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GHSGT PREP Table of Content

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GHSGT PREP Table of Content Tab 1: World Studies Tab 2: U.S. History to 1877 Tab 3: U.S. History since 1877 Tab 4: Civic/Citizenship Tab 5: Map and Globe Skills – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GHSGT PREP Table of Content


1
GHSGT PREPTable of Content
  • Tab 1 World Studies
  • Tab 2 U.S. History to 1877
  • Tab 3 U.S. History since 1877
  • Tab 4 Civic/Citizenship
  • Tab 5 Map and Globe Skills
  • Tab 6 Information Processing Skills

2
World Studies
  • The World Studies portion of the GHSGT will test
    your knowledge over various people and events in
    World History.

3
Part I World Studies
  • This portion of the World Studies review
    presentation is a brief overview of Ancient
    Civilizations through the Enlightenment (1700s).

4
AZTEC INDIANS
  • They were a Mesoamerican Indian culture.
  • -devastated by Cortez and the Spanish in the
    1520s.

5
INCA INDIANS
  • They were a South American Indian culture in
    Peru.
  • -devastated by Pizarro and the Spanish in the
    1530s.

6
RENAISSANCE
  • The word, Renaissance means, Rebirth.
  • The Renaissance was a rebirth of the classics of
    ancient Greece Rome.
  • It began in Italy in the 14th c. (1300s).

7
SPAIN
  • -country that sponsored Christopher Columbus
    voyage in 1492.
  • Ferdinand Isabella were monarchs.
  • In fourteen hundred and ninety two, Columbus
    sailed the ocean blue.

8
JOHANN GUTENBERG
  • He introduced movable type (the printing press)
    to Europe in the 15th Century (1455).
  • This was a faster less expensive way to copy
    books.
  • First full-sized book printedgt Holy Bible

9
PROTESTANT REFORMATION
  • - begun by Martin Luther in 1517
  • - attacked the beliefs of the Catholic Church.
  • - resulted in a split in the Catholic Church
    (Catholics Protestants)

10
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
  • This was the overthrow of James II of England in
    1688, which gave Parliament control of the
    government
  • -called Glorious because there was no
    bloodshed.
  • William Mary take over the throne.

11
ENLIGHTENMENT
  • This was an 18th c. (1700s) intellectual
    movement
  • Began in France.
  • Enlightenment thinkers, called philosophes
    questioned accepted ways of thinking.

12
Part II World Studies
  • This portion of the World Studies review
    presentation is a brief overview of the
    Revolutionary Period (1700s) through the Post
    WWII period (1900s).

13
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • This was the first successful colonial
    independence movement against a European power
    (England), 1775-1783.
  • Great Britain vs. American colonies

14
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • This was a revolution in France from 1789-1800
    that was inspired by the American Revolution.
  • A bloody revolution where 1000s died on the
    guillotine.

15
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
  • He was a military leader who took control of
    France in 1800, establishing an empire over the
    next two decades.
  • He was finally defeated at Waterloo, Belgium.

16
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • This was a series of economic and mechanical
    changes beginning in Great Britain in the 1700s
    and spreading to the rest of the world in the
    18th to 20th centuries.

17
KARL MARX
  • This was a German socialist best known for
    writing The Communist Manifesto in 1848.
  • He is known as the father of Communism.

18
OTTOMAN EMPIRE
  • This Islamic empire was finally dismantled after
    World War I (became Turkey).
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
    were the losers in WW I.

19
GERMANY
  • This is the country that started WWII in Europe
    in 1939 with its invasion of Poland.
  • Symbol of the Nazi Party was the swastika.

20
ADOLPH HITLER
  • This was the totalitarian leader of Nazi Germany
    during World War II.
  • History blames him for the Holocaust!

21
BENITO MUSSOLINI
  • He was a leader of Italy during World War II and
    ally to Adolph Hitler.
  • He created the first fascist state through the
    use of terror and propaganda.
  • Il Duce

22
JAPAN
  • This was the last of the Axis Powers (Germany,
    Italy, and Japan) to surrender in WWII.
  • It was the target of atomic warfare in 1945
    (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).

23
GANDHI
  • This was the leader of the Indian independence
    movement in the mid-20th century.
  • known for his nonviolent protests.
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. studied his work.

24
MAO ZEDONG
  • This was the leader of the 20th century Communist
    revolution in China.

25
COLD WAR
  • - name given to the relations between the U.S.
    and the Soviet Union following WWII (second half
    of the 20th century)
  • Resulted in the buildup of nuclear weapons.

26
NATO
  • -an international organization created by the
    U.S. and its allies in 1949 to prevent attacks by
    the Soviet Union.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

27
UNITED NATIONS
  • -an international organization created following
    WWII to provide a way to negotiate disputes.
  • The point was to make countries talk before
    fighting.

28
APARTHEID
  • This was a name given to the racial
    discrimination policies in South Africa through
    most of the 20th century (1900s).

29
U.S. History to 1877
  • This portion of the U.S. History review is a
    brief overview of colonization through
    Reconstruction.

