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The Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber


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Title: The Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber

Chapter 4
  • The Carbohydrates Sugar, Starch, and Fiber

Ask Yourself
  • True or False?
  • Fruit sugar (fructose) is less fattening than
    table sugar (sucrose).
  • Foods high in complex carbohydrate (starch and
    fiber) are good choices when you are trying to
    lose weight.
  • People with diabetes should never eat sugar.
  • The primary role of dietary fiber is to provide
  • The brain demands the sugar glucose to fuel its

Ask Yourself
  • 6. Honey and refined sugar are the same as far
    as the body is concerned.
  • 7. Of all the components of foods that increase
    ones risk of diseases, sugars are probably the
    biggest troublemakers.
  • 8. Breads that are brown in color have more
    fiber than white bread.
  • Some foods labeled sugar-free actually contain
    calorie-bearing sugars.
  • Artificial sweeteners are safe to use in

The Bodys Need for Carbohydrates
  • The primary role of carbohydrates is to provide
    the body with energy (calories).
  • Carbohydrates are the preferred fuel for the
    brain and nervous system.
  • Carbohydrates are the ideal fuel compared to
    other alternatives
  • Less expensive than protein.
  • High-fat diets are associated with chronic

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Carbohydrate Basics
  • Carbohydrates
  • Compounds made of single sugars or multiples
    of them and composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
    oxygen atoms.
  • carbo carbon (C)
  • hydrate water (H2O)
  • Complex carbohydrates
  • Long chains of sugars (glucose) arranged as
    starch or fiber. Also called polysaccharides.
  • poly many
  • saccharides sugar unit
  • Simple carbohydrates (sugars)
  • Single sugars (monosaccharides) and the pairs of
    sugars (disaccharides) linked together.

Carbohydrate Basics
  • Carbohydrate-rich foods are obtained almost
    exclusively from plants.
  • Milk is the only animal-derived food that
    contains significant carbohydrate.
  • All carbohydrates are composed of single sugars,
    alone or in various combinations.

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Simple Carbohydrates
  • Glucose is made of water and carbon dioxide.
  • Plants use energy from the sun to synthesize it.
  • The atoms in a glucose molecule can be rearranged
    by plants to form fructose, too.

Simple Carbohydrates
  • Single Sugars - Monosaccharides
  • Glucose
  • The building block of carbohydrate a single
    sugar used in both plant and animal tissues as
    quick energy. A single sugar is known as a
  • mono one
  • Fructose
  • Fruit sugarthe sweetest of the single sugars.
  • Galactose
  • Another single sugar that occurs bonded to
    glucose in the sugar of milk.

Simple Carbohydrates
  • Double Sugars - Disaccharides
  • Sucrose
  • A double sugar composed of glucose and
    fructose. A double sugar is known as a
  • di two
  • Maltose
  • A double sugar composed of two glucose units.
  • Lactose
  • A double sugar composed of glucose and
    galactose commonly known as milk sugar.

Simple Carbohydrates
  • Added Sugars
  • Sugar cane and sugar beets are purified to make
  • Food examples include white (table) sugar, brown
    sugar, powdered sugar.
  • Sucrose is common in sweets.

A sampling of foods providing added sugars to the
Simple Carbohydrates
  • Enzymes
  • Protein catalysts. A catalyst facilitates a
    chemical reaction without itself being altered in
    the process.
  • Utilized in the brewing process to break down
    starch in barley and wheat into maltose
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Inability to digest lactose as a result of a
    lack of the necessary enzyme lactase.
  • Symptoms include nausea, abdominal pain,
    diarrhea, or excessive gas that occurs anywhere
    from 15 minutes to a couple of hours after
    consuming milk or milk products.

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Complex Carbohydrates Starch
  • Complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber.
    All starchy foods are plant foods.
  • Starch
  • A plant polysaccharide composed of hundreds
  • of glucose molecules, digestible by human
  • beings.
  • Polysaccharide
  • A long chain of 10 or more glucose molecules
  • linked together in straight or branched chains
  • another term for complex carbohydrates.

