating ideas Brainstorm, use trigger
    statements, ask questions
  • Analysis Sort ideas into large sets
  • Unstructured idea sorting ask individuals to
    sort ideas into groups and label
  • Sorting by stakeholders organize ideas by group
    that generated those ideas
  • Ratings assign values to ideas (importance,
    feasibility, etc.)

41
Concept Mapping
  • Map analysis generate map based on idea sorting
    (could use statistical software, or do by hand)
  • Interpret map Share with other groups to obtain
    understanding

42
Example IR and IL
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