30
Aztecs
  • They were a Mesoamerican Indian culture that was
    devastated by Cortez and
    the Spanish in the 1520s.

31
INCA INDIANS
  • They were a South American Indian culture that
    was devastated by Pizarro and the Spanish in the
    1530s.

32
Conquistadores
  • These are Spanish explorers who conquered native
    American cultures.

33
Encomienda
  • This was the system by which the Spanish
    government rewarded
  • its governors in the Americas with title to land
    and permission
  • to enslave any natives living on that land.

34
St. Augustine
  • This was the oldest continually occupied European
    settlement in North America. It was founded on
    August 28, 1565, by the Spanish.

35
Columbian Exchange
  • This was the enormously widespread transfer of
    agricultural
  • goods between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
    that occurred after 1492.

36
Jamestown
  • This was the first permanent English colony in
    the New World.

37
John Smith
  • He was an English soldier and sailor, who is now
    remembered for helping to establish
    Jamestown, the first permanent English
  • colony in North America.

38
Headright System
  • This was the system sponsored by English colonies
    to grant land to the person who purchases passage
    to the colony from Europe.

39
House of Burgesses
  • This was the first representative government in
    North America located in Virginia.

40
Indentured servants
  • In U.S. History, this is the name for people who
    were forced into labor for a certain period of
    time in return for their paid passage to North
    America.

41
Mayflower Compact
  • This was the first governing document of Plymouth
    Colony,
  • signed by the Pilgrims in November of 1620.

42
Benjamin Franklin
  • This was a printer, scientist and inventor who
    helped write both the Declaration of Independence
    and the Constitution.

43
Great Awakening
  • This was a religious revival that promised the
    grace of God to all who could experience a desire
    for it.

44
French And Indian War
  • Battles between France and England in the new
    world resulting in the loss of all French
    possessions.

45
Samuel Adams
  • This was an American revolutionary who led the
    Boston Tea Party.

46
Sons of Liberty
  • This group of Patriots was formed in 1765 and
    urged colonial resistance to the Stamp Act using
    any means available even
  • violence.

47
Paul Revere
  • This was an American silversmith who warned of
    the advance of the British on Lexington and
    Concord.

48
Boston Tea Party
  • This was a political protest by Boston,
    Massachusetts residents against the British
    parliament partly in response to the 1765 stamp
    act.

49
Mercantilism
  • This was the economic philosophy that control of
    imports was the key to enhancing the health of a
    nation and that Colonies existed to serve the
    home country as a source of raw materials and a
    market for manufactured goods.

50
LEXINGTON AND CONCORD
  • Battles where first shots of the American
    Revolution were fired

51
Second Continental Congress
  • Convened in May of 1775
  • Drafted Olive Branch Petition to avoid war with
    Britain
  • Eventually declared independence over a year later

52
Valley Forge
  • Site of the headquarters of the Continental Army
    under George Washington during the American
    Revolution
  • Symbol of sacrifice

53
Saratoga
  • This battle marked the turning point in the
    American Revolution because the French entered
    the war on the side of the colonies

54
Treaty of Paris of 1783
  • This document formally ended the American
    Revolution
  • Britain was forced to recognize American
    independence

55
Articles of Confederation
  • First constitution of the United States
  • Established first government
  • Created in 1777

56
Northwest Ordinance
  • Major accomplishment of federal government under
    Articles of Confederation
  • Provided a way to add more states to the union

57
John Locke
  • British philosopher who came up with idea of
    social contract
  • Governments only purpose was to protect mans
    natural rights

58
Shays Rebellion
  • Uprising of farmers in Massachusetts in 1786
  • Feared losing land due to taxes
  • Showed the weakness of the federal government

59
Philadelphia Convention
  • Meeting called in 1787 to AMEND the Articles of
    Confederation
  • Instead WROTE our present constitution

60
James Madison
  • Author of the Virginia Plan at the constitutional
    convention
  • Known as Father of Constitution because of his
    journals

61
republic
  • Form of government run by elected leaders
  • Chosen as plan for United States government at
    constitutional convention

62
Great Compromise
  • At the constitutional convention in 1787, this
    deal used parts of Virginia Plan and New Jersey
    Plan
  • Created bicameral Congress with one house based
    on population and one on an equal number from
    each state

63
Bill of Rights
  • First ten amendments to the constitution
  • Written to protect individual against the federal
    government

64
Federalist Papers
  • Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and
    John Jay
  • Purpose was to persuade people of New York to
    ratify the constitution

65
Alexander Hamilton
  • Founding Father
  • Author of Federalist Papers
  • First secretary of treasury and architect of our
    first fiscal plan
  • Killed in duel with Aaron Burr

66
Protective tariff
  • Tax on imported goods
  • Designed to prevent domestic companies from
    having to compete with foreign goods of lower
    price

67
Excise tax
  • Tax added to certain items to raise money
  • Established by Alexander Hamilton
  • Excise tax on whiskey led to Whiskey Rebellion

68
XYZ Affair
  • Under John Adams, French demanded American
    ambassadors pay tribute to see French diplomats
  • Almost led to war with France

69
Alien and Sedition Acts
  • passed under John Adams, these laws were supposed
    to suppress opposition to the government
  • Serious violation of principles of free speech
    spelled out in first amendment of Bill of Rights

70
Marbury v. Madison
  • This was the first decision of the Supreme Court
    of the United States to declare an act of
    Congress unconstitutional, thus establishing the
    doctrine of judicial review.