Complex Carbohydrates Starch
  • Sources of starch include
  • Seeds such as grains, peas and beans.
  • Legumes including dried beans, lentils and
  • Root vegetables (yams) and tubers (potatoes).

Complex Carbohydrates Starch
  • Most societies have a staple grain that provides
    most of the peoples food energy.
  • Staple grain
  • A grain used frequently or daily in the diet.
    Examples include
  • Corn in Mexico
  • Rice in Asia
  • Wheat in Canada, Europe and USA
  • Millet, rye, barley, and oats

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Complex Carbohydrates Starch
  • Refined
  • Refers to the process by which the coarse
    parts of food products are removed.
  • Enriched
  • Refers to a process by which the B vitamins
    thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and the
    mineral iron are added to refined grains and
    grain products at levels specified by law.
  • Fortified foods
  • Foods to which nutrients have been added.
    Typically, commonly eaten foods are chosen for
    fortification with added nutrients to help
    prevent a deficiency of a nutrient (iodized salt,
    milk with vitamin D) or to reduce the risk of
    chronic disease (juices with added calcium).

Complex Carbohydrate Starch
  • A Whole Grain
  • Germ
  • The nutrient-rich and fat-dense inner part of
    a whole grain.
  • Endosperm
  • Provides energy contains starch grains
    embedded in a protein matrix.
  • Bran
  • Fibrous protective covering of a whole grain
    source of fiber, B vitamins, and trace minerals.
  • Husk (Chaff)
  • The outer, inedible covering of a grain.

Complex Carbohydrates Starch
  • Whole grain
  • Refers to a grain that is milled in its
    entirety (all but the husk), not refined.
  • Whole grains include wheat, corn, rice, rye,
    oats, barley, amaranth, buckwheat, sorghum, and
    millet two othersbulgur and couscousare
    processed from wheat grains.

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Complex Carbohydrates Fiber
  • Fiber
  • The indigestible residues of food, composed
    mostly of polysaccharides. The best known fibers
    are cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and gums.
  • Comes from the supporting structures of plants
    leaves, stems and seeds.
  • Cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes
    although some may be broken down by bacteria
    residing in the digestive tract.
  • Fiber has few if any calories because it is not

Complex Carbohydrates Fiber
  • Insoluble fiber
  • Includes the fiber types called cellulose,
    hemicellulose, and lignin.
  • Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water.
  • Soluble fiber
  • Includes the fiber types called pectin, gums,
    mucilages, some hemicelluloses, and algal
    substances (for example, carageenan).
  • Soluble fibers either dissolve or swell when
    placed in water.

Foods rich in insoluble fiber
Foods rich in soluble fiber
Bran Brown rice Green beans Green peas Many
veggies Nuts
Rice Seeds Skins/peels Wheat bran Whole-grain
Barley Broccoli Carrots Corn Fruits
Legumes Oat bran Oats Potatoes Rye
  • Insoluble fiber
  • Holds water in the colon and increases bulk to
    the stool.
  • Stimulates muscles and helps maintain health and
  • Soluble fiber
  • Binds cholesterol compounds and may lower blood
  • Improves bodys handling of glucose.

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We are advised to increase our intakes of
complex carbohydrates. Choose plenty of whole
foods like this
and fewer foods like thesefoods that no longer
resemble their original farm-grown products.
Choosing Carbohydrates
  • Whole food
  • A food that is altered as little as possible
    from the plant or animal tissue from which it was
    takensuch as milk, oats, potatoes, or apples.
  • The more a food resembles the original,
    farm-grown product, the more nutritious it is
    likely to be.

