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Introduction to Data Processing System


3. Output. After completing the processing step, output is generated. The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Data Processing System

Introduction to Data Processing System
Data processing system
  • A data processing system is a combination of
    machines and people that for a set of inputs
    produces a defined set of outputs. The inputs and
    outputs are interpreted as data, facts,
    information, ... depending on the interpreter's
    relation to the system.

Types of Data
  • Mainly Data is divided into two types 1. Numeric
    Data 2. Character Data
  • 1. Numeric Data
  • The data which is represented in the form of
    numbers is known as Numeric Data. This includes
    0-9 digits, a decimal point (.), , /, sign and
    the letters E or D.
  • 2. Character Data
  • Character data falls into two groups. i. String
    Data ii. Graphical Data
  • String Data String data consists of the sequence
    of characters. Characters may be English
    alphabets, numbers or space. The space, which
    separates two words, is also a character. The
    string data is further divided into two types. a.
    Alphabetic Data b. Alphanumeric Data
  • Graphical Data It is possible that pictures,
    charts and maps can be treated as data. The
    scanner is normally used to enter this type of
    data. The common use of this data is found in the
    National Identity Card.

  • A collection of data which conveys some
    meaningful idea is information. It may provide
    answers to questions like who, which, when, why,
    what, and how. or
  • The raw input is data and it has no significance
    when it exists in that form. When data is
    collated or organized into something meaningful,
    it gains significance. This meaningful
    organization is information or
  • Observations and recordings are done to obtain
    data, while analysis is done to obtain information

Data Processing
  • Data processing
  • Any operation or set of operations performed
    upon data, whether or not by automatic means,
    such as collection, recording, organization,
    storage, adaptation or alteration to convert it
    into useful information.

Data Processing Cycle
  • Once data is collected, it is processed to
    convert it into useful information. The data is
    processed again and again until the accurate
    result is achieved. This is called data
    processing cycle.
  • The data processing is very important activity
    and involves very careful planning. Usually, data
    processing activity involves three basic
  • Input
  • Processing
  • Output

Data Processing Cycle Step-1
  • 1. Input
  • It is the process through which collected data
    is transformed into a form that computer can
    understand. It is very important step because
    correct output result totally depends on the
    input data. In input step, following activities
    can be performed.
  • i) Verification
  • The collected data is verified to determine
    whether it is correct as required. For example,
    the collected data of all B.Sc. students that
    appeared in final examination of the university
    is verified. If errors occur in collected data,
    data is corrected or it is collected again.
  • ii) Coding
  • The verified data is coded or converted into
    machine readable form so that it can be processed
    through computer.
  • iii) Storing
  • The data is stored on the secondary storage
    into a file. The stored data on the storage media
    will be given to the program as input for

Data Processing Cycle Step-2
  • 2.Processing
  • The term processing denotes the actual data
    manipulation techniques such as classifying,
    sorting, calculating, summarizing, comparing,
    etc. that convert data into information.
  • i) Classification
  • The data is classified into different groups and
    subgroups, so that each group or sub-group of
    data can be handled separately.
  • ii) Storing
  • The data is arranged into an order so that it can
    be accessed very quickly as and when required.
  • iii) Calculations
  • The arithmetic operations are performed on the
    numeric data to get the required results. For
    example, total marks of each student are
  • iv) Summarizing
  • The data is processed to represent it in a
    summarized form. ft means that the summary of
    data is prepared for top management. For example,
    the summary of the data of student is prepared to
    show the percentage of pass and fail student
    examination etc.

Data Processing Cycle Step-3
  • 3. Output
  • After completing the processing step, output is
    generated. The main purpose of data processing is
    to get the required result. Mostly, the output is
    stored on the storage media for later user. In
    output step, following activities can be
  • i) Retrieval
  • Output stored on the storage media can be
    retrieved at any time. For example, result of
    students is prepared and stored on the disk. This
    result can be retrieved when required for
    different purposes.
  • ii) Conversion
  • The generated output can be converted into
    different forms. For example, it can be
    represented into graphical form.
  • iii) Communication
  • The generated output is sent to different
    places. For example, weather forecast is prepared
    and. sent to different agencies and newspapers
    etc. where it is required.

Types of data processing systems
  • Scientific data processing
  • Scientific data processing "usually involves a
    great deal of computation (arithmetic and
    comparison operations) upon a relatively small
    amount of input data, resulting in a small volume
    of output."
  • Commercial data processing
  • Commercial data processing "involves a large
    volume of input data, relatively few
    computational operations, and a large volume of
    output." Accounting programs are the prototypical
    examples of data processing applications.
  • Data analysis
  • "Data analysis is a body of methods that help to
    describe facts, detect patterns, develop
    explanations, and test hypotheses." For example,
    data analysis might be used to look at sales and
    customer data to "identify connections between
    products to allow for cross selling campaigns."

Computer Processing Operations
  • A computer can perform only the following four
    operations which enable computers to carry out
    the various data processing activities we have
    just discussed. (a) Input/Output operations
  • A computer can accept data (input) from and
    supply processed data (output) to a wide range of
    input/output devices. These devices such as
    keyboards, display screens, and printers make
    human-machine communication possible.

Computer Processing Operations
  • (b) Calculation and text manipulation Operations
  • Computer circuits perform calculations on
    numbers. They are also capable of manipulating
    numerics and other symbols used in text with
    equal efficiency.

Computer Processing Operations
  • (c) Logic/Comparison Operations
  • A computer also possesses the ability to
    perform logical operations.
  • For example, if we compare two items represented
    by the symbols A and B, there are only three
    possible outcomes. A is less than B (AltB) A is
    equal to B (AB) or A is greater than B (AgtB).
  • A computer can perform such comparisons and
    the, depending on the result, follow a
    predetermined path to complete its work. This
    ability to compare is an important property of

Computer Processing Operations
  • (d) Storage and Retrieval Operations
  • Both data and program instructions are stored
    internally in a computer.
  • Once they are stored in the internal memory,
    they can be called up quickly or retrieved, for
    further use.

Simple example
  • A very simple example of a data processing system
    is the process of maintaining a check register.
    Transactions checks and deposits are recorded
    as they occur and the transactions are summarized
    to determine a current balance. Monthly the data
    recorded in the register is reconciled with a
    hopefully identical list of transactions
    processed by the bank.
  • A more sophisticated record keeping system might
    further identify the transactions for example
    deposits by source or checks by type, such as
    charitable contributions. This information might
    be used to obtain information like the total of
    all contributions for the year.
  • The important thing about this example is that it
    is a system, in which, all transactions are
    recorded consistently, and the same method of
    bank reconciliation is used each time.

Flowchart of process
  • Select application domain (AD)
  • Identifying the business environment
  • Developing the business charts (two types)
  • Developing the static model
  • Extracting the sets of objects and relations and
    representation in the forms of communication
    diagrams/ flow charts
  • Designing the dialogue structures in the form of
    oriented graph models for 2 3 user classes.

Report structure
  • Annotation
  • Contents
  • Task
  • Brief description of application domain
  • Developing the business charts
  • Developing the communication diagrams and
    interface tables
  • Designing the dialogue structures for several
    user classes
  • Resume
  • Bibliography