The Study of Geography Why it Matters?? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: The Study of Geography Why it Matters??


1
The Study of GeographyWhy it Matters??
Geography Defined earth writing, study of the
earth, why of where
  • Globalization
  • The increasing interdependence and
    interconnectedness of places globally.

2
Implications of Globalization
  • The stretching of global connections, relations
    and networks
  • Making them faster and more intense.
  • Increasing awareness about the world.

3
Interdependence of Places
  • Place have become increasingly interdependent.
  • Caused by a set of interrelated forces or
    processes that we call globalization.
  • Globalization helps to extend and deepen linkages
    between sets of places (and peoples)

4
Why Geography Still Matters
  • Questions of POWER Global flows are managed in
    particular place(s)
  • Global flows generate uneven spatial impacts.
  • Human Geography has become more rather than less
    important.

5
World-system
  • CORE - Industrialized, market-oriented countries
  • Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia.
  • PERIPHERY - Poor, ex-colonial nations
  • Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc.
  • SEMI-PERIPHERY - Partially industrialized
  • ex-colonial nations (both exploited and
    exploiter)
  • South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea,
    etc.

6
Not regional geography approach
  • Country-by-country, or region-by-region
  • Examines internal geography of each world region.
  • Does not adequately show connections between
    regions (basis of globalization)

7
Systematic geography approach
  • Through human geographic lenses
  • Population geography
  • Cultural geography
  • Economic geography
  • Urban geography
  • Political geography
  • Some environmental geography

8
Population geography
  • Growth in Periphery
  • Graying in Core
  • Resulting changes in migration patterns
  • Causes and consequences of forced migration.

9
Cultural geography
  • Relationship between place cultural identity.
  • Cultural homogenization (Americanization) from
    globalization?
  • Yet cultural differences across places are
    becoming significant?

10
Economic geography
  • Rising economic interdependence among places.
  • Local responses in turn affect globalization.
  • Glocalization a better term than globalization?

11
Political geography
  • Economics supposedly eroding significance of
    borders.
  • Ethnic minorities feel they deserve states of
    their own.
  • States under attack from above (global economics)
    and from below (ethnic communities).
  • Yet states are still powerful, and can respond.

12
Urban geography
  • Different types of cities in core and periphery.
  • How globalization affects cities. Are they still
    needed in the information age ?
  • Strong reasons for cities to still exist.

13
Watershed momentin human history
  • Dramatic changes in social, cultural, political,
    economic relations at the
  • Global scale
  • State (national) scale
  • Regional scale
  • Local scale
  • Scales interrelate, affect each other

14
Changes since 1990
  • Collapse of Soviet Union, end of Cold War.
  • Rise of local ethnic/religious nationalism.
  • New forms and locations of warfare.
  • Communications revolution (Internet).
  • Massive increase in economic globalization.

15
Collapse of Soviet bloc
  • Changes in former Soviet Union and allies.
  • Changes in the developing world.
  • Changes in the U.S., now without a powerful
    enemy.

16
Rise of ethnic nationalism
  • Soviet, Yugoslav breakups.
  • Minority ethnic groups looking to end majority
    oppression.
  • Increased local/ethnic identity as reaction to
    impersonal globalization.
  • Increased ability to survive as smaller country.

17
Communications revolution
  • Only 50 websites in 1992 2.5 billion today.
  • Internet makes world more connected, yet in more
    specialized niches.
  • Can be used for globalization from
  • above, or from below.

18
New forms andlocations of warfare
  • Smaller, more brutal wars.
  • Military technologies more efficient, usually not
    made by combatants.
  • Freelancers can wage war
  • Physical distance or borders no longer protected
  • Terrorist groups/Extremists creating havoc
    worldwide

19
Economic Globalization
From above (elites)
From below
Country 1
Country 2
20
Globalization from above
  • Globalization from the top down
  • Increasing power of corporations through
    internationalizing of production and marketing.
  • Financial markets transcend national boundaries.
  • Telecommunications spreads ideas, cultures

21
Players in globalizationfrom above
  • Governments and elites in every country
  • Multinational corporations
  • International agencies (UN)
  • Global trade/finance agencies
  • World Bank,IMF, WTO

22
Globalization from below
  • Globalization from the bottom up.
  • Greater economic interdependence eroding
    governments?
  • Increasing influence of local scale to affect
    global policies Think Globally, Act Locally.
  • Easier communications among those at the bottom?

23
Players in globalizationfrom below
  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
    Greenpeace, Amnesty Intl, etc.
  • Alliances of communities with a common concern,
    linked through Internet.
  • Seattle WTO protests, 1999
  • Some international agencies
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Title:

The Study of Geography Why it Matters??

