Deaf Education - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Deaf Education


1
Deaf Education
  • If your child was Deaf, what would YOU do?

2
A bit of history
  • Up until the 1860s Sign Language was used to
    educate the Deaf.
  • Then some parents and educators felt that the
    Deaf children should also learn how to talk which
    lead to the creation of pure oral schools.

3
The Milan Conference
  • Twenty years later there was an even bigger push
    for schools to use oral methods instead of manual
    methods.
  • In 1880 the second International Congress of
    Education of the Deaf met in Milan, Italy

4
  • There were a total of 164 participants.
  • Only 5 were American
  • Only 1 was Deaf (James Denison)
  • The 5 represented 51 schools with a total of over
    6,000 students.
  • This was more than the total of all the other 159
    participants combined

5
  • Despite their opposition (plus one educator from
    Great Britain), those present at the conference
    voted that
  • Sign Language was no longer to be used when
    educating Deaf children.

6
  • As a result many Deaf schools became more oral.
  • Some refused to change completely and opted for a
    combination of both sign language and speech.
  • This was called the combined system.

7
  • For the next 100 years there was a war of
    methods in which both sides of the education
    debate fought vigorously.
  • It still continues today
  • For a Deaf Son.
  • Indiana School for the Deaf

8
  • Attempts were made to suppress sign language
    until the 1960s when a linguistic study by
    William Stokoe proved that ASL was a language in
    and of itself.

9
Laws regarding educating the Deaf
  • IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Act) was signed into law in 1990. (formerly Educ
    for all HC children act)
  • Should be designed to meet the unique learning
    needs of children with disabilities. (pre-K - 21
    years old)
  • Should prepare students for further education,
    employment independent living.

10
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  • Anyone with a disability (Deaf or other) must
    have an IEP.
  • Specifies what services and how often
  • Specifies current levels of achievement
  • Specifies how disability affects academic
    achievement
  • Specifies accommodations modifications that
    will be provided

11
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
  • This part of the law states that children are to
    be educated with non-disabled students unless the
    nature or severity of their disability would be
    better served in an different environment.
  • This is not always the best option for Deaf
    children and we will look at why.

12
Why is it difficult to educate the Deaf?
  • Students start out behind their hearing
    counterparts because they have limited language.
    (only 5-10 acquire ASL from Deaf parents)
  • Most of the money for their education is spent on
    teaching them to talk instead of other curricula.

13
Deaf Education Programs
  • Curriculum focuses on
  • Teaching speech
  • The psychology of deafness how to adjust to the
    hearing world
  • Audiology
  • Spoken English development

14
Deaf Education Programs
  • Curriculum DOES NOT focus on
  • Deaf people interacting with each other
  • The role that ASL plays in the development of
    Deaf children
  • Teaching them how to understand or produce ASL

15
Different Approaches to Deaf Education
  • Methods of teaching are really just policies of
    how teachers and students should communicate with
    each other instead of HOW they should be taught.
  • Oralism
  • Simultaneous Communication (Sim-Com)
  • Cued Speech
  • Mainstreaming

16
Oralism
  • Spoken English is the sole mode of instruction.
  • The assumption is made that students will acquire
    English through seeing and hearing it. This will
    help them fit in better with the hearing world.
  • Even students with some residual hearing dont do
    well because some of the sounds cant be seen
    visually. (60)
  • They miss out on other curricula because they
    spend so much time on speech.

17
Oralism cont
  • They are expected to learn from a person who is
    speaking a language they do not understand nor
    have access to.
  • They suffer socially as well because they are
    forbidden to sign and cant communicate easily
    with others.
  • They cant overhear conversations so they also
    miss out on general cultural knowledge,
    socio-economic experiences, and other
    interactions that help them develop cognitively.

18
Simultaneous Communication
  • Also called Sim-Com
  • Been around since the 1970s.
  • Is a little more accepted by the Deaf community
    because it allows signs.
  • The mode of communication is spoken English
    supported by simultaneous signs. (Sign Supported
    Speech SSS)
  • Special signs are developed so that it represents
    English.

19
Sim-Com cont.
  • SSS is sometimes referred to as sign language
    but it is not a language. Unlike ASL and English
    it doesnt have
  • Natural development over time
  • Acquisition by children who are exposed to it.
  • Grammatical structure that makes it unique to any
    other language

20
Signing Exact English
  • Every English word and parts of a word has its
    own sign.
  • ASL STORE I GO-TO
  • SEE I am going to the store.
  • Uses the same sign for each word regardless of
    the meaning
  • Can you can a can or corn?

