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THE COLD WAR Harry S. Truman IMPORTANT TERMS AND EVENTS Josef Stalin Nikita Khrushchev Winston Churchill – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Harry S. Truman

Josef Stalin
Nikita Khrushchev
Winston Churchill
United Nations - (1945) evolved out of war-time
conferences between Roosevelt, Churchill and
Stalin.  An international organization which
helped war torn regions of the world, and
preserves peace and security. Truman Doctrine -
a historic declaration by President Truman in
1947.  The US policy of supporting governments
against insurrection incited from outside their
national boundaries.  Intended for Greece and
Turkey, it led to the formation of NATO and was
later extended globally   Berlin Blockade -
(1948) Most serious clash between Soviets and
Americans occurred in Berlin.  Stalin viewed
Allied occupation of Germany as a huge problem,
especially since the Allies had hinted they would
pull out when the war ended.  Soviets imposed a
blockade on all road and rail traffic into
Berlin, in hopes of pushing the West out of
Berlin.  The risk of Third World War was
real...the Americans could not leave with the
threat of all of Germany falling into Soviet
hands.  The US airlifted in supplies, and Stalin
eventually conceded defeat and lifted the
blockade. NATO - (1949) formation of Western
European military alliance supported by US,
brought on by the Czechoslovakian situation and
Berlin Blockade.  Signatories included 10
European nations, Canada and the US. 
Specifically designed to warn the Soviets that
committed to preventing further Soviet
expansion Marshall Plan - Named after the
American statesman who came up with it, American
economic aid offered after the Second World War
for the reconstruction of those nations of Europe
that had fought against Nazi Germany during the
war. It was felt that Western Europes best
defence against Soviet infiltration or invasion
was a boosted post-war economy. 
The Korean War (1950-53) - A war between North
and South Korea, with the Americans supporting
South Korea against communist forces in the
North.  The North invaded the South by crossing
the 38th parallel, a split made after WWII. 
Americans felt that since they had occupied South
Korea after the war, they were obliged to support
the South.  The U.S. pushed a resolution through
the UN Security Council naming North Korea as the
aggressors and requesting UN assistance. Three
years later, the outcome was much the same as at
the start North Korea remained communist and
South Korean remained democratic, with the
political boundary virtually unchanged. SEATO -
(1954) brought together European and Asian
nations in a mutual defence package. Warsaw Pact
- a defensive military treaty obligating the
signatories to come to the aid of any member that
fell victim to attack by an aggressor nation,
(signed by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the
German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland,
Romania, and the Soviet Union in May of 1955) A
response to the formation of NATO by the
Allies.  Hungarian Revolt (1956) - Hungarian
leader, Imre Nagy, proclaimed that free elections
would be held soon.  Moscow promised to support
this, and eventually withdraw their troops.  As
troops withdrew, Nagy announced Hungarys
withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact.  This worried
the Soviets, as it could set a precedent which
would topple their regime.  They moved in and
crushed the rebellion. Bay of Pigs (1961) -
CIA led raids (with Cuban emigres) on Cuba
culminating with the landing at the Bay of Pigs,
hoping to gain control of the whole island.  A
complete failure, and embarrassment for John F.
Kennedy. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Khruschevs installation of missiles in Cuba to
gain an advantage in the East/West balance of
power.  Tried to install them without US
knowledge, but the sites were discovered, and the
Soviet Union and US were on the brink of nuclear
war for 3 days. Direct negotiation between
Soviets and U.S. eventually solved the crisis.
Detente - a lessening of tension an attempt on
the part of nations to work together toward
peaceful co-existence. Domino Theory  - the
fear that if South Vietnam fell to the
communists, all other states in Asia would follow
suit. Vietnam War - American involvement from
1965-1975.  Communist support in the North and
Western support in the South.  The US public
denounced their governments involvement in this
war, and eventually, the U.S. was forced to pull
out due to lack of support from home and the
inability to defeat the Vietcong, who were adept
at fighting in jungle conditions. After the
defeat of South Vietnam in 1975, Vietnam was
re-united under a communist government.
Brezhnev Doctrine - after the Soviet invasion
of Czechoslovakia in 1968, 1969 the Brezhnev
Doctrine proclaimed the right of the Soviet Union
to determine when intervention might be necessary
to preserve socialism and protect against
counter-revolution within the Eastern bloc.  Red
Army was permanently stationed in Czechoslovakia.
Chile - In 1973, the government was overthrown
by the military in a coup détat. The coup
occurred two months after a first failed attempt.
President Allende was killed during the coup.
General Pinochet assumed power after deposing
President Allende, establishing a military
dictatorship that ruled until 1990. Sources
suggest that the Soviet Union was sympathetic to
Allende, but did not assist him because they
believed he was "weak" for refusing to use force
against the opposition. While U.S. government
hostility to the Allende government is
unquestioned, the CIA. role in the coup itself
remains a highly controversial matter. Claims of
their direct involvement in the actual coup are
not proven. SALT 1 2 - the limitation of
strategic weaponry between the United States and
the Soviet Union. (Signed on May 26th, 1972) This
was a contract for five years. It was to control
weapons technology. (Pg. 202-203) Afghanistan
(1979-1989) - The Soviet war in Afghanistan, also
known as the Soviet-Afghan War or just the Soviet
Invasion of Afghanistan, was a nine-year conflict
involving Soviet forces supporting the People's
Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) government
against the mujahideen resistance. The latter
group found support from a variety of sources
including the United States, Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan and other Muslim countries in the
context of the Cold War. This conflict was
concurrent to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the
IranIraq War.
Iran-Contra Affair The Iran-Contra affair
was a political scandal in the United States
which came to light in November 1986, during the
Reagan administration, in which senior US figures
agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran,
the subject of an arms embargo, to secure the
release of hostages and to fund Nicaraguan
Contras. This was done because the US saw the
Nicaraguan government as communist and a threat
to democracy in South America. This move was
illegal, a scandal ensued, and a hearing was
held, in which several key players were
dismissed. George Bush later pardoned those who
took part in the scandal. Reagan and the U.S.
image was tarnished as a result of the
affair. Containment - A policy to limit the
expansion of rival spheres of interest by
economic, political, and military means on a
global scale. Collective Security - A system in
which the collective power of several industrial
nations is used to maintain international peace
and security. Brinkmanship - The strategy of
taking a nation to the brink of war in pursuit of
foreign policy goals.  It is a policy of
threatening large scale or total war to force an
opponent to back down in a confrontation. 
Diplomatic tool used by both US and Soviet Union
as they took their countries to the brink of war
without actually fighting one. Strategic
Defence Initiative - (SDI) The Star Wars Project
- a strategy of creating an impenetrable missile
defence shield of North America.  The shield
would hit and destroy incoming enemy missiles. 
Proposed by Reagan in 1984-85...costly and
impractical.  Was contrary to aims of SALT 1.
START - Strategic Arms Reductions Talks
proposed by Reagan to replace SALT. Mutually
Assured Destruction - (MAD) the reality that
losses in nuclear war would guarantee
unacceptable destruction of victor and loser