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What Are We Learning Today?


What Are We Learning Today? 3.5 Analyze the extent to which the practices of political and economic systems reflect principles of liberalism. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What Are We Learning Today?

What Are We Learning Today?
  • 3.5 Analyze the extent to which the practices of
    political and economic systems reflect principles
    of liberalism.

The Will of the People
  • A democracy is a form of govt in which power is
    ultimately vested in the ppl.
  • Two forms that exist are direct and
    representative democracy. In direct democracy,
    the people participate in deciding issues
    directly. In a representative democracy, elected
    officials who represent the ppl make laws in
    their interests.

Direct Democracy
  • Direct democracy operates on the belief that
    every citizens voice is important and necessary
    for the orderly and efficient operation of
  • Why doesnt everyone use direct democracy if its
    more democratic?
  • However, direct democracy can often be
    impractical. For it to effectively work it needs
    a relatively small of ppl who can get together
    in 1 space to discuss issues, then make decisions
    based on the majority vote.

  • There are some characteristics of direct
    democracy that are found in the practices of many
    liberal democracies. They can exist in the forms
    of initiatives, referendums/plebiscites, and
  • Citizens in the US use initiatives to create
    legislation. To create an initiative, a citizens
    group draws up a petition. If the petition is
    signed by a certain of citizens, it can force a
    public vote on an issue.
  • Pg. 337-338

  • In referendums or plebiscites, all citizens may
    vote on whether to accept or reject a proposed
    piece of legislation. Referendums, in effect,
    refer the decision to the ppl. The word
    plebiscite literally means the common ppl
  • There have been only 3 referendums held at the
    federal level in Canadas history, yet numerous
    municipal and provincial plebiscites have been
    held over the years.

  • In a recall election, a majority of voters may
    choose to remove an elected official or govt
    from power. This is usually initiated through a
  • In Canada, only BC allows recalls at the
    provincial level. If enough registered voters
    sign a petition to recall a Member of the
    Legislative Assembly (MLA), the Speaker announces
    the recall, and a by-election is held as soon as
    possible. Since recalls were enacted in 1995,
    over 20 recall efforts have been launched, but no
    one has actually been recalled so far.

Representative Democracy
  • Most modern liberal democracies, because of their
    size and complexity, use a form of RD.
  • In RD, the will of the ppl is expressed in the
    selection of representatives to the govt during
    elections. RD ensure that those elected remain
    true to the will of the ppl through periodic
    elections, the presence of multiple political
    parties, the separation of powers among different
    branches of govt, an independent media, and the
    rule of law. These act as tools to establish
    basic citizen rights freedoms, and to prevent
    abuse by those who exercise power.

Canadas Parliamentary Democracy
  • Copy figure 10-7 pg. 339
  • There are many variations of rep. democracies.
    Canada has a parliamentary democracy that follows
    a tradition known as responsible govt.
  • Responsible govt a form of representative
    democracy in which the branch of govt that
    proposes the laws, (the executive branch), is
    dependent on the support of elected members, (the
    legislative branch).
  • Pg. 339

  • Because Canada, like most liberal democracies,
    operates on the basis of representation by
    population, the entire country is divided into
    electoral districts, ideally of 100,000 ppl,
    which are called ridings or constituencies.
  • Canadas electoral process is known as a
    single-member constituency, which means each
    constituency sends a single representative to the
    House of Commons in the federal parliament in

Why the further north you go do the
constituencies get bigger? (pg. 340)
  • Our system is also sometimes referred to as
    first-past-the-post because, as in a horse
    race, candidates who pass a certain point in the
    race with the highest of votes in each of their
    ridings win). http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmonto

Bicameral Legislature
  • Like many govt systems, Canada has a bicameral
    (two-chamber) legislature to provide 2 different
    forms of representation. Canadas 105 member
    Senate is based on region rather than by
  • Senators are not elected as a seat becomes
    vacant in the Senate, the prime minister appoints
    a new senator (who may remain until age 75) to
    fill it.

Is there a point to the Senate?
  • Any piece of legislation that has been passed by
    the H of C MUST also be passed by the Senate
    before it can become law.
  • It is extremely rare, however, for the Senate to
    reject a bill that has been approved by the H of
    C. This is why so many ppl dont see a point to
    having a Senate.
  • It is, however, common for the Senate to
    recommend changes (amendments) to bills passed by
    the H of C, and to have the H of C consider and
    pass the bill as amended by the Senate.

The US Republican Democracy
  • Unlike Canada, which has a monarch, the US
    follows a republican system of govt. A republic
    is a country where the ppl are sovereign and
    there is no king or queen.
  • Like Canada, the US has 3 branches of govt
    legislative, executive, and judicial. To ensure
    that the govt adheres to liberal principles, the
    US uses a system of checks and balances to make
    sure that no branch of the govt becomes too

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Checks and Balances Will of the People
  • This system was created based on the beliefs that
    checks and balances would keep the govt too weak
    to override the will of the ppl, and that the
    least intrusive govt provides more freedom to
    its citizens.
  • Essentially, this system allows the will of the
    people to be maintained and never gives any
    branch of govt too much power.

2 Chambers of US Congress
  • - House of Representatives
  • single-member constituency system
  • country is divided into electoral districts based
    on representation by population.
  • 435 members elected every 2 years.
  • Senate.
  • Senate is elected as well. Each state has 2
    senators, regardless of population, who are
    elected every 6 years. The elections for the
    Senate are staggered (1/3 of Senate seats every 2
  • ensures that there are always experienced
    senators who can carry on business help
    initiate new senators.