21
Signing Exact English
  • Many initialized signs were introduced at this
    time in order to clarify which exact English word
    was being said. Still based on words instead of
    concept.
  • We, Our, Path, Road, etc

22
PSE Pidgin Signed English
  • This code is a mixture of ASL signs and English
    word order.
  • A lot of times, Deaf people will code-switch to
    PSE when talking to hearing people.

23
Sim-Com cont.
  • It is IMPOSSIBLE to speak English and sign ASL at
    the same time because they have different
    grammatical structures.
  • Either the signs are randomly omitted or the
    English flow is altered. (example)

24
  • TELL SAY HORSE RABBIT NO
  • Tell tell the Easter Bunny ... He said, No
  • ALL OUTSIDE DIFFERENT COLOR
  • all out. You can take a different color.
  • ZERO ORANGE SORRY OUTSIDE ORANGE PICK OTHER COLOR
  • No orange. He's sorry but he's out of orange.
    Pick another color.
  • ZERO PURPLE WHAT WRONG TOGETHER-WITH EASTER
    DEVlL.
  • No Purple? What's wrong with this Easter Bunny?
    ...
  • CAN'T HEAR YOU CAN'T HEAR YOU
  • Well, tell him. He can hear you. He can hear you
    ...
  • -unintelligible---- YELLOW FLOWER -- OTHER 1
  • Those are purple flowers. I said yellow flowers.
    Get another one.

25
Sim-Com cont.
  • The teachers assume the students have access to
    the curricula so they arent able to make
    accurate judgments of who is getting the info.
  • Biased towards students with some residual
    hearing. They become the basis from whom the
    teachers make their judgments.

26
Sim-Com cont.
  • Students still have to be competent in English
    before this is an effective mode of teaching.
  • Proponents say its difficult for hearing parents
    to learn ASL, so its just better for everyone
    to use signed English.

27
Sim-Com cont.
  • There is NO PROOF that SSS has helped a Deaf
    child acquire English or be competent in it.
  • Research DOES show that Deaf students English
    grammar is not comparable to their hearing
    counterparts.

28
Cued Speech
  • A visual communication system that makes the
    sounds of spoken language look different from
    each other.
  • 8 handshapes in 4 different placements on the
    face
  • Combined with mouth movement

29
Cued Speech
30
Cued Speech cont
  • Positive helps clarify lipreading
  • Negative only good in an educational setting
    because it wont work in everyday communication.
    (The average person Deaf or hearing- doesnt
    know these handshapes)

31
Mainstreaming
  • Student(s) has an interpreter in each class in a
    regular public school.
  • Positives
  • Can take a variety of classes and exposed to more
    curriculum at the higher levels

32
Mainstreaming cont
  • Negatives
  • The interpreter may not be qualified.
  • Ex. Small school districts.
  • The student is isolatedsometimes the only Deaf
    student in the class/school.
  • The student must have good ASL/signing skills for
    this to be an effective learning environment.

33
  • Sowhats a parent with a Deaf child to do then?

34
Bi-Lingual/Bi-Cultural Education
  • Foundational belief
  • Deaf children should be taught/modeled/allowed to
    use ASL
  • They will be taught English as a 2nd language and
    follow the principles other ESL students learn by

35
Current Bi/Bi Programs in the U.S.
  • There are several schools across the U.S. that
    have this kind of program although they have
    different guiding principles.

36
Some common guiding principles are
  • Deaf students can learn if the information is
    given in a language the child has access to
    ASL.
  • How can a child learn without language?
  • Thus, the teachers and staff must be proficient
    in ASL.
  • Evidence shows a student who signs proficiently
    does better in English. (true with any language)

37
Guiding principles
  • The earlier a Deaf child acquires language, the
    more opportunity he/she will have to learn about
    the world (linguistically and culturally).
  • This makes him/her more prepared to learn in an
    educational setting.
  • Once identified as Deaf, its vital to expose
    them to adult signers and to educate parents in
    ASL and Deaf culture.

38
Guiding principles
  • The best place for Deaf children to acquire ASL
    is from Deaf/native signers.
  • As time goes on, they will learn from older Deaf
    students, Deaf peers and proficient hearing
    signers.
  • Its important that some of their teachers are
    Deaf.

39
Guiding principles
  • Content classes are taught in ASL. (Science,
    math, etc)
  • English is taught as a second language. As the
    child gets older, more emphasis is placed on
    English so that he/she becomes bi-lingual.

40
Guiding principles
  • Speech training is not ignored (esp for those who
    have some residual hearing), its just not the
    PRIMARY means of teaching.
  • No child will be expected to learn acquire
    knowledge at the same time they are learning to
    understand speech.