71
John Marshall
  • This was the great Chief Justice, he presided
    over the case of Marbury v. Madison and was
    remembered as the principal English colony in
    North America.

72
Louisiana Purchase
  • 1803, American acquisition from France of the
    formerly Spanish region of Louisiana .
  • This was a territory in the western U.S. bought
    from France for 15 million.

73
Lewis Clark
  • In 1803,, the U.S. purchased the Louisiana
    Territory from France. This was a huge tract of
    over 800,000 square miles, taking in nearly the
    entire mid-section of North America from
    present-day Texas and Louisiana up to Montana and
    North Dakota. This almost doubled the size of the
    new country.

74
Sacagawea
  • A near-legendary figure in the history of the
    American West for her indispensible role on the
    Lewis and Clark Expedition, Sacagawea has become
    an enigma for historians seeking to trace her
    later life.
  • She was the daughter of a Shoshone chief.

75
Impressments
  • This was the practice of the British Navy to stop
    U.S. ships on the open ocean and force crewmen
    into British naval service.

76
New Orleans
  • This was a Battle during the War of 1812 fought
    after it ended, this paved the way for Andrew
    Jackson to presidency.

77
Era of Good Feelings
  • 181525) Period of U.S. national unity and
    complacency. A Boston newspaper coined the term
    in 1817 to describe a nation free from the
    influence of European political and military
    events.

78
Monroe Doctrine
  • The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on
    December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers
    should no longer colonize or interfere with the
    affairs of the nations of the Americas

79
Spoils System
  • The spoils system involves political activity by
    public employees in support of their party and
    the employees' removal from office if their party
    loses the election.

80
Suffrage
  • This is the right to vote.

81
National Road
  • It was known by several names the National Road,
    the Cumberland Road and the National Pike. It was
    the first federally sponsored highway and was
    quite a feat for its day. In Europe there had
    been. Construction on this began in 1811 and was
    the first federally funded turnpike in the U.S.

82
Nullification
  • Nullification is a constitutional theory that
    gives an individual state the right to declare
    null and void any law passed by the United States
    Congress which the state deems unacceptable and
    unconstitutional.

83
Indian Removal Act
  • This granted tribes unsettled western prairie
    land in exchange for their territories within
    state borders, mainly in the Southeast.

84
Trail Of Tears
  • This was the forced migration of the Cherokee
    Indians to Oklahoma in 1838-39.

85
Transcendentalism
  • American transcendentalism was an important
    movement in philosophy and literature that
    flourished during the early to middle years of
    the nineteenth century (about 1836-1860). 

86
Mormon Trail
  • This was a 1200 mile route from Illinois to Salt
    Lake City Utah.

87
DOROTHEA DIX
  • This was a U.S. social reformer on behalf of the
    mentally ill.

88
Susan B. Anthony
  • This was a Womens suffrage pioneer who also
    urged for emancipation.

89
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • This was a U.S. social reformer and womens
    suffrage leader.

90
Seneca Falls Declaration
  • This was crafted during a rally for womens
    rights in upstate New York in 1848, and asserted
    that women deserved the same rights as men,
    rights which were guaranteed in both the
    Declaration of Independence and the U.S.
    Constitution.

91
Missouri Compromise
  • This was a congressional agreement of 1820
    which included the admission of one free and one
    slave state to maintain the balance of free and
    slave states in the Union.

92
Nat Turner
  • He attempted to lead a slave revolt in Virginia
    in 1838, and though it was unsuccessful (he was
    executed for his violence), his actions
    represented a change in tone in the abolition
    movement

93
Abolitionists
  • People who fought for emancipation of the slaves
    and to end the slave trade.

94
William Lloyd Garrison
  • This was a U.S. Journalist who founded the
    radical newspaper The Liberator, and fought to
    abolish slavery.

95
Frederick Douglass
  • This was a U.S. abolitionist who founded the
    North Star.

96
Underground Railroad
  • This was a system of secret safe-houses and
    hiding places to aid runaway slaves escape.

97
Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • This was a U.S. philanthropist who wrote Uncle
    Toms Cabin.

98
Compromise of 1850
  • This was an agreement that California would be
    admitted to the Union, the slave trade in the
    District of Columbia would be restricted, and the
    Fugitive Slave Law would be enforced.

99
Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • In 1854 Stephen A. Douglas introduced this to the
    Senate, to allow states to enter the Union with
    or without slavery.

100
Dred Scott Decision
  • This was a 1857 Supreme Court decision that a
    slave, because he was not a citizen, could not
    sue for his freedom..

101
Border States
  • These were slave states which did not secede from
    the Union prior to the US Civil War.

102
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Abraham Lincolns order that all slaves who were
    located in seceded states were to be freed.