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How a Bill is Passed in the US
  • Legislation is voted on in both the House and the
    Senate, if it passes, it can be signed into a law
    by the president.
  • A president can choose not to sign a bill into
    law (veto). A vetoed bill is sent back to the
    house of Congress.
  • Here, the members of that house can pass a
    revised bill and submit it again for the
    presidents signature, or they can override his
    veto with a 2/3rds majority vote. Thus, a bill
    can be made into a law without the presidents

How is the President in the US Determined?
  • In Canada generally, the party that obtains the
    most seats in Parliament becomes the govt, and
    its leader is the PM.
  • In US, the ppl go to the polls and vote for the
    presidential candidate of their choice by voting
    for electors pledged to support their choice of
    candidate. The president is actually elected by a
    body known as the Electoral College.
  • Pg. 342 Figure 10-10

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What are the advantages/disadvantages of a 2
party system?
Americas Two-Party System
  • The US has essentially a 2 party system. It is
    extremely difficult for a 3rd party to win.
  • While this has the advantage of stability, it is
    virtually impossible to challenge the established
    parties to consider minority opinions.
  • However, the party with the most seats in
    Congress usually has the support of the majority
    of voters.

Proportional Representation
  • In Sweden and many other countries, the govt
    uses a different form of representation
    proportional representation.
  • In this system, citizens vote directly for a
    party, and then representatives are assigned
    based on the amount of popular support obtained.
  • The system encourages and legitimizes
    participation by a minority or marginal parties
    who would not obtain representation in the
    systems used in Canada or the US.

Proportional Representation Minority Governments
  • Usually, countries using a prop. representation
    system have many more political parties than
    countries using a single-member constituency.
  • This often results in coalitions where 2 or more
    parties must work together to form the govt. On
    occasion, a minority govt might be formed.
  • In Sweden, 4 major parties have had the most
    political control and have formed coalition
    govts for years.
  • Pg. 343 Figure 10-11

For Homework
  • Read Examining Proportional Representation on
    pg. 344-345.
  • Answer questions 1-3 (you will need a
  • Due tomorrow.

Challenges to the Will of the Ppl Voter Turnout
  • Pg. 347
  • Figure 10-14
  • Figure 10-15
  • Pause Reflect

What is Authoritarianism?
  • Authoritarianism describes a form of govt that
    vests authority in an elite group that may or may
    not rule in the interests of the ppl. It can take
    many forms, including oligarchies, military
    dictatorships, ideological one-party states, and

Authoritarianism Will of the Ppl
  • Authoritarian systems of govt are generally
    regarded by outsiders as being unconcerned with
    the will of the ppl, but this is not necessarily
  • Authoritarian govts may claim that order and
    security are more important than freedom, and,
    like a wise father figure, will make decisions in
    the interests of the ppl.

Is a democracy necessarily always the best form
of govt?Why do you think we have been
conditioned to think that it usually is?
Democracy Not Necessarily Better
  • Although it is easy for us to view democracy as
    better than any of the systems presented here
    especially since many of the govts that will be
    discussed are infamous for enforcing their laws
    through repressive and brutal measures some of
    these systems have developed in response to
    particular historical conditions or as attempts
    to counter the challenges and problems faced by
    democracies that were discussed earlier.
  • Many authoritarian govts also believe that they
    are serving the best interests of the country.

  • Oligarchy is a form of govt in which political
    power rests with a small elite segment of
    society. They are often controlled by politically
    powerful families who pass on their influence to
    their children.
  • Present-day Russia has been called an oligarchy
    because of the power that some individuals,
    previously associated with the Communist party in
    the Soviet Union, gained after the fall of

Some ppl have argued that all democracies
eventually end up being run like an oligarchy.
What do you think is meant by this?
(US 2 party country Clinton/Bush Obama/McCain)
One-Party State
  • A one-party state is a type of system where only
    1 party forms the govt and no other parties are
    permitted to run candidates for election. Some of
    the appearances of democracy exist but the
    absence of choice and the barriers against change
    eliminate the liberal democratic principle of the
    will of the ppl.
  • One-party states are often communist states, but
    they describe themselves as a peoples republic,
    socialist republic, or democratic republic to
    indicate that they somehow embody the will of the

Pros of a One-Party State
  • Supporters of a 1-party state often point to the
    sense of unity, strength, and community that a
    single-party govt can give to a country. They
    argue multi-party systems introduce too much
    division and conflict, which impedes economic and
    political development.

Cons of a One-Party State
  • Critics say that this system is not truly
    democratic, nor represents the will of the ppl,
    since a choice of only 1 party is really no
    choice at all. However, in some single-party
    states, such as Italy under Mussolini,
    constituents often could choose for which
    candidates to vote, although they were all from
    the Fascist party.

Military Dictatorships
  • A military dictatorship, sometimes known as a
    military junta, is a form of govt in which
    political power resides with the military
  • Like any dictatorship, a military dictatorship
    can be official or unofficial, and sometimes
    mixed forms exist where the military exerts
    strong influence over those in power. Military
    dictatorships often come to power through a coup
    d'état, in which the existing govt is overthrown
    by military personnel.

How could a military justify taking over a
country to its people?
Military Dictatorship Rationale
  • Some military dictatorships have justified their
    claims to power as a way of bringing political
    stability to their countries or of rescuing them
    from dangerous ideologies.
  • Military regimes tend to portray themselves as
    neutral 3rd parties who can provide interim
    leadership during times of turmoil. This is seen
    as better for the ppl in the long run, even if
    the will of the ppl needs to be ignored or
    undermined in the short term.
  • Figure 10-21 pg. 361

Techniques of Authoritarian Govts Vision
  • 1 of the most important aspects of any ideology,
    including those of authoritarian govts, is a
    vision an idea of what the country could be if
    led by a leader who could obtain the vision.
  • Some visions revolve around security protecting
    the country from some perceived threat.
  • Hitler Stalin

  • Propaganda is the use of a set of messages
    designed to influence the opinions or behaviours
    of large numbers of ppl.
  • Propaganda is never neutral there is no attempt
    to equally display both sides of the story.
  • Figure 10-23 10-24 pg. 363

Controlled Participation
  • Controlled participation allows the population
    ruled by an authoritarian govt to feel as if it
    is contributing to the country in some ways.
  • For example, by attending rallies, helping to spy
    on subversives, preparing for the war effort,
    becoming the block boss for the party
    anything that will convince the public to buy
    into the accepted ideology and prevent the
    development of contrary opinions.