41
Guiding principles
  • The goal is not to fix Deaf students and make
    them like hearing students the goal is to give
    them equitable access to all curriculum.
  • The Deaf community and culture will be promoted
    and reinforced to all students, parents and staff.
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Deaf Education

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Title: Deaf Education


1
Deaf Education
  • If your child was Deaf, what would YOU do?

2
A bit of history
  • Up until the 1860s Sign Language was used to
    educate the Deaf.
  • Then some parents and educators felt that the
    Deaf children should also learn how to talk which
    lead to the creation of pure oral schools.

3
The Milan Conference
  • Twenty years later there was an even bigger push
    for schools to use oral methods instead of manual
    methods.
  • In 1880 the second International Congress of
    Education of the Deaf met in Milan, Italy

4
  • There were a total of 164 participants.
  • Only 5 were American
  • Only 1 was Deaf (James Denison)
  • The 5 represented 51 schools with a total of over
    6,000 students.
  • This was more than the total of all the other 159
    participants combined

5
  • Despite their opposition (plus one educator from
    Great Britain), those present at the conference
    voted that
  • Sign Language was no longer to be used when
    educating Deaf children.

6
  • As a result many Deaf schools became more oral.
  • Some refused to change completely and opted for a
    combination of both sign language and speech.
  • This was called the combined system.

7
  • For the next 100 years there was a war of
    methods in which both sides of the education
    debate fought vigorously.
  • It still continues today
  • For a Deaf Son.
  • Indiana School for the Deaf

8
  • Attempts were made to suppress sign language
    until the 1960s when a linguistic study by
    William Stokoe proved that ASL was a language in
    and of itself.

9
Laws regarding educating the Deaf
  • IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Act) was signed into law in 1990. (formerly Educ
    for all HC children act)
  • Should be designed to meet the unique learning
    needs of children with disabilities. (pre-K - 21
    years old)
  • Should prepare students for further education,
    employment independent living.

10
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  • Anyone with a disability (Deaf or other) must
    have an IEP.
  • Specifies what services and how often
  • Specifies current levels of achievement
  • Specifies how disability affects academic
    achievement
  • Specifies accommodations modifications that
    will be provided

11
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
  • This part of the law states that children are to
    be educated with non-disabled students unless the
    nature or severity of their disability would be
    better served in an different environment.
  • This is not always the best option for Deaf
    children and we will look at why.

12
Why is it difficult to educate the Deaf?
  • Students start out behind their hearing
    counterparts because they have limited language.
    (only 5-10 acquire ASL from Deaf parents)
  • Most of the money for their education is spent on
    teaching them to talk instead of other curricula.

13
Deaf Education Programs
  • Curriculum focuses on
  • Teaching speech
  • The psychology of deafness how to adjust to the
    hearing world
  • Audiology
  • Spoken English development

14
Deaf Education Programs
  • Curriculum DOES NOT focus on
  • Deaf people interacting with each other
  • The role that ASL plays in the development of
    Deaf children
  • Teaching them how to understand or produce ASL

15
Different Approaches to Deaf Education
  • Methods of teaching are really just policies of
    how teachers and students should communicate with
    each other instead of HOW they should be taught.
  • Oralism
  • Simultaneous Communication (Sim-Com)
  • Cued Speech
  • Mainstreaming

16
Oralism
  • Spoken English is the sole mode of instruction.
  • The assumption is made that students will acquire
    English through seeing and hearing it. This will
    help them fit in better with the hearing world.
  • Even students with some residual hearing dont do
    well because some of the sounds cant be seen
    visually. (60)
  • They miss out on other curricula because they
    spend so much time on speech.

17
Oralism cont
  • They are expected to learn from a person who is
    speaking a language they do not understand nor
    have access to.
  • They suffer socially as well because they are
    forbidden to sign and cant communicate easily
    with others.
  • They cant overhear conversations so they also
    miss out on general cultural knowledge,
    socio-economic experiences, and other
    interactions that help them develop cognitively.

18
Simultaneous Communication
  • Also called Sim-Com
  • Been around since the 1970s.
  • Is a little more accepted by the Deaf community
    because it allows signs.
  • The mode of communication is spoken English
    supported by simultaneous signs. (Sign Supported
    Speech SSS)
  • Special signs are developed so that it represents
    English.

19
Sim-Com cont.
  • SSS is sometimes referred to as sign language
    but it is not a language. Unlike ASL and English
    it doesnt have
  • Natural development over time
  • Acquisition by children who are exposed to it.
  • Grammatical structure that makes it unique to any
    other language

20
Signing Exact English
  • Every English word and parts of a word has its
    own sign.
  • ASL STORE I GO-TO
  • SEE I am going to the store.
  • Uses the same sign for each word regardless of
    the meaning
  • Can you can a can or corn?