103
Jefferson Davis
  • This politician from Mississippi was once
    Secretary of War for President Franklin Pierce,
    thought he is more known for being the first and
    only President of the Confederate States of
    America.

104
Shermans March to the Sea
  • This was a military campaign embarked upon by the
    United States Army in late 1864 which destroyed
    property along a wide swath south from Atlanta to
    the Atlantic Ocean in order to punish the
    Confederates for starting the war.

105
Ulysses S. Grant
  • This Union General made a name for himself at the
    siege at Vicksburg, though he later defeated
    Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia to end
    the Civil War.
  • He would later be the 18th President of the
    United States (18691877).

106
Andrew Johnson
  • 17th president of the U.S., clashed with Radical
    Republicans over Reconstruction programs was
    impeached, then acquitted in 1868 by one vote.

107
Black Codes
  • Special laws passed by southern state governments
    immediately after the Civil War. They were
    designed to control former slaves, and to subvert
    the intent of the Thirteenth Amendment.

108
Poll Tax
  • A special fee a person must pay in order to vote.
    Used in the Post-Reconstruction South to deny
    the right to vote to the newly freed slaves.

109
Jim Crow Laws
  • Laws designed to separate blacks and whites which
    were degrading to African Americans.

110
Ku Klux Klan
  • A secret society pledged to defend the social
    and political superiority of the white race
    against aggressions of an inferior race.

111
Carpetbaggers
  • An insulting nickname for a Northern Republican
    who moved to the South after the Civil War. The
    name references their inexpensive luggage.

112
Scalawags
  • Native white Southern politicians who joined the
    Republican party after the war and advocated the
    acceptance of and compliance with congressional
    Reconstruction.

113
U.S. History since 1877
  • This portion of the U.S. History review is a
    brief overview of the period from the Populist
    Revolt through the present.

114
Thomas Edison
  • Known as the Wizard of Menlo Park, he is famous
    for his hundred of inventions, including the
    incandescent light bulb, phonograph, the
    Dictaphone, and hundreds of others.

115
John D. Rockefeller
  • The New York industrialist who made hundreds of
    millions of dollars in the 19th century with this
    Standard Oil Company and pioneered the corporate
    strategy of vertical integration.

116
Andrew Carnegie
  • This Scottish-born American industrialist made
    his fortune in the steel industry.
  • He also was known for giving away millions of
    dollars to charities at the end of the 19th
    century.

117
Gospel of Wealth
  • This was the hypothesis that wealth was the great
    end and aim of man, the one thing needful.

118
Monopoly
  • This is a when one company controls the market
    for a certain product, there is no competition.

119
Antitrust
  • These are laws and regulations designed to
    protect trade and commerce from unfair business
    practices.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

120
Robber Barons
  • American capitalists of the latter part of the
    19th century who became wealthy through
    exploitation (as of natural resources,
    governmental influence, or low wage scales).
  • Rockefeller, Carnegie

121
Social Darwinism
  • This was the theory that people are subject to
    natural selection and wealth was a sign of
    superiority.

122
Nativism
  • In the late 19th century, this political and
    social movement swept through the United States,
    its followers believing that all people who were
    not born in the U.S. and were of European
    heritage should be banned from the country.

123
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • This law, passed in 1882, forbade any laborers
    from China to enter the United States for 10
    years. It was meant to protect U.S. jobs in the
    expanding West, but its racial overtones were
    symptoms of larger problems.

124
Urbanization
  • This is a rise in a society's city population.

125
Jane Addams
  • She was a founder of Hull House, a settlement
    house that helped immigrants of the late 19th
    century become acclimated to life in the United
    States, and was a pioneer in the field of social
    work.

126
Horatio Alger
  • This was a United States author of inspirational
    adventure stories for boys virtue and hard work
    overcome poverty.

127
Compromise of 1877
  • This was the solution to the contested
    Presidential election of 1876 and furthermore
    brought an end to the period of Reconstruction
    following the Civil War.

128
Booker T. Washington
  • This was a U.S. educator and reformer. He became
    perhaps the most prominent African American
    leader of his time.

129
Plessy v. Ferguson
  • This was a U.S. Supreme Court decision that
    established the legality of racial segregation so
    long as facilities were separate but equal.

130
Manifest Destiny
  • The argument that God had ordained that United
    States was destined to expand across the entire
    continent of North America.

131
Gold Rush
  • The most important event to attract settlers west
    was the discovery of gold at Sutters Mill,
    California in 1849.

132
Oregon Trail
  • Overland trail linking Independence, Missouri and
    Oregon which was used by many pioneers during the
    1840s.

133
Homestead Act
  • Legislation passed in 1862 allowing any citizen
    or applicant for citizenship over 21 years old
    and head of a family to acquire 160 acres of
    public land by living on it and cultivating it
    for five years

134
Buffalo Soldiers
  • This is the nickname given to black soldiers with
    the U.S. Cavalry who helped to spread the U.S.
    westward in the decades following the Civil War.