Choosing Carbohydrates
Fiber in the Diet
  • Diets high in fruits, vegetables and legumes will
    provide high fiber
  • Too much fiber can cause dehydration, intestinal
    discomfort and limit absorption of iron and other

Choosing Carbohydrates
  • Added Sugars Use Discretion
  • Reduce the intake of calories from added sugars.
    (Dietary Guidelines).
  • Added Sugar
  • Sugars and other caloric sweeteners that are
    added to foods during processing or preparation.
    Added sugars do not include naturally occurring
    sugars that are found in milk and fruit.

Choosing Carbohydrates
  • Choose most often the naturally occurring sugars
  • For those who meet their nutrient needs, maintain
    a healthy body weight and still need additional
    calories--maximum intake 25 or less for added
    sugars (DRI).

Choosing Carbohydrates
  • Small amounts of added sugars allowed within
    MyPlate calorie allowance
  • 3 tsp. for 1,600 calories
  • 5 tsp. for 1,800 calories
  • 8 tsp. for 2,000 calories
  • 9 tsp. for 2,200 calories
  • 12 tsp. for 2,400 calories

Consistently build your diet using nutrient-dense
foods, low in added sugars.
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Whole Grains for Health
  • Incorporate whole grains into your diet.
  • Count to 3
  • Keep it varied
  • Check the label

Make Half Your Grains Whole
  • Breakfast Try a higher-fiber grain oatmeal,
    whole-grain muffin, or whole-grain cereal
  • Whole grains are low in fat and added sugars
  • Baking recipes Substitute whole-grain flour for
    1/4 of all-purpose flour
  • Make a fiber-rich snack mix from whole grain
    cereals, popcorn, and nuts
  • Try whole-wheat pasta, rice, and breads
  • Combine whole grains in mixed dishes

How the Body Handles Carbohydrates
  • Glucose is the basic carbohydrate unit that each
    cell uses for energy.
  • The task of the digestive system is to
    disassemble lactose, sucrose and starch into
    single sugars so they can be absorbed into the

How the Body Handles Carbohydrates
  • Digestive system
  • The body system composed of organs and glands
    associated with the ingestion and processing of
    food for absorption of nutrients into the body.
  • Digestion
  • The process by which foods are broken down
    into smaller absorbable products.
  • Absorption
  • The passage of nutrients or substances into
    cells or tissues nutrients pass into intestinal
    cells after digestion and then into the
    circulatory system (for example, into the

How the Body Handles Carbohydrates
  • If the blood delivers more glucose than the cells
    need, glycogen will be built.
  • Glycogen
  • A polysaccharide composed of chains of
    glucose, manufactured in the body and stored in
    liver and muscle.
  • As a storage form of glucose, liver glycogen can
    be broken down by the liver to maintain a
    constant blood glucose level when carbohydrate
    intake is inadequate.

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Salivary glands
1. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth.
The salivary glands secrete a watery fluid into
the mouth to moisten the food. An enzyme begins
digestion by splitting starch into smaller
polysaccharides and maltose. This digestion
continues after the food is swallowed until
stomach acid and enzymes start to digest the
salivary enzymes.
3. These simple sugars are then absorbed into the
blood and travel to the liver the liver
regulates the amount of glucose circulating
in the blood in response to the hormones insulin
and glucagon.
2. The pancreas produces carbohydrate
digesting enzymes and releases them through the
common bile duct into the small intestine. These
enzymes split polysaccharides into disaccharides.
Then enzymes on the surface of the cells of the
small intestine break these into simple sugars
(monosaccharides). Absorption of the
monosaccharides takes place in the small
Small intestine
Large intestine
4. Most fiber passes intact through the digestive
tract through the large intestine, and is
eventually excreted with the feces. Some fiber is
digested by bacteria in the large intestine.
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When a person eats, blood glucose rises. High
blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release
insulin. Insulin serves as a key for entrance of
blood glucose into cells. Liver and muscle cells
store the glucose as glycogen. Excess glucose can
also be stored as fat.
Later, when blood glucose is low, the pancreas
releases glucagon, which serves as the key for
the liver to break down stored glycogen into
glucose and release it into the blood to raise
blood glucose levels.
Body cells
Elevated blood glucose