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British Colonization: Settling the Northern Colonies


British Colonization: Settling the Northern Colonies New England and Middle Colonies – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: British Colonization: Settling the Northern Colonies

British Colonization Settling the Northern
  • New England and Middle Colonies

Founding of Plymouth Bay Early Activities of the
Plymouth Company
  • First company expedition was captured by Spanish
    in the West Indies (1606)
  • Sir Ferdinando Gorges sent George Popham and
    Raleigh Gilbert to explore coast of Maine (1607)
  • Trading and fishing activities sent to Maine
  • John Smith explored New England coast for the
    company (1614) published A Description of New
    England- gave region its name
  • Area rich in cod- revived interests of Plymouth
  • James I (English King) gave charter to New
    England in 1620
  • Council for New England given rights to land
    between 40 and 48 degrees north and from sea to

  • Calvinism
  • Predestination.
  • Good works could not save those predestined for
  • No one could be certain of their spiritual
  • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of
  • Puritans
  • Want to totally reform purify the Church of
  • Grew impatient with the slow process of
    Protestant Reformation back in England.

  • Separatist Beliefs
  • Puritans who believed only visible saints
    those who could demonstrate in front of their
    fellow Puritans their elect status should be
    admitted to church membership.
  • Because the Church of England enrolled all the
    kings subjects, Separatists felt they had to
    share churches with the damned.
  • Therefore, they believed in a total break from
    the Church of England.

Founding of Plymouth Rock
  • James I required all Englishmen to attend
    services of the Anglican Church- no other
    services allowed
  • Some Separatists migrated to Holland- granted
    limited asylum (1607)
  • Some English Separatists feared their kids would
    lose contact w/ English culture as the years went
    by in Holland
  • Negotiated w/ Virginia Co. to emigrate to lands
    in New World
  • Group leaders secured rights to sail w/ Virginia
    Co. (1619) and settle w/in company borders

The Mayflower Voyage 22 July- 9 Nov 1620
  • 1620 a group of 102 people
  • Negotiated with theVirginia Company to settle
    in its jurisdiction.
  • Non-Separatists included Captain Myles
    Standish. (military leader)
  • 30 pilgrims boarded Mayflower w/ adventurers
  • Landed outside of Virginia Co. land
  • Technically, Pilgrims were squatters w/out land
    rights from King

Mayflower Compact 21 Nov. 1620
  • In response to non-Pilgrim assertions that no man
    had rights over others
  • Pilgrim leaders drafted Mayflower Compact, a
    social contract
  • Set up a civil body politic to frame just and
    equal laws
  • Signed by 41 adults- not all Pilgrims
  • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a
    crude govt. and submit to majority rule
  • Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies
    to make laws in town meetings

The Compact
In the name of God, amenWe whose names are
underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread
sovereign lord, King James, by the grace of God,
of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King,
Defender of the Faith, etc, having undertaken,
for the glory of God, and advancement of the
Christian faith, and honor of our King and
country, a voyage to plant the first colony in
the northern parts of Virginia, do by these
presents solemnly and mutually, in the presence
of God and one another, covenant and combine
ourselves together into a civil body politic,
for our better ordering and preservation and
furtherance of the ends aforesaid and by virtue
hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just
and equal laws ordinances, acts, constitutions,
and offices, from time to time, as shall be
thought most meet and convenient for the general
good of the colony, unto which we promise all
due submission and obedience In witness
whererof we have hereunto subscribed our names a
Cape Cod the eleventh of November, in the reign
of our sovereign lord, King James, of England,
France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of
Scotland, the fifty-fourth..AD 1620.
Plymouth Colony
  • Plymouth chosen as site (Dec 25)- Deacon John
    Carver served as first governor
  • Half of Pilgrims died w/in first 4 months
  • Squanto Samoset Indians who taught Pilgrims to
    grow corn
  • Friendship ensued, but Pilgrims dominated (they
    had guns)
  • Roots of Thanksgiving celebration
  • Celebrated after first corn harvest- 3-day event
    w/ 90-some men present
  • Pilgrims militarized colony Miles Standish
    leader after Virginia Massacre (1622)
  • Pilgrims became agriculturally self-sufficient
    still in debt after years of farming and fishing
  • Abandoned communal farming in 1623
  • Settlement finally freed itself from debt grew
    in population

Significance of Pilgrims
  • Helped inspire American vision of sturdy,
    self-reliant, God-fearing folk who govern
    themselves freely
  • They foreshadowed methods later generations would
    use for mastery over Indians (firearms)

Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • 1629non-Separatists got a royal charter to form
    the MA Bay Co.
  • Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the
    Church of England.
  • They didnt want to leave the Church, just its
  • 16301,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked
  • Established a colony with Boston as its hub
  • Great Migration of the 1630s
  • Turmoil in England leading to the English Civil
    War sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.
  • Not all Puritans -20,000 came to MA.