135
George Custer
  • U.S. Cavalry General whose unwise and reckless
    conduct got him and over 200 soldier of the
    Seventh Cavalry killed at the Battle of Little
    Big Horn

136
Ghost Dance
  • A Native American movement in the 1890s that
    believed a ritualistic ceremony would result in
    the reanimation of Indian dead and the defeat of
    the white invaders into the West

137
Grangers
  • This was a group of American farmers who united
    in the late 19th century to lobby Congress to
    pass laws protecting them from unfair business
    practices of large industry.

138
Populist
  •  This was the movement that advocated state
    control of railroads and currency expansion.

139
Open Door Policy
  •  This is a U.S. foreign policy that all countries
    should have equal access with China

140
Spanish American War
  •  This was a conflict in which the U.S. gained
    many island territories, especially Puerto Rico
    and the Philippines.

141
Rough Riders
  •  This was a regiment in the Spanish-American War
    organized and led by Theodore Roosevelt that
    included cowboys, miners, policemen, and college
    athletes.

142
Theodore Roosevelt
  •  This was a 26th President of the United States
    hero of the Spanish-American War Panama canal
    was built during his administration said Speak
    softly but carry a big stick (1858-1919). He was
    considered by many to be the nation's first
    conservation President.

143
Roosevelt Corollary
  •  This policy reasserted the U.S. position as
    protector of the Western Hemisphere.

144
Panama Canal
  •  This connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
    through Central America.

145
Dollar Diplomacy
  •  These are international relations influenced by
    economic considerations.

146
Muckrakers
  •  This group of authors and journalists wrote of
    horrible working conditions in American industry
    in the early 20th century, resulting in more
    governmental protection of workers.

147
Progressive Movement
  •  This was a political reform movement in the late
    19th and early 20th centuries to protect working
    class citizens.

148
Square Deal
  •  This was a Roosevelt's plans to help safeguard
    the rights of workers.

149
Conservation Movement
  •  This was an American invention of John Audubon
    and others who wished to protect natural habitat
    from man in the 19th century. They lobbied
    consistently for parks and human exclusion from
    the wild.

150
Woodrow Wilson
  •  28th President of the United States led the
    United States in World War I and secured the
    formation of the League of Nations (1856-1924).

151
New Freedom
  •  This was Woodrow Wilson's plan to break up
    monopolies and regulate business.

152
Federal Reserve
  •  This is the central banking authority in the
    United States, which supervises commercial banks
    by monitoring accounts and controlling interest
    rates.

153
Sixteenth Amendment
  •  This amendment made personal income tax
    permanent..

154
Income Tax
  •  This is a tax levied on net personal or business
    income.

155
Seventeenth Amendment
  •  This amendment provided for the direct election
    of U.S. senators.

156
Nineteenth Amendment
  •  This amendment gave women the right to vote.

157
Womens Suffrage
  •  
  • This was a movement to give females the right to
    vote.

158
Isolationism
  •  This is a policy of nonparticipation in
    international affairs.

159
Lusitania
  •  The sinking of this ship brought the U.S. into
    WWI.

160
Zimmerman Note
  •  Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an
    ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with
    the U.S.

161
Interventionism
  •  This is a policy of advocating participation in
    foreign countries affairs.

162
Eighteenth Amendment
  • Amendment prohibiting the sale and manufacture of
    alcohol
  • 21st amendment repealed this amendment

163
Prohibition
  • Outlawing the sale and manufacture of alcohol
  • Written into the constitution as the 18th
    amendment
  • Ended by passage of 21st amendment

164
Gangsterism
  • Brought about by the passage of the 18th
    amendment
  • Organized crime led by rival gangs
  • Al Capone was the most famous gangster of the
    period

165
Red Scare
  • Period following World War I characterized by
    widespread fear of communist takeover of the
    United States
  • A second Red Scare occurred after World War II

166
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Occurred in 1920s during height of Red Scare
  • Two Italian immigrants were found guilty of
    murder
  • Victims of social and political prejudice

167
Flappers
  • Nickname given to women in the 1920s who wore
    short dresses, short hair and partied like men
  • Threw off traditions of how women should behave

168
Scopes Trial
  • Famous case of 1920s
  • Came about because of teaching of evolution
  • Showed tension between traditionalists and
    modernists

169
Charles Lindbergh
  • First man to fly solo non-stop across the
    Atlantic
  • Flight occurred in 1927 in plane named The
    Spirit of St. Louis
  • Became great hero

170
Harlem Renaissance
  • Period of artistic activity in New Yorks Harlem
    district
  • Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong and others
    gained national attention

171
Speculation
  • Making high risk investments in the hope of
    achieving great gains
  • Many people speculated by buying stock in the
    1920s

172
Babe Ruth
  • Known as the Sultan of Swat
  • Played for New York Yankees
  • Held home run record until 1974
  • Restored popularity to baseball after scandal of
    World Series of 1919

173
Great Depression
  • Period of economic crisis lasting from 1929-1939
  • Worldwide in scope
  • Caused mainly by overproduction of the 1920s

174
Dust Bowl
  • Term given to area of Great Plains most affected
    by Great Drought of 1930s
  • Many farmers of the area were forced to move to
    California, as described in The Grapes of Wrath