21
Signing Exact English
  • Many initialized signs were introduced at this
    time in order to clarify which exact English word
    was being said. Still based on words instead of
    concept.
  • We, Our, Path, Road, etc

22
PSE Pidgin Signed English
  • This code is a mixture of ASL signs and English
    word order.
  • A lot of times, Deaf people will code-switch to
    PSE when talking to hearing people.

23
Sim-Com cont.
  • It is IMPOSSIBLE to speak English and sign ASL at
    the same time because they have different
    grammatical structures.
  • Either the signs are randomly omitted or the
    English flow is altered. (example)

24
  • TELL SAY HORSE RABBIT NO
  • Tell tell the Easter Bunny ... He said, No
  • ALL OUTSIDE DIFFERENT COLOR
  • all out. You can take a different color.
  • ZERO ORANGE SORRY OUTSIDE ORANGE PICK OTHER COLOR
  • No orange. He's sorry but he's out of orange.
    Pick another color.
  • ZERO PURPLE WHAT WRONG TOGETHER-WITH EASTER
    DEVlL.
  • No Purple? What's wrong with this Easter Bunny?
    ...
  • CAN'T HEAR YOU CAN'T HEAR YOU
  • Well, tell him. He can hear you. He can hear you
    ...
  • -unintelligible---- YELLOW FLOWER -- OTHER 1
  • Those are purple flowers. I said yellow flowers.
    Get another one.

25
Sim-Com cont.
  • The teachers assume the students have access to
    the curricula so they arent able to make
    accurate judgments of who is getting the info.
  • Biased towards students with some residual
    hearing. They become the basis from whom the
    teachers make their judgments.

26
Sim-Com cont.
  • Students still have to be competent in English
    before this is an effective mode of teaching.
  • Proponents say its difficult for hearing parents
    to learn ASL, so its just better for everyone
    to use signed English.

27
Sim-Com cont.
  • There is NO PROOF that SSS has helped a Deaf
    child acquire English or be competent in it.
  • Research DOES show that Deaf students English
    grammar is not comparable to their hearing
    counterparts.

28
Cued Speech
  • A visual communication system that makes the
    sounds of spoken language look different from
    each other.
  • 8 handshapes in 4 different placements on the
    face
  • Combined with mouth movement

29
Cued Speech
30
Cued Speech cont
  • Positive helps clarify lipreading
  • Negative only good in an educational setting
    because it wont work in everyday communication.
    (The average person Deaf or hearing- doesnt
    know these handshapes)

31
Mainstreaming
  • Student(s) has an interpreter in each class in a
    regular public school.
  • Positives
  • Can take a variety of classes and exposed to more
    curriculum at the higher levels

32
Mainstreaming cont
  • Negatives
  • The interpreter may not be qualified.
  • Ex. Small school districts.
  • The student is isolatedsometimes the only Deaf
    student in the class/school.
  • The student must have good ASL/signing skills for
    this to be an effective learning environment.

33
  • Sowhats a parent with a Deaf child to do then?

34
Bi-Lingual/Bi-Cultural Education
  • Foundational belief
  • Deaf children should be taught/modeled/allowed to
    use ASL
  • They will be taught English as a 2nd language and
    follow the principles other ESL students learn by

35
Current Bi/Bi Programs in the U.S.
  • There are several schools across the U.S. that
    have this kind of program although they have
    different guiding principles.

36
Some common guiding principles are
  • Deaf students can learn if the information is
    given in a language the child has access to
    ASL.
  • How can a child learn without language?
  • Thus, the teachers and staff must be proficient
    in ASL.
  • Evidence shows a student who signs proficiently
    does better in English. (true with any language)

37
Guiding principles
  • The earlier a Deaf child acquires language, the
    more opportunity he/she will have to learn about
    the world (linguistically and culturally).
  • This makes him/her more prepared to learn in an
    educational setting.
  • Once identified as Deaf, its vital to expose
    them to adult signers and to educate parents in
    ASL and Deaf culture.

38
Guiding principles
  • The best place for Deaf children to acquire ASL
    is from Deaf/native signers.
  • As time goes on, they will learn from older Deaf
    students, Deaf peers and proficient hearing
    signers.
  • Its important that some of their teachers are
    Deaf.

39
Guiding principles
  • Content classes are taught in ASL. (Science,
    math, etc)
  • English is taught as a second language. As the
    child gets older, more emphasis is placed on
    English so that he/she becomes bi-lingual.

40
Guiding principles
  • Speech training is not ignored (esp for those who
    have some residual hearing), its just not the
    PRIMARY means of teaching.
  • No child will be expected to learn acquire
    knowledge at the same time they are learning to
    understand speech.

41
Guiding principles
  • The goal is not to fix Deaf students and make
    them like hearing students the goal is to give
    them equitable access to all curriculum.
  • The Deaf community and culture will be promoted
    and reinforced to all students, parents and staff.
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