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A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe

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Title: A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe


1
A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe
  • Chapter 10
  • Postclassical Europe

2
Postclassical/ Middle Ages
  • Period of great faith-Islam and Christianity
  • Christian missionaries spread message north.
  • Europe grows in participation of trade
  • Europeans learned of technologies and scholarship
    from these contacts (Africans, Asians, Muslims,
    Byzantines

3
Problems
  • Rome was the center of the Church and the Church
    was the most powerful institution in West
  • Poor education due to focus on farming and weak
    regional rulers
  • Frequent invasions created instability

4
Section 1Charlemagne
  • Middle Ages or Medieval period 500-1300 after
    fall of Rome, Europe remained fragmented
  • Disruption in trade, downfall of cities, and
    population shifts
  • Germanic invaders who stormed Rome were not well
    educated and the level of learning sank
  • No written language
  • As Germans began to mix with the Romans language
    changed
  • Dialects popped up and various languages appeared
    like French and Spanish
  • Germanic kingdoms rose in place of the Roman
    Empire

5
Charlemagne
  • Monks gave up all worldly possessions and became
    servants of God
  • He used the Churchs money to raise armies,
    repair roads, and help the poor
  • All western and central Europe fell under the
    Popes control and authority
  • In Gaul the Franks emerged under their leader,
    Clovis
  • Clovis adopted Christianity due to God helping
    him in battle in 496 CE and to gain prestige over
    pagan rivals
  • By 600 the Church and Frankish rulers helped to
    convert many Germanic peoples
  • Church created religious communities,
    monasteries, for rural areas

6
Charlemagne
  • He expanded the empire and defeated the Muslims
    at the Battles of Tours in 732 this kept Europe
    Christian!
  • Muslims had been invaded via Spain
  • Europe fell into small kingdoms after the fall of
    the Roman Empire
  • The strongest was in the area of Gaul under the
    leadership of Clovis (Franks)

7
CHARLES MARTEL
CLOVIS
CHARLEMANGE
8
Charlemagne
  • He limited the authority of the nobles,
    strengthened his powers, and traveled throughout
    his empire
  • He encouraged learning and opened a palace school
    for his many children
  • 814 his son, Louis the Pious became emperor-he
    was an ineffective ruler and concerned more with
    religion
  • Pious 3 sons fought each other for the empire.
    It was split into 3 kingdoms after the civil war
    in the Treaty of Verdun in 843
  • 800 He built an empire greater than anything
    since Rome France, Spain, and Germany
  • Pope Leo III granted Charlemagne the title of
    Roman emperor for fighting off unruly nobles in
    Rome
  • This united Germanic kings and the Church

9
Section 2 Feudalism
  • Vikings(Norsemen) sailed from Scandinavia to
    Europe down waterways to raid villages and towns
  • They carried out these raids with terrifying
    speed and by the time local troop arrived the
    Vikings were long gone
  • Viking warships allowed for these raidscould
    hold as many as 300 warriors
  • They looted villages and monasteries, were
    traders, and explorers
  • The destabilization that the civil war caused
    brought Europe into new political turmoil and led
    to the development of feudalism
  • Feudalism is a political system based on land
    ownership and personal loyalty
  • At this weakened state Europe was then attacked
    by invaders Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims

10
Section 2 Feudalism
  • At the same time Muslims attacked from the south
  • These invasions caused disruption of trade,
    political disorder, and suffering
  • Vikings were also known to go as far as Russia on
    raids
  • They are also credited with reaching the Americas
  • Vikings gradually began to accept Christianity
    and as this happened the raids decreased
  • Climate warming combined with this to allow for
    increased farming in Scandinavia

11
Section 2 Feudalism
  • These attacks led to the development of a new
    political system called feudalism-power was based
    on land ownership and loyalty

King
Church/ clergy
nobles
knights
Lord
Land (fief)
gives
Peasants/ serfs
vassal
Loyalty and military service
12
New economic and urban vigor
  • New agricultural techniques 3 field crop
    rotation, no chock horse collars, and the
    moldboard plow (deeper soil)
  • Elite defined by landownership and military
    powers

13
Feudal Monarchies -expand powers
  • After the breakup of Charlemagne's empire kings
    of France and England sought to increase their
    powers

14
Magna Carta/ Parliament
  • June 15, 1215
  • Nobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal
    rights and limit the kings power. In later years
    the people argued that the Magna Carta covered
    all classes and applied to each citizen
  • Guaranteed that nobles had certain rights, forced
    the monarch to obey the laws, monarchy agreed not
    to raise new taxes without first consulting the
    Great Council, protecting people from arbitrary
    arrest, imprisonment, and other legal actionsled
    to due process of the law, set the basis for
    habeas corpus the principle that no person can be
    held in prison without first being charged for a
    crime Habeas Corpus later clarified and defined
    in the Petition of Right in 1628 and the Habeas
    Corpus Act of 1679
  • included no taxation without representation, a
    jury trial, and the protection of the law.