175
Bonus Army
  • Group of veterans marched on Washington, D.C. in
    1932 demanding bonuses for fighting in World War
    I
  • Hoover sent in troops, making him seem very
    unsympathetic

176
New Deal
  • Program for reviving the economy during the Great
    Depression
  • Begun by Franklin Roosevelt
  • Made up of the three rs relief, recovery,
    reform

177
WPA
  • Created as part of the New Deal to stimulate the
    economy
  • Provided useful jobs for unemployed people to
    preserve their self-respect

178
TVA
  • Created by Congress as one of the major public
    works projects of the New Deal
  • Built a system of dams for hydroelectricity in
    the south

179
Totalitarianism
  • A centralized government that does not allow
    opposing political opinions
  • Has total control over lives of citizens
  • Rise of totalitarianism led to World War II

180
Adolf Hitler
  • Totalitarian leader of Germany during World War
    II
  • His invasion of Poland in 1939 began World War II
  • Allied with Italy and Japan to form Axis nations

181
Holocaust
  • Act of genocide carried out by the German
    government against the Jews under Hitler
  • Millions were tortured and killed

182
Blitzkrieg
  • Rapid attack method used by Germans in World War
    II
  • Using this tactic, Hitler was able to take over
    many countries very quickly

183
Winston Churchill
  • British prime minister during World War II
  • Along with Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin,
    made up the Allied leaders

184
Pearl Harbor
  • U.S. naval base in Hawaii
  • Attacked by Japan unexpectedly on December 7,
    1941
  • Caused U.S. to declare war on Japan

185
Allied Powers in World War II
  • Nations united in the fight against Germany,
    Italy, and Japan in World War II
  • Major Allied Powers were Britain, the Soviet
    Union, and the U.S.

186
Axis Powers
  • Alliance of nations that fought against the
    Allied Powers in World War II
  • Made up of Germany, Italy, and Japan

187
Normandy Invasion
  • Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of
    western Europe that began on June 6, 1944

188
Nüremburg War Trials
  • Nazi World War II criminals were tried during
    these before an international tribunal

189
United Nations
  • This is an international organization created
    following World War II to provide a way to
    negotiate disputes.

190
Marshall Plan
  • Following World War II, this called for giving
    away billions of dollars in aid to help rebuild
    war-torn Europe, with the purpose of creating a
    viable trading partner and post-war allies.

191
Cold War
  • This was a name given to the relations between
    the U.S. the Soviet Union in the second half of
    the 20th century which saw the buildup of nuclear
    arms.

192
Berlin Airlift
  • This was a delivery of supplies in a German city
    to circumvent the Soviet blockade

193
Truman Doctrine
  • This said that the United States would aid any
    nation in resisting the growing threat of
    communism and became the guiding force of
    American foreign policy during the Cold War.

194
NATO
  • This is an international organization created by
    the U.S. and its allies in 1949 to prevent
    attacks by the Soviet Union. ( North Atlantic
    Treaty Organization).

195
Warsaw Pact
  • This was a military alliance between the Soviet
    Union and the countries of Eastern Europe

196
McCarthyism
  • This was unscrupulously accusing people of
    disloyalty to the United States (as by saying
    they were Communists, usually with sketchy or no
    evidence).

197
Korean War
  • This was a national conflict in an Asian country
    aided by Russia in the North and the U.S. in the
    South (1950-1953).

198
Douglas MacArthur
  • This was a United States general who served as
    chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the
    South Pacific during World War II he accepted
    the surrender of Japan (1880-1964).

199
Dwight Eisenhower
  • This was a United States general who supervised
    the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi
    Germany 34th President of the United States
    (1890-1961).

200
Brown v. Board of Education
  • This Supreme Court case, decided in 1954,
    declared that the segregation doctrine of
    separate but equal, was not Constitutional when
    applied to the public school system.

201
NAACP
  • This is the oldest and largest U.S. civil rights
    organization. Members of this have referred to it
    as The National Association. The letters stands
    for National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People.

202
John F. Kennedy
  • The 35th President of the United States, he was
    known for authorizing the failed Bay of Pigs
    invasion, successfully leading the country during
    the Cuban Missile Crisis, and for being
    assassinated while in Dallas, Texas, in November
    of 1963.

203
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Signed into law by President Johnson, this bill
    protected African Americans and women from job
    discrimination and any discrimination in public
    places.

204
Great Society
  • This is the name given to President Lyndon B.
    Johnsons domestic programs, among them VISTA,
    Job Corps, Head Start, the War on Poverty, and
    the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

205
Malcolm X
  • Often associated with confrontational Civil
    Rights protest, he was a leader in the Nation of
    Islam in the United States, an early advocate of
    Black Power, but became a more moderate voice
    in the Civil Rights movement before his
    assassination in 1965

206
Feminist Movement
  • This is the movement aimed at equal rights for
    women.

207
Environmentalism
  • This is an advocacy for or work toward protecting
    nature from destruction or pollution.

208
Pacifists
  • These are people opposed to violence to attain
    end goals.

209
NAFTA
  • agreement signed in 1993 to reduce tariffs
    between the United States, Canada, and Mexico

210
sun belt
  • This is the term given to states in the southern
    and warmer parts of the country that saw a
    tremendous increase in population and industry in
    the years following World War II.

211
Civic/Citizenship
  • The following terms cover the basics of the
    structure and function of government, the role of
    the citizen, legal rights and responsibilities,
    and Constitutional amendments.

212
SOVEREIGNTY
  • This is the absolute power of a government within
    its own territory.

213
FEDERALISM
  • This system of government has powers divided
    between the central government and regional
    governments, with central government being
    supreme.

214
LIMITED GOVERNMENT
  • This is a ruling body that is not all powerful,
    but is restricted in what it may do by certain
    rights guaranteed to the people which may not be
    abolished or taken away from the people.

215
CHECKS AND BALANCES
  • This is the system of overlapping powers among
    legislative, executive, and judicial branches to
    allow each branch to oversee the actions of the
    others.
  • The presidents veto power is an example of checks
    and balances.

216
POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
  • This is the belief that the ultimate power of the
    government rests on the will of the people
    themselves.

217
SEPARATION OF POWERS
  • This is the policy that the law making,
    executive, and judicial powers be held by
    different groups and people.

218
DUE PROCESS
  • This is a policy that the governments actions
    towards its citizens must follow established
    rules and procedures.

219
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
  • This is a system of government in which the
    people participate directly in making all public
    policy.

220
REPUBLIC
  • This is a form of government run by elected
    officials.

221
EXCLUSIVE POWERS
  • These are powers that can only be executed by the
    federal government.

222
DELEGATED POWERS
  • Powers specifically given to the government by
    the Constitution. They are also called the
    Enumerated Powers.

223
CONCURRENT POWERS
  • Powers that are held by both the federal and
    state governments.

224
RESERVED POWERS
  • These are powers that are held for the states to
    execute, not for the federal government.

225
ELASTIC CLAUSE
  • This is a statement in the Constitution granting
    Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and
    proper for carrying out the enumerated list of
    powers.

226
POLICE POWERS
  • These are powers of a government to promote
    safety, public health, and welfare of its
    citizens.

227
IMPLIED POWERS
  • Powers that are not expressed but that the
    government may be inferred to have from another
    power.

228
BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT
  • Legislative makes laws
  • Executive carries out or executes the laws
  • Judicial interprets what the law means

229
JURISDICTION
  • This is the authority of a court to hear a case.

230
JUDICIAL REVIEW
  • This is the power of a court to review a law or
    an official act of a government employee or agent
    for constitutionality or for the violation of
    basic principles of justice.

231
ELECTIONS
  • Primary election-an election in which the
    political parties choose their candidates to run
    for office.
  • General election-this is an election in which the
    people choose from among the candidates nominated
    by the various political parties.

232
RECALL
  • This is the process the people use to remove an
    elected official from office.

233
POLL TAX
  • This payment was meant to keep certain groups of
    people (mainly former slaves and
    African-Americans) from being allowed to vote.

234
LOBBYING
  • These are actions of an interest group or agents
    to influence the policy of the government.

235
ALIEN
  • This is a person who is not a citizen of the
    state or country in which they reside.

236
NATURALIZATION
  • This is the process by which one becomes a
    citizen of a country if that person was not born
    in that country or their parents were not
    citizens of that country.

237
AMENDMENT PROCESS
  • This is a method by which the Constitution may be
    changed or added to.
  • 17th Direct Election of Senators
  • 18th Prohibition of Alcohol
  • 19th Womens Voting Rights

238
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
BILL OF RIGHTS
  • FirstFreedom of speech, assembly, religion, the
    press and to petition the government
  • SecondThe right to bear arms
  • ThirdNo quartering of troops in homes except in
    time of war
  • FourthNo search without a warrant
  • FifthDue process and protection of property
  • SixthTrial by jury
  • SeventhJury trial in civil cases
  • EighthNo cruel and unusual punishment
  • NinthRights not specifically mentioned in the
    constitution should not be assumed not to exist
  • TenthRights of the states

239
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
  • 11thSovereign immunity
  • 12thElectoral college reform
  • 13thSlavery abolished
  • 14thEqual protection under law and due process
    of law
  • 15thRight to vote shall not be abridged because
    of color or previous servitude
  • 16thIncome Tax
  • 17thElection of senators
  • 18thProhibition
  • 19thWomen's suffrage
  • 20thTerms of office for president and Congress

240
Map and Globe Skills
241
GEOGRAPHY
  • This is the study of the earth, the people on it,
    and the relationships between them

242
ABSOLUTE LOCATION
  • This is the exact location of a place on the
    earths surface. It is given in terms of
    latitude and longitude.

243
GRID
  • This is a pattern of regular sections identified
    by numbers and letters to help locate objects on
    a map.

244
LATITUDE or PARALLEL
  • These are lines on a map that tell distance north
    or south of the Equator. They are horizontal on
    most maps and globes

245
EQUATOR
  • This is zero degrees latitude and separates the
    Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

246
NORTH POLE
  • This is 90 degrees North latitude.

247
LONGITUDE OR MERIDIAN
  • These are lines on a map or globe that tell
    distance east or west of the prime meridian.