John Winthrop
  • Well-off attorney and manor lord in England.
  • Became 1st governor of Massachusetts.
  • Believed that he had a calling from God to lead
  • Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19

New England
  • good harbors
  • small farms and towns
  • trade centered around harbors
  • hilly, forested and shallow soil
  • cities Boston
  • 15,000 1750
  • fishing, lumber and trapping
  • Family, religion and community
  • Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire,

(No Transcript)
Colonizing New England
Pilgrims merge w/ Puritans to become part of
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Building the Bay Colony
  • Franchise (right to vote) extended to freemen
  • adult Puritan men of Congregational church
    (about 40 of men in the colony- higher
    percentage than in England)
  • In town all property -owning males could vote
  • Town meetings a form of direct democracy
  • Idea of govt to enforce Gods Laws
  • Therefore, religious leaders were influential
    (e.g.-John Cotton)
  • Clergy barred from political positions
    (separation from Church State)

Dissent in Bay Colony
  • Social harmony when only Puritans lived in colony
  • Roger Williams
  • Arrived 1631- pastor of Salem Church
  • Denied govt to regulate religious behavior
  • Argued for a full break from Anglican Church
  • Exiled in 1635

Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island territory w/
    help of Indians founded new colony
  • Started first Baptist Church in colonies
  • Puritans wanted him exiled to England- would not
    have to fear a competitive colony forming
  • Religious political freedoms in Providence, RI
  • Rhode Island more liberal than any other colony
  • Known as Sewer Colony Puritans saw Rhode
    Island as a dumping ground for dissenters,

Anne Hutchinson
  • Intelligent, well-spoken woman
  • Challenged the Patriarchic society
  • Held views of Antinomianism (opponents of rule of
    law)- placed on trial
  • Her Beliefs
  • Believed in John Cottons theology that true
    Saints (born-agains) could only be governed by
    those who had undergone religious experience
  • Hutchinson argued that saints must be free from
    interference by the non-elect (unborn agains)to
    launch into attacks on clergy authority
  • She was dissatisfied w/ her minister, accused him
    of being non-elect in order to dispute his view
  • She held meetings in her home after Church- men
    started to come to these gathering thus a woman
    was teaching a man
  • This was subversive to the religious leaders of
    the colony
  • Hutchinson was viewed as heretical and banished-
    left to Rhode Island

New England Spreads Out
Rhode Island founded by Roger Williams opposed
compulsory church service did not necessarily
believe in tolerance of all religions, but that
the state would eventually corrupt the Church
Hutchison and her family went to Rhode Island
first, and then joined other Boston exiles in
establishing Portsmouth
New England Spreads Out Cont
Fishing trading new communities John
Wheelwright banished from Mass.- establishes town
of Exeter Portsmouth Exeter relinquish
authority to Bay Colony in 1641 Wheelwright
w/drew to Maine
1635 Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English
settlers some Puritans moved westward w/ Rev.
Thomas Hooker
Dominion of New England
  • Goals
  • Bring colonies under Englands direct rule
  • Defend colonies from French Indian
  • Stop colonial smuggling
  • Sir Edmund Andros Kings (James II)
  • Restricted town meetings
  • Restricts on courts, press schools
  • Taxed people w/out consent of elected
  • Collapses after Glorious Revolution

Population of New England Colonies
Population Comparisons New England Chesapeake
Middle Colonies
  • New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey Delaware
  • River systems
  • Valleys fertile soil
  • "bread basket" large farms -surplus food
  • diverse population
  • manufacturing
  • iron mines, glass, shipyards, and paper
  • Cities New York and Philadelphia

Europeanizing America or Americanizing Europe?
New Netherland (New York)
  • 1609 Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India
    Company sails into Hudson river looking for
    passage through continent
  • claims area for Dutch
  • 1623-24 Dutch West India Company establishes New
  • Goal quick-profit fur trade
  • Bought Manhattan from Indians
  • Company town no religious tolerance or free
    speech, harsh governors
  • Colony had aristocratic influence
  • Diverse population 1640s- Missionary observed 18

Dutch Conflicts
  • Dutch cruelties to Indians brought retaliatory
    massacres Dutch built wall (Wall Street)
  • Increased English settlement into Dutch territory
    and growth of Iroquois led to tensions
  • Dutch settlements raided by Indians in 1640s
  • Dutch resettled Long Island but frozen out of
    Connecticut (English settlers unwelcome)
  • Connecticut rejected Dutch settlers

New Netherland to New York
  • English immigration to New Netherland resulted in
    1/2 total population - English regarded Dutch as
  • Charles II brazenly granted area to his brother
    (Duke of York)
  • No authority to do this, really
  • English squadron comes, New Netherland leader,
    Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New York had no
    defense surrendered, renamed New York

New Sweden (New Jersey)
  • Duke of York granted John Lord Berkeley and Sir
    George Carteret land between Hudson and Delaware
  • Both proprietors allowed religious freedom and an
    assembly in addition to giving generous land
    offers to attract settlers
  • Concessions and Agreements granted freedom of
    conscience, generous land concessions and a
    general assembly of deputies elected by

New Netherland New Sweden
William Penn
  • Mid-1600s religious dissenters named Quakers
    arose in England
  • Hated by authorities because they refused to pay
    taxes to Church of England, refused to take
    oaths, refused military service
  • Penns family owed a large debt from the British
    Crown. Given a land grant in 1681. Pennsylvania
  • Penn governs the colony
  • Advertised in Europe, promising land freedoms

Penn Native Americans
Pennsylvania Neighbors
  • Penn bought land from Indians
  • treatment of them fair enough that
    Quakers went to them unarmed and even
    employed Indians as babysitters
  • However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they were
    less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish)
  • Liberal features elected assembly, no
    tax-supported church, freedom of worship, only 2
    capital crimes