15
100 Years War1337-1453
  • English kings status as vassal of the French
    king for his territories in Gascony
  • English support for urban rebellions in Flanders
    against the king of France
  • English kings claim to the throne of France
    after the end of the Capetian dynasty in 1314
    (death of Charles IV)
  • 1328 Charles IV of France died childless
  • Charles had a sister Queen Isabella of England
  • Struggle over French dynastic succession
  • Causes of the war

16
Black Death
  • The disease was carried by fleas on infected
    rats, who would bite humans. Once bitten the
    person would develop a high fever, begin
    coughing, and develop painful swelling in lymph
    nodes of the groin or armpits. Final stage was
    vomiting blood
  • Spread bubonic and pneumonic (person to person)
  • Death took 3-5 days to kill most. Although,
    airborne virus could only take hours to kill
  • killed ½ to 1/3 of Europes population
  • caused major economic depression (increased
    taxation, revolts, loss of financial backing in
    some cities, and increased gap between the rich
    and poor

Charles IV
17
(No Transcript)
18
Rural Life/ Trade
  • Peasant lives had improved during this time
    period. Still manorialism existed some peasants
    were almost free farmers while others were
    constrained.
  • Urban growth led to more specialized
    manufacturing and commercial activities. Banking
    grew as long distance trade grew. Italy, Germany,
    Low countries, France, and Britain key area.
    (Greed not a Christian idea). Use of money
    spread.
  • Trade within Europe and the greater world
  • Spices from Asia
  • Timber and grain from the north for cloth and
    metal products from Italy and Low Countries
  • England-wool industry
  • Hanseatic League-cites in n. Germany and
    Scandinavia grouped together to encourage trade
  • Supported new business ventures at great risk
    (pirates, lost a sea) with fortune to be gained
    or lost
  • Formation of Joint stock companies where
    merchants came together to invest in an activity

19
Decline of Medieval Synthesis
  • Hundred Years War war between France and England
    over control of lands. France won, but no one
    really one. Exhausted both countries and
    accidentally helped France b/c the state took
    over lands without heirs (they died in the war).
    In England it led to a civil war. War of the
    Roses!

20
Strain
  • Agricultural problemslimited lands and methods
    that led to famine.
  • Plagues-black plague
  • Social conflict between nobles and peasants
  • Church weakened by Babylonian captivity and the
    great schism. People began preaching against the
    Church structure and some women claimed a direct
    emotional relationship with God. (heretics!)
  • Some intellectual and artistic were declared
    heretical by the Church

21
serfs
22
Section 3 Chivalry
  • During Middle Ages, nobles fought one another,
    keeping Europe fragmented for centuries
  • Through warfare feudal lords defended their
    estates, seized new territories, and increased
    their wealth
  • Role of the warrior was very prized in this
    society
  • Knights had a code of chivalry a complex set of
    ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in
    defense of three masters feudal lord, the Lord,
    and his chosen lady
  • Knights fought bravely in tournaments to show
    their training and hopefully pick up lands

23
Section 4 The Church
  • Amid weak governments and feudal states stood the
    Church-the most powerful institution
  • During this time the powers of the Church were
    growing
  • Accordingly the emperor or kings should submit to
    the powers of the pope/ Church
  • Many clashes over powers between the state and
    Church emerged
  • Structure of the Church similar to that of
    society during this time

Pope
Bishops
priests
24
Section 4 The Church
  • During the state of constant warfare the Church
    provided stability and leadership for medieval
    society
  • Religious officials provided the sacraments or
    important religious ceremonies that paved the way
    for salvation
  • Religion became the social center
  • The Church also had laws-canon law-in areas such
    as marriage and religion
  • Popes got people, including kings, to obey them
    by the use of excommunication!
  • Following the death of Charlemagne the Holy Roman
    Empire (Germany) emerged as the kingdom strongest
    from his line
  • The H.R.E. and the pope developed a special
    relationship-Otto I and People Leo III

25
Section 4
  • Resulted was the Concordat of Worms in 1122 the
    Church alone could choose a bishop yet the
    emperor had the veto power to prevent the
    appointment of a bishop
  • 1152 German princes elected Frederick I
    Barbarossa emperor
  • He launched attacks on rich lands-resources
  • Angered Italian merchants. Formed an alliance
    against Frederick I (Lombard League)
  • 1176 meet at the Battle of Legnano-lost to
    Lombard League and forces of the Pope (Alexander
    III)
  • Result-weakened German state due to picking
    emperors and continued clashes with the Church
  • Church became fearful of kings powers over lay
    investiture -a ceremony in which kings and nobles
    appointed (invested) church officials-they
    yielded real power over the Church
  • 1073 Pope Gregory VII made reforms-limited
    secular influences lay investiture, no marriage
    for priests, banned simony
  • Gregory vs. Henry IV of H.R.E.- Pope
    excommunicated Henry IV and headed north to crown
    a new emperor so Henry asked for forgiveness

26
Pope Gregory VII
27
The Roman Catholic Church
  • There was only one church in the Middle Ages in
    Western Europe (Roman Catholic), which held power
    both over kings and countries. In the late
    Middle Ages the church began to lose its powers
  • Babylonian Captivity (Jewish) and Great Schism
    (1054) are also earlier events
  • Babylonian Captivity 1304-1374 popes lived in
    Avignon in southeastern France (away from Rome).
    French kings influenced the pope and the church.
    Ended with the death of pope Gregory XI in 1377
  • Great Schism various popes at same time
    1377-1415 succession crisis! Ended with the
    election of pope Martin V
  • Conciliar Movement reform the church by
    assemblies (constitutional)
  • John Wycliffe precursor of the Reformation-scriptu
    res alone should be the standard for Christian
    belief

28
  • Jan Hus-rejected much of what Wycliffe thought,
    but did agree that indulgences were not good. He
    called for Church reform of liturgy and morals.
    Both pope XXIII and Bohemian king Wenceslas IV
    were outraged! Hus was excommunicated and found
    guilty of heresy. He was burned at the stake! His
    followers were called Hussites
  • Wycliffe attacked the doctrinal and political
    bases of the Church. He was against the selling
    of indulgences, stated the sacraments were only
    as good as the priest, Eucharist was spiritually,
    and salvation depended on predestination. He
    attacked the Churchs right to wealth and luxury
    which made the English monarchy happy and thus he
    was protected. His followers were called
    Lollards.
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