Example Nuremberg Rallies of Nazi Germany
Directing Public Discontent
  • This is where the people are provided with an
    enemy on which they can safely unleash their
    frustrations. Threat can be foreign or internal.
  • Stalin used show trials to convict dissidents in
    the SU, banishing those convicted to the gulags
    (prisons). This was to consolidate his power and
    remove anyone who might challenge him. Stalin
    would charge his targets with a manufactured
    crime and put them on trial. The trials were
    called show trials because the verdict of guilt
    was always assured through forced confessions or
    fabricated evidence.

What is the main message here concerning popular
  • Some authoritarian govts use quick, brutal, and
    arbitrary violence to disappear dissidents.
    People simply vanished from everyday life, never
    to be heard from again. Relatives would search
    for them in vain, only to discover later that
    they had been tortured and murdered.

Strengths of Authoritarianism
  • Though many authoritarian govts employ horrible
    acts of human rights violations to enforce their
    power, the visions many dictators paint for their
    countries often addresses the needs of the ppl
    and often resulted in positive circumstances for
  • Many Russians, for example, long for the days of
    the SU under which communism they were able to
    obtain food for their families and heat their
    homes. Many of the liberating market reforms
    since communism have hurt the Russian ppl more
    than helped them.

Weaknesses of Authoritarianism
  • Just like a democracy, authoritarianism has its
    weaknesses. This willingness of authoritarian
    govts to sacrifice individual citizens for the
    perceived needs of the country is clearly
    unacceptable on many levels.
  • Most authoritarian govts also seem unable to
    change leadership in a peaceful manner. This
    often leads to periods of violence and misery
    during the transition from one leader to another.
    Also, if a dictator loses popular support and
    spontaneous opposition arises, violence, once
    again, is often the result.

How Do These Techniques Work?
  • Most of these techniques can be effective, at
    least in the short term. If citizens subscribe to
    the governments vision, if they are soothed by
    its propaganda, and if they feel they are
    contributing to the greater good, they may be
    less aware of the authoritarian nature of govt.
  • Authoritarian govts are aware of the pros and
    cons of these techniques, and use them to varying
    degrees to meet their particular needs. Yet the
    goal in all cases is to create the idea that the
    govt is using its authority to protect the
    country, and the interests and will of the ppl.

Are there circumstances in which an authoritarian
regime can be seen as an expression of the will
of the people?
What Are We Learning Today?
  • 3.8 Evaluate the extent to which govts should
    promote individual and collective rights.

Rights in Liberal Democracies
  • In some countries, specific legislation, such as
    the Canadian Charter of Rights Freedoms (1982),
    is employed to entrench (establish) rights to
    life, liberty, and personal safety.
  • These rights are protected by law and cannot be
    modified without extensive consultation with the
    public and substantial multi-party support.
  • This protection ensures that rights cannot be
    easily overturned, while still allowing a measure
    of flexibility that allows for the evolution of
    individual rights and freedoms in light of
    changing social conditions.

Are There Any Limits to Our Rights?
  • The only limit to the fundamental rights
    proclaimed in the Charter is that they are
    subject only to such reasonable limits
    prescribed by law as can be demonstrably
    justified in a free and democratic society.
  • In other words, there are limits to individual
    rights. No individual has the right to infringe
    on the rights of others. Individual rights can
    and must be balanced to the interests of
    preserving the rights of everyone in the

The Quebec Charter of Human Rights Freedoms
  • The Quebec Charter of Human Rights Freedoms is
    a statutory bill of rights and human rights code
    that was passed by the National Assembly of
    Quebec in 1975.
  • Having precedence over all provincial
    legislation, the Quebec Charter stands at the
    pinnacle of Quebecs legal system. Only the
    Constitution of Canada, including the Canadian
    Charter of Rights Freedoms, takes priority over
    the Quebec Charter.

Criticisms of Rights Legislation
  • 1 criticism of rights legislation is that it can
    have unforeseen negative consequences. For
    example, documents such as the Charter of Rights
    Freedoms focus almost exclusively on the rights
    of individuals, possibly at the expense of the
    rights of the community.
  • A great example is industrialization and
    laissez-faire capitalism in many countries that
    had theoretical individual rights, but became
    meaningless due to the enormous economic and
    political gap between industrialists and workers
    and the poverty of the working class.

Only Words?
  • Another criticism of rights legislation is that
    the words in some of these documents contain very
    little real power.
  • In some countries, especially dictatorships or
    totalitarian regimes, individual rights and
    freedoms have been subjugated to the needs of the
    state, even though those countries may have a
    constitution or other documents that protect
    individual rights.

  • Cuba is a great example because the dictator and
    ruling elite have all the political and legal
    control. The govt alone interprets and
    implements its Constitution, and controls any
    changes made to it. The result is very little
    protection for individual rights and freedoms.

The Promotion of Collective Rights
  • One responsibility charged to the govt is the
    promotion of collective rights and stability.
  • Collective rights rights guaranteed to specific
    groups in Canadian society for historical and
    constitutional reasons.
  • In the context of the Canadian Charter of Rights
    and Freedoms, collective rights refer primarily
    to the rights of official language groups and
    Aboriginal peoples.