248
PRIME MERIDIAN
  • This is zero degrees longitude.

249
HEMISPHERE
  • This is one half of the earth.

250
GLOBE
  • This is the most accurate model of the earth.

251
PROJECTION
  • This is a technique of showing the round earth on
    a flat piece of paper.

252
PHYSICAL MAP
  • This is a type of map that shows things like
    rivers, mountains, relief and elevation.

253
POLITICAL MAP
  • This is a type of map which shows man-made
    features like cities and national boundaries.

254
POPULATION DENSITY MAP
  • This is a type of map which shows the average
    number of people living in a certain area.

255
CONTOUR MAP
  • This is a kind of map that uses lines connecting
    areas of equal elevation.

256
RELIEF
  • This is the difference between the highest and
    lowest points of land in an area.

257
ELEVATION
  • This is the height above or below elevation.

258
SEA LEVEL
  • This is the base height used for measuring
    elevation.

259
CARDINAL DIRECTIONS/COMPASS ROSE
  • This is North, South, East, and West.
  • A compass rose is a map tool indicating the four
    cardinal directions

260
LEGEND
  • This is the map tool that explains the meaning of
    the maps symbols.

261
SCALE
  • This indicates the relationship between distance
    on a map and the actual distance on Earth.

262
CONTINENTS
  • These are the seven large land masses on the
    Earth.

263
ISTHMUS
  • This is a narrow strip of land connecting two
    larger masses of land.

264
ARCHIPELAGO
  • This is a string of islands.

265
BAY
  • This is a body of water partially enclosed by
    land but with a wide mouth, affording access to
    the sea.

266
GULF
  • This is a large area of a sea or ocean partially
    enclosed by land, especially a long landlocked
    portion of sea opening through a strait.

267
CANAL
  • This is an artificial waterway or artificially
    improved river used for travel, shipping or
    irrigation.

268
STRAIT
  • This is a narrow channel joining two larger
    bodies of water.

269
CLIMATE
  • These are the general weather conditions of an
    area over a long period of time.

270
TEMPERATE ZONE
  • This is the part of the earth which lies between
    either tropic and the corresponding polar circle.

271
TROPICS
  • This is either of two parallels of latitude on
    the earth, one is 23 ½ degrees north of the
    equator and the other is 23 ½ degrees south of
    the equator. They are called the Tropic of
    Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

272
DESERT
  • This is a dry, often sandy region of little
    rainfall, extreme temperatures, and sparse
    vegetation.

273
ARID
  • This is a climate that has insufficient rainfall
    to support trees or woody plants.

274
DYNASTY
  • This is a ruling family whose members govern one
    after another over a long period of time.

275
EMPIRE
  • This is a group of countries under a single
    authority.

276
REGION
  • This is an area with common characteristics on a
    globe or map.

277
TIME ZONES
  • This is any of the 24 regions of the globe
    throughout which the same standard time is used.

278
Information Processing Skills
  • This portion of the GHSGT will require you to
    perform the following skills
  • IDENTIFY THE MAIN IDEA
  • LOCATE INFORMATION
  • DISTINGUISH BETWEEN FACT AND FICTION
  • INTERPRET GRAPHIC AIDS
  • COMPUTE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TIME ZONES
  • DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES
  • ANALYZE VIEWPOINTS
  • IDENTIFY CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS
  • Knowledge of the following terms will help you
    perform these skills.

279
VIRGINIA STATUTE OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
  • This was written by Thomas Jefferson in 1786. It
    guarantees the freedom of religion. Freedom of
    religion is one of the basic freedoms found in
    the 1st amendment to the Constitution.

280
KINGS LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM JAIL
  • This was written in 1963 to defend the authors
    peaceful civil rights campaign. Remember that
    Dr. King was influenced by Gandhi.

281
ARTIFACT
  • This is any object manufactured, used or modified
    by humans.

282
AUTHENTICITY
  • This is the ability to ensure that the given
    information was in fact produced by the entity
    whose name it carries and that it was not forged
    or modified.

283
BIAS
  • This is the interpretation of historical events
    with opinion.

284
CREDIBILITY
  • This is the quality of being plausible,
    believable, dependable, or worthy of confidence.

285
DIARY
  • This is a daily written record of (usually
    personal) experiences and observations.

286
FLOW CHART
  • This is the graphical representation of a
    sequence of operations using symbols to represent
    the operations.

287
HISTORICAL DATA
  • These are any items that provide information from
    past events.

288
JOURNAL
  • This is a ledger in which transactions or events
    have been recorded as they occurred.

289
LETTER
  • This is a written message addressed to a person
    or organization.

290
PARALLEL TIMELINES
  • These are two or more timelines used to compare
    developments in different areas in the same time
    frame.

291
PRIMARY SOURCE
  • These are original manuscripts, records, or
    documents produced at the time an event occurred.

292
SECONDARY SOURCE
  • These are works that are not original manuscripts
    or contemporary records, but they do critique,
    comment on, or build upon primary sources.

293
TIMELINES
  • This is a visualization of a sequence of events
    showing their chronological relationship.
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