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation - Geography 101 Author: Kris Olds Last modified by: Matthew Cirbo Created Date: 1/22/2002 12:56:21 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Study of Geography Why it Matters??


1
The Study of GeographyWhy it Matters??
Geography Defined earth writing, study of the
earth, why of where
  • Globalization
  • The increasing interdependence and
    interconnectedness of places globally.

2
Implications of Globalization
  • The stretching of global connections, relations
    and networks
  • Making them faster and more intense.
  • Increasing awareness about the world.

3
Interdependence of Places
  • Place have become increasingly interdependent.
  • Caused by a set of interrelated forces or
    processes that we call globalization.
  • Globalization helps to extend and deepen linkages
    between sets of places (and peoples)

4
Why Geography Still Matters
  • Questions of POWER Global flows are managed in
    particular place(s)
  • Global flows generate uneven spatial impacts.
  • Human Geography has become more rather than less
    important.

5
World-system
  • CORE - Industrialized, market-oriented countries
  • Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia.
  • PERIPHERY - Poor, ex-colonial nations
  • Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc.
  • SEMI-PERIPHERY - Partially industrialized
  • ex-colonial nations (both exploited and
    exploiter)
  • South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea,
    etc.

6
Not regional geography approach
  • Country-by-country, or region-by-region
  • Examines internal geography of each world region.
  • Does not adequately show connections between
    regions (basis of globalization)

7
Systematic geography approach
  • Through human geographic lenses
  • Population geography
  • Cultural geography
  • Economic geography
  • Urban geography
  • Political geography
  • Some environmental geography

8
Population geography
  • Growth in Periphery
  • Graying in Core
  • Resulting changes in migration patterns
  • Causes and consequences of forced migration.

9
Cultural geography
  • Relationship between place cultural identity.
  • Cultural homogenization (Americanization) from
    globalization?
  • Yet cultural differences across places are
    becoming significant?

10
Economic geography
  • Rising economic interdependence among places.
  • Local responses in turn affect globalization.
  • Glocalization a better term than globalization?

11
Political geography
  • Economics supposedly eroding significance of
    borders.
  • Ethnic minorities feel they deserve states of
    their own.
  • States under attack from above (global economics)
    and from below (ethnic communities).
  • Yet states are still powerful, and can respond.

12
Urban geography
  • Different types of cities in core and periphery.
  • How globalization affects cities. Are they still
    needed in the information age ?
  • Strong reasons for cities to still exist.

13
Watershed momentin human history
  • Dramatic changes in social, cultural, political,
    economic relations at the
  • Global scale
  • State (national) scale
  • Regional scale
  • Local scale
  • Scales interrelate, affect each other

14
Changes since 1990
  • Collapse of Soviet Union, end of Cold War.
  • Rise of local ethnic/religious nationalism.
  • New forms and locations of warfare.
  • Communications revolution (Internet).
  • Massive increase in economic globalization.

15
Collapse of Soviet bloc
  • Changes in former Soviet Union and allies.
  • Changes in the developing world.
  • Changes in the U.S., now without a powerful
    enemy.

16
Rise of ethnic nationalism
  • Soviet, Yugoslav breakups.
  • Minority ethnic groups looking to end majority
    oppression.
  • Increased local/ethnic identity as reaction to
    impersonal globalization.
  • Increased ability to survive as smaller country.

17
Communications revolution
  • Only 50 websites in 1992 2.5 billion today.
  • Internet makes world more connected, yet in more
    specialized niches.
  • Can be used for globalization from
  • above, or from below.

18
New forms andlocations of warfare
  • Smaller, more brutal wars.
  • Military technologies more efficient, usually not
    made by combatants.
  • Freelancers can wage war
  • Physical distance or borders no longer protected
  • Terrorist groups/Extremists creating havoc
    worldwide

19
Economic Globalization
From above (elites)
From below
Country 1
Country 2
20
Globalization from above
  • Globalization from the top down
  • Increasing power of corporations through
    internationalizing of production and marketing.
  • Financial markets transcend national boundaries.
  • Telecommunications spreads ideas, cultures

21
Players in globalizationfrom above
  • Governments and elites in every country
  • Multinational corporations
  • International agencies (UN)
  • Global trade/finance agencies
  • World Bank,IMF, WTO

22
Globalization from below
  • Globalization from the bottom up.
  • Greater economic interdependence eroding
    governments?
  • Increasing influence of local scale to affect
    global policies Think Globally, Act Locally.
  • Easier communications among those at the bottom?

23
Players in globalizationfrom below
  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
    Greenpeace, Amnesty Intl, etc.
  • Alliances of communities with a common concern,
    linked through Internet.
  • Seattle WTO protests, 1999
  • Some international agencies
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