Why Are Collective Rights So Important?
  • Collective rights are the cornerstone on which
    Canada was built. Without the guarantees made to
    groups and minorities, it is unlikely that the
    peoples of Upper and Lower Canada, so different
    from one another, would have joined to form a
  • Supreme Court Justice Beverly McLachlin

Canadian Charter of Rights Freedoms vs.
American Bill of Rights
  • One of the primary differences between the
    Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the
    American Bill of Rights is our inclusion of
    collective rights.
  • Quote pg. 378

Recognition of Collective Rights
  • Including collective rights in the Charter on the
    one hand and having govts in Canada promote or
    even recognize these rights on the other hand
    are, however, two different things.
  • Since the Charter came into being in 1982, some
    groups in Canada have had to fight to have their
    collective rights respected.

Francophone Schools in Alberta
  • In the 1980s, some Francophone parents took legal
    action that went all the way to the Supreme Court
    of Canada to have the province of Alberta provide
    Francophone schools and school boards for their
  • This collective right was included in Section 23
    of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Minority
    Educational Rights), but it took a 1990 Supreme
    Court decision in favour of the parents before
    Alberta allowed Francophone school boards to be
    established to administer Francophone schools.

Aboriginal Hunting Rights
  • Section 25 of the Charter and Section 35 of the
    Constitution Act, 1982, recognizes and affirms
    the aboriginal and treaty rights of Canadas
    Aboriginal peoples (First Nations, Métis,
    Inuit). While these rights are constitutionally
    guaranteed, it has taken many efforts to have
    certain Aboriginal rights recognized.
  • In the case of hunting or harvesting rights of
    Canadas Métis ppl, there continues to be a
    struggle to have these rights recognized.

The Ruling of Steve Powley
  • In 1993, Steve Powley, an Ontario Métis, and his
    son hunted and killed a moose, and were charged
    for hunting without a license.
  • 10 years later, after the case had been appealed
    through the Ontario court system, the Supreme
    Court of Canada ruled 9-0 that the Métis of
    Powleys community in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario,
    did indeed have the aboriginal right to hunt, as
    do any Métis who can prove a connection to a
    stable continuous community.

Ongoing Métis Disputes
  • However, despite the sections in the Charter and
    in the Constitution Act and the 2003 Supreme
    Court decision, many Métis are still fighting to
    have their Aboriginal right to hunting and
    harvesting recognized.
  • In 2004 in Manitoba, Métis hunter Will Goodon was
    charged for duck hunting without a license. He
    did have a Métis harvester card issued by the
    Manitoba Métis Federation, but the province
    failed to recognize the card.

Métis in Alberta
  • In 2008, the Métis Nation of Alberta took legal
    action against the Alberta govt in order to have
    the harvesting rights of Albertas Métis
    recognized, as charges continued to be laid
    against Métis hunting without a provincial
  • As one can see, having collective rights included
    in the Charter does not necessarily mean that
    govts will recognize or promote these rights.

What Are We Learning Today?
  • 3.6 Analyze the extent to which liberal
    democracies reflect illiberal thought and

Should Liberal Democracies Always Follow the
Principles of Liberalism?
  • In February, 2008, Canadian soldiers fighting in
    Afghanistan were urged to use caution when using
    popular websites such as Facebook when
    communicating with friends and family.

The Facebook Dilemma
  • Soldiers were warned not to share photos of
    themselves in uniform or of the battlefront.
  • According to the Defense Department, the
    insurgents could use this information to
    determine their success or their lack of itand
    determine better ways to attack us.
  • Yet others believe this is an example of
    censorship more than anything else.
  • Should the Defense Department be allowed to
    censor the Facebook pages of its soldiers?

What is the War Measures Act?
The War Measures Act
  • The War Measures Act has been invoked (used) only
    3 times in Canadas history.
  • In each case, the federal govt to some extent
    suspended, restricted, and/or limited rights,
    freedoms, and the basic principles of liberalism.

What excuse might the Canadian federal govt give
to invoke the Act and take away our freedoms?
War Measures Act Rationale
  • The following reasons have been given in the past
    to justify the Acts use
  • It was necessary for the overall good of society.
  • It was justified because of the threat or severe
    nature of the situation.
  • It was essential to protect, retain, or secure
    other principles of liberalism.

Rule By Decree
  • The War Measures Act gave the federal cabinet
    emergency powers for circumstances where it
    determined that the existence of war, invasion,
    or rebellion, real or apprehended, existed.
  • The real distinction of this Act was that it
    allowed the cabinet to govern by decree (law)
    rather than through discussion and debate in
    Parliament. The federal govt had increased
    powers under this Act powers that could be used
    immediately once the Act was invoked.
  • Figure 11-13 pg. 395

When was WW I?Which countries were Canadas
WW I and Enemy Aliens
  • The first use of the War Measures Act in Canada
    came during WW I. Canada was still part of the
    British Empire, and Britain and the Allied Powers
    were at war against the Central Powers.
  • Under the War Measures Act (1914) immigrants from
    these countries already residing in Canada were
    considered enemy aliens non-citizens who come
    from an enemy country.

WW I Enemy Aliens
  • The first use of the War Measures Act in Canada
    came during WW I. Canada was at war against the
    Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary (which
    included parts of Ukraine), and the Ottoman
  • Under the War Measures Act (1914), immigrants
    from countries that were at war with Canada
    already residing here were considered enemy
  • Why would Canadians consider these ppl enemies?

What civil rights were stripped from these enemy
aliens in Canada?
Enemy Alien Restrictions
  • Due to this Act all enemy aliens were required to
    register with the Canadian govt and carry their
    govt-issued ID cards at all times.
  • In addition, they were not permitted to publish
    or read anything in a language other than English
    or French, to leave the country without exit
    permits, to possess firearms, or to join any
    group the govt deemed dangerous.

Internment Camps
  • Several thousand enemy aliens were deported or
    sent to internment camps. Their property was
    confiscated and often went missing during their
    internment or was not returned afterwards. The
    internment camps did not close until 1920, 2
    years after the war had ended.
  • The released internees often had no possessions
    or property. At that time, the federal govt did
    not offer an apology or compensation to the ppl
    who were interned.
  • Figure 11-15 16 pg. 398

WW II and Japanese Internment
  • During WW II, the Canadian govt invoked the War
    Measures Act again to intern individuals and
    place restrictions on the freedoms of
  • Nearly 23,000 (the vast majority of whom were
    native-born Canadians from the Pacific Coast),
    were placed in internment camps in early 1942.

Removal from BC
  • Pg. 398
  • At the conclusion of WW II, the federal govt
    decided that all Japanese-Canadians (JC) should
    be removed from BC. They were given the choice
    between deportation to Japan or relocation east
    of the Rocky Mountains.
  • Although 4,000 JCs chose to leave the country,
    the majority opted to move to the prairies,
    Ontario, or Quebec. JCs could return to BC in
    1949, as they had regained the right to live
    anywhere in Canada, but most had already chosen
    to live elsewhere.

Why do you think the govt took these extreme
measures? Why might a govt continue to use
such actions after the war had ended?
Overdue Public Acknowledgment
  • In the 1980s some JCs and their families sought
    redress for the actions of the Canadian govt.
    Although not all JC supported this action, the
    action challenged the federal govt to act on its
    commitment to a multicultural society and the new
    Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
  • In 1988, PM Brian Mulroney publicly acknowledged
    the unjust actions and Canadian govt awarded
    compensation packages of 21,000 for each
    individual directly wronged.
  • Quote pg. 399

Do you agree with the govts decision to issue
compensation to each Japanese-Canadian directly
wronged by internment? Why or why not?
What were the 1960s like in Western countries?
The 1960s
  • Canada and the world underwent significant
    political, social, and cultural changes during
    the 1960s. Many reforms were prompted by
    individuals and groups seeking less govt
    control, greater freedoms, and increased power
    over decisions affecting their lives.
  • Examples include the womens liberation movement,
    the anti-war movement, and pressures to end
    poverty, discrimination, and abuses of power.

Quebec in the 1960s
  • Some Francophone Quebecois strongly desired
    greater protection of their language and culture
    and wanted equal opportunities for participation
    in the economy of Quebec, which was dominated by
    an Anglophone minority.
  • This led to the Quiet Revolution a time of rapid
    social, economic, and political modernization in
    Quebec. This was a revolution aimed at enhancing
    opportunities for Francophone Quebecois within
    Quebec society.

What allows an event to be called a revolution?
How can a revolution be quiet?
Huge change evolved but without violence, force,
or direct conflict.
The Quebec Liberation Front
  • Some ppl felt the pace of change was too slow,
    however. These ppl supported the use of violence,
    terrorism, or other illegal means to achieve
    their goals.
  • The Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ), founded in
    1963, was committed to the independence of
    Quebec, and was a group that was willing to
    resort to terrorism to make that happen.

FLQ Terrorist Acts
  • During the 1960s, the FLQ used a series of
    bombings and armed robberies to further its
    goals. It was responsible for the deaths of at
    least 5 people.
  • On October 5, 1970, the FLQ abducted British
    trade commissioner James Cross. Ransom demands
    were made, most of which were not met.
  • So, 5 days later, the FLQ kidnapped Pierre
    Laporte, a popular Quebec cabinet minister.

The FLQ Gains Support
  • In the following days, FLQ leaders held meetings
    to increase public support for their cause.
  • Consequently, a general strike involving
    students, teachers and professors resulted in the
    closure of most French-language secondary and
    post-secondary academic institutions. On October
    15, 1970, more than 3,000 students attended a
    protest rally in favour of the FLQ.
    Demonstrations of public support influenced
    subsequent government actions.

A Cry for Help
  • Within days, the Canadian Armed Forces were sent
    to protect politicians in Ottawa.
  • Quebec premier Robert Bourassa requested that
    troops be sent to support local police.

Trudeau Invokes War Measures Act
  • For the third and final time in Canadas history,
    Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau invoked the
    War Measures Act on October 16, 1970.
  • Civil liberties were suspended, and the FLQ was
    formally outlawed. Anyone attending an FLQ
    meeting or speaking favourably of the
    organization were presumed to be a member. Nearly
    500 ppl were arrested without warrants for
    expressing their pro-FLQ views and could be held
    in jail for up to 90 days many of the ppl
    arrested were artists, journalists, teachers, and
    other supporters of Quebecois nationalism.

Why was invoking the War Measures Act such a
risky political move for Trudeau?
A Risky Move
  • This was the only time in Canadian history that
    the federal Canadian govt used the powers of the
    War Measures Act during peacetime.
  • Invoking the War Measures Act was a risky move
    for Trudeau as there was a strong possibility
    that Trudeau might have lost popular support
    among Quebec voters.

Laporte Murdered!
  • On October 17, a Quebec radio station announced
    that Laporte was murdered. They also gave the
    location of a map which led to the discovery of
    his body. With the body came a list of demands by
    the FLQ for Crosss release.
  • Demands included the release of 23 political
    prisoners, 500,000 in gold, an aircraft to take
    the kidnappers to Cuba or Algeria, the ending of
    all police search activities, the rehiring of 450
    Lapalme postal workers who had been laid off for
    their support of the FLQ, and the broadcast and
    publication of the FLQ Manifesto.

A Huge Controversy
  • The actions of the federal govt during the
    October Crisis raised a great deal of
  • Although an overwhelming number of Canadians
    supported the govts actions, many Quebec
    nationalists and advocates of civil rights
    criticized the use of the War Measures Act as
    excessive and too broad.
  • What do you think is meant by this?

Excessive Broad?
  • Excessive There was no need to go these extremes
    for a case involving 2 kidnappings and a murder,
    issues that would normally be dealt with by the
    police and existing laws.
  • Broad The govt acted on limited information and
    treated all separatist supporters as potential

The Interview
  • In what is one of the most famous Canadian
    interviews of all time, Trudeau had an
    unrehearsed and spontaneous conversation with a
    reporter on the steps of Parliament on the issues
    of the FLQ Crisis and the War Measures Act.
  • It was during this interview that Trudeau uttered
    an iconic phrase, which today has a place in
    current Canadian history books that deal with
    Trudeau and his legacy.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-7_a2wa2dd4feature

The Aftermath
  • Early in December 1970, police discovered the
    location of the kidnappers holding James Cross.
    His release was negotiated and on December 3,
    1970, five of the terrorists were granted their
    request for safe passage to Cuba by the
    Government of Canada after approval by Fidel
  • Why ask to go to Cuba?

Laportes Kidnappers Found
  • In late December, four weeks after, the
    kidnappers of James Cross were found. The
    kidnappers and murderers of Pierre Laporte were
    found hiding in a country farmhouse. They were
    tried and convicted for kidnapping and murder.
  • The events of October 1970 contributed to the
    loss of support for violent means to attain
    Quebec independence.

Did the War Measures Act Work?
  • By December 29, 1970, police had arrested 453
    persons with suspected ties to the FLQ. Some
    detainees were released within hours, while
    others were held for up to 21 days. Several
    persons who were detained were initially denied
    access to legal counsel. Of the 453 people who
    were arrested, 435 were eventually released
    without ever being charged.

  • The actions of the federal govt during the
    October Crisis can appear very different to us
    today than it did to Canadians at the time.
  • Taking what you now know of the FLQ Crisis, do
    you believe the federal governments actions were
    appropriate? What, if any, alternatives could
    Trudeau have used to deal with the FLQ without
    rejecting the principles of liberalism during the
  • 2/3rds to a full written page due tomorrow

How has your life been affected by 9/11?
Restricting Freedoms Subtly
  • Following the events of 9/11, govts,
    individuals, and groups have developed a
    different understanding of security, terrorism,
    and mobility.
  • Despite the threat of terror, many ppl question
    the appropriateness as well as the effectiveness
    of increased security measures.
  • Supporters of increased security often point out
    that the restrictions are minor and certainly not
    as serious as the potentially devastating

  • The US govt has responded to the need for
    increased security by introducing the Uniting and
    Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate
    Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct
    Terrorism Act.
  • This acts purpose is to deter and punish
    terrorist acts in the US and around the world, to
    enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and
    for other purposes.

Civil Liberties vs. The Govt
  • Negative reaction to this legislation quickly
    followed. Groups challenged the federal govts
    power to issue National Security Letters, a
    provision of the USA PATRIOT Act, and won in
  • National Security Letters permitted the govt to
    obtain sensitive customer records from Internet
    service providers and other businesses without
    first obtaining a search warrant from a judge.
    The court ruled that this was an unconstitutional
    limit to the freedom from unreasonable searches.

USA PATRIOT Act Controversy
  • The intention of the USA PATRIOT ACT was to
    protect the security of the American ppl from
    acts of terrorism.
  • However, some ppl feel that the act undermines
    the civil liberties of the American ppl and
    subverts (undermines) the rights of minorities,
    especially those who share the same ethnic
    heritage as those who perpetrated the 9/11
  • Figure 11-20 pg. 402

What is your reaction to the USA PATRIOT Act?
Is there a better way to address the need for
national security that does not involve actions
that infringe on individual rights?
Canadas No-Fly List
  • 1 of the increased security measures in Canada is
    a no-fly list. This is a list of ppl the govt
    has identified as potentially posing a threat to
    aviation security. Ppl on the list are barred
    from flying on domestic flights in Canada.
  • Canadas initiative is modeled after a similar
    one in the US. While the US list contains more
    than 44,000 names, the Canadian list is believed
    to have less than 1000. However, it is not
    publically available, so many ppl on the list
    will not know that they have been barred from
    flying until they try to do so.

No-Fly List Criteria
  • An individual who has been involved in a
    terrorist group and who, it can reasonably be
    suspected, will endanger the security of any
    aircraft, or the safety of the public,
    passengers, or crew members.
  • An individual who has been convicted of 1 or more
    serious and life-threatening crimes against
    aviation security.
  • An individual who has been convicted of 1 or more
    serious and life-threatening offences and who may
    attack or harm an air carrier, passengers, or
    crew members.

Is the no-fly list criteria adequate/fair? Is it
too vague? Is it too limited?
Maher Arar
  • Pg. 403-404

Post 9/11 vs. War Measures Act
  • The Canadian govts post-9/11 security measures
    are less intrusive and restrictive than the
    examples from Canadas history when the War
    Measures Act was invoked.
  • Yet the restrictions still constrain ppls
    freedoms and challenge the principles of
    liberalism, however, in less obvious ways.
    Despite this subtlety, the new policies are
    clearly illiberal measures.

  • Extremism refers to a belief system that is
    outside the mainstream spectrum of beliefs, and
    it may advocate actions that are considered
    socially or morally unacceptable, such as the
    violent targeting of those perceived as innocent
  • Generally, those who are considered extremists by
    others do not see themselves as extremists. Thus,
    the judgment of extremist depends entirely on
    ones point of view.

The Justification for Extreme Ideas
  • It is important to note that extremists avoid
    referring to themselves as extremists not because
    they do not view their actions as intolerant or
    extreme but rather because they believe that they
    are acting our of principled beliefs.
  • There can be extremist views on both the right
    and left ends of the political spectrum, but in
    many cases, labeling a group or ideology as
    extremist is a political act to make a groups
    beliefs appear to challenge the status quo.

Example of Extremism
  • An example of this might be labeling ppl as
    eco-terrorists if they threaten to spike trees
    that are to be logged in an environmentally
    sensitive area.
  • For some, this is an act of desperation in
    defense of a principle for others it is an act
    of extremism.

Terrorism al Qaeda
  • Terrorism as practiced by groups such as al
    Qaeda, however, is clearly extremist. Even the
    supporters of al Qaeda may agree that they use
    extreme measures.
  • Yet they may claim that in a world of injustice
    where power is concentrated in the hands of a
    small group (Western powers) and used to keep
    others powerless, that extreme measures are the
    only way to arrive at justice.

Economic Extremism
  • Extremism is also used by some ppl to
    characterize economic activities that strictly
    adhere to a set of principles despite their
    perceived adverse effects on a population.
  • For example, during the Cold War, the economic
    practices of communist countries were seen as
    extremist by the US govt and some other
    free-market countries.

Extremism Civil Liberties
  • 1 major challenge that extremism presents to
    modern liberalism is that govts threatened by
    extremist actions may curtail civil liberties of
    all citizens in an effort to maintain security.
  • Examples
  • War Measures Act during the FLQ/October Crisis
    in 1970
  • USA PATRIOT Act in the US.
  • In the case of the FLQ Crisis, the limiting of
    individual rights was temporary. Most of the
    provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act, however,
    eventually became permanent.

Consumerism as a Liberal Issue
Area of Spending US Billions per year
Cosmetics in US
Ice cream in Europe
Perfumes in Europe US
Pet foods in Europe US
Entertainment in Japan
Cigarettes in Europe
Alcoholic drinks in Europe
Narcotic drugs in the world
Military spending in world
Consumerism Contd
Area of Spending US Billions per Year
Basic education for all
Water and sanitation for all
Reproductive health for all women
Basic health and nutrition for all
Colonization Liberal Democracies
  • In the brief history of liberal democracies,
    economic freedom has helped create some very
    powerful individuals and companies.
  • Beginning with colonization of Asia, Africa, and
    South America, consumers in liberal democracies
    were given greater access to increasing varieties
    and amounts of goods. Bananas, coffee, chocolate,
    silk, and cotton are examples of such goods.

Globalization of Liberal Companies
  • In more recent decades, companies from liberal
    democracies have entered into economic
    relationships with countries such as China,
    Japan, Korea, and Mexico to make technological
    gadgets, toys, and entertainment goods available
    in large quantities at relatively low cost.
  • The pursuit of economic freedom in liberal
    democracies has brought increased personal choice
    for consumers in some countries but not all.

Unequal Distribution of Wealth
  • Therefore, unanticipated consequences of economic
    freedom and development have developed within
    countries and on a worldwide scale. First, the
    wealth and resource development produced by
    economic liberalism did not benefit many of the
    ppl in former colonies to the same degree as they
    benefited ppl in more industrialized countries.
  • In fact, many colonized countries were forced to
    reduce their own food production in order to grow
    cash crops such as coffee and bananas for export.

A Double Standard
  • Second, citizens of colonized countries were not
    treated in ways that reflected the principles of
    liberalism. Differential laws governing ownership
    of property and land, access to education and
    health care, and other aspects of life often
    restricted the pace of development in these
  • Such treatment led to negative sentiments within
    these countries between members of various races
    or ethnic groups.

Illiberalism Terrorism
  • Third, such feelings have also created conditions
    that support violence, illiberalism, and
    terrorism. The unequal treatment of some
    countries and their citizens by liberal
    democracies especially those most closely
    associated with the principles of democracy has
    left a troubling legacy in many former colonies.
  • Liberal democracies have become targets of this
    dissatisfaction. The US, Great Britain, France,
    and even Canada have experienced terrorist
    threats and attacks.

Environmental Change Activism
  • During the latter half of the 20th century,
    scientists, environmental activists, and other
    groups began to place increasing pressure on
    govts around the world to consider the quality
    of the environment and to limit the human impact
    on the environment.
  • Liberal democracies now face a dilemma How can
    they support principles of liberalism such as
    economic and personal freedom while also
    promoting the modern liberal principle of a
    highly quality of life for all members of

Greenhouse Gases
  • There is, according to Greenpeace, approximately
    a 30-year delay in the impact of emissions. In
    other words, we are only now feeling the effects
    of the greenhouse gas emissions of the 1970s.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions are gases, from both
    natural and artificial sources, that are released
    into the earths atmosphere. They change the way
    the earths atmosphere absorbs and emits
    radiation, which affects the temperature of

Kyoto Protocol
  • The Kyoto Protocol an agreement reached at an
    intl convention at which world leaders met to
    discuss climate change and create a plan for
    reducing greenhouse gases is an example of how
    liberal democracies and other countries have
    approached challenges of climate change.
  • The concept of climate change was, up to the
    early 2000s, rejected by neo-conservative govts
    and business leaders. It has recently been almost
    universally supported by scientific studies and
    is now no longer a matter of much debate.

Significance of Kyoto
  • The Kyoto Protocol is the 1st, and to date the
    only, binding intl agreement that includes
    specific goals for individual countries to reduce
    their greenhouse gas emissions.
  • It came into effect on February 16, 2005, but the
    countries ratifying the protocol have undertaken
    their goals with varying approaches and degrees
    of commitment.

Ratifying Kyoto in Canada
  • In 2004, the govt of Canada, led by Liberal PM
    Paul Martin, announced a broad plan for dealing
    with greenhouse gases, one that was based on
    voluntary participation and tax incentives for
    companies that complied.
  • The plan also included mandatory emissions
    reductions for factories and power plants,
    improved fuel efficiency in Canadian vehicles,

Harper Kyoto
  • One of the complicating factors in most liberal
    democracies is that when different political
    parties come to power, changes to intl
    agreements can and do occur.
  • Such a situation occurred in Canada in 2006 when
    the Conservatives became the new govt under
    Stephen Harper. They altered funding to climate
    change programs and instituted a new climate
    change plan focusing on additional consultations
    with industries and businesses.

Missing the Target
  • It is highly unlikely that Canada will meet its
    Kyoto targets. Canadas emissions in 2004 were
    27 above our 1990 level, and our Kyoto target
    for 2008 was 6 below that 1990 level.
  • Since the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol,
    very little progress has been made by either
    political party leading Canada.

  • A pandemic is an outbreak of a disease on a
    global scale.
  • Pandemics are highly potent diseases that create
    borderless paths of infection from which ppl have
    little or no immunity and for which there usually
    is no vaccine.
  • Pandemics usually spread easily from person to
    person, cause serious and sometimes fatal
    illness, and infect a country, continent, or even
    several continents in a relatively short time.

Examples of Pandemics
  • Swine Flu
  • Bird Flu
  • Black Plague
  • SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
  • Outbreak book (its informative!)

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Pandemics Globalization
  • Globalization has been both a positive and a
    negative for pandemics.
  • Positive mass communication has increased our
    awareness of pandemics.
  • Negative the ease of intl travel has also
    precipitated their spread.

Liberal Democracies Pandemics
  • Liberal democracies are faced with a difficult
    situation when attempting to address pandemics.
    On 1 hand, limit travel and restrict visitors,
    tourists, and new immigration to a country can
    provide greater protection against pandemics.
  • On the other hand, such actions will hamper trade
    and development, severely restrict the basic
    freedoms of citizens and potentially create other
    issues related to human rights violations.

Health Organizations
  • Intl health organizations like the World Health
    Organization (WHO) as well as national health
    organizations (Health Canada the Centers for
    Disease Control in the US) monitor established
    protocols and work on distributing up-to-date
    info. regarding pandemics.
  • Distribution of info., tracking of outbreaks, and
    establishment of means of treatment become a
    shared responsibility for all countries under
    this system, regardless of from of govt.

How can liberal democracies and organizations
such as WHO balance ppls freedoms with the need
to curb the spread of disease?
  • Postmodernism is another ideological school of
    thought that challenges liberalism.
  • It is the period that follows modernism in the
    fields of art, literature, and philosophy,
    largely in Western societies. It is also a school
    of thinking that questions and rejects the
    principles of liberalism.

Central Concepts of Modernism
  • Some of the central concepts of modernism, which
    began during the Enlightenment, include
  • Science provides universal and eternal truths
  • Knowledge will lead to progress
  • Freedom consists of obedience to laws that are
    based on reason
  • Reason and rational thinking are the ultimate
    means of establishing what is true

Postmodernism vs. Modern Liberalism
  • Postmodernism calls into question the central
    ideas of modernism. It sees modern liberal
    ideology as dominating many aspects of life to
    the exclusion of other ways of thinking.
  • They believe groups that have traditionally been
    left out of the dominant social structure have
    their own legitimate ways of making sense of the
    world, and these ways of making sense may make
    more sense than those prescribed by liberal

Postmodernism Discovery
  • A postmodernist would be skeptical of the modern
    liberal idea that society can be improved, that
    there is progress in civilization.
  • They would critique the nature of knowledge and
    argue that it is relative to language, social,
    and historical contexts. Examples would be that
    Columbus discovered the New World. Another
    example is that we are often unaware of our own
    prejudices or biases until we step outside of our
    normal lives, like when we travel.

Primary vs. Secondary Sources
  • Primary source an artifact, document,
    recording, or other source of information that
    was created at the time under study. It serves as
    an original source of information.
  • (Ex interview with some about 9/11 who was an
    actual witness and saw the collapse of the World
    Trade Centre in person)
  • Secondary source usually cites, comments on, or
    builds upon primary sources.
  • (Ex a reporter writes a book or article on 9/11,
    but never experienced the actual event

The Call to War
  • In times of conflict, what are the citizens
    rights, roles, and responsibilities? And does
    that change if he or she does not accept the
    govts decision or reasons for going to war?
  • Pacifism, the commitment to peace and opposition
    to war, is practiced in a variety of ways.
  • Pg. 469

Pacifist Groups
  • Pacifists include members of many diverse
    non-religious peace group and of religious groups
    that have traditions of opposing war.
  • Pacifists vary in how they interpret and act on
    their pacifism. Some are pacifist in an absolute
    sense, rejecting violence of all sorts, while
    others are specifically anti-war or against a
    certain war but not all wars.

American Drafting
  • In contrast to its policies during the Vietnam
    War, the US has not drafted young Americans into
    the military to serve in Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • However, in case the American govt decides it
    needs additional citizens for military service,
    it does maintain a registry of young men.
    Pacifists can apply to be classified as
    conscientious objectors.
  • Pg. 471

Conscientious Objection
  • The United Nations supports the right to
    conscientious objection the refusal to perform
    military service on moral or religious grounds.
  • The UN also monitors how conscientious objectors
    are treated. Some countries, such as Finland,
    Germany, and Israel, require military service but
    offer alternative service options.
  • Figure 13-14 pg. 472

The Vietnam War
  • The War against the Vietnam War, pg. 485-490
  • Anti-war movements organized campaigns against
    war. The Vietnam anti-war movement gained public
    support during the late 1960s and contributed to
    the US ending the war.
  • Draft conscription or compulsory military
  • Draft dodger someone who avoids conscription or
    compulsory military service, usually by fleeing
    to another country.

A Just War?
  • Just war the idea that a country is right to go
    to war for certain reasons, including
    self-defense, defense of another country that is
    under attack, protection of innocents, and
    punishment for serious crimes.
  • The anti-war movement had a profound impact on
    foreign policy for the US. President Johnson and,
    later, President Nixon both had to deal with
    widespread public sentiment. Rallies and protest
    marches, which had limited participation early in
    the war, grew to immense proportions.

Canada Afghanistan
  • Pg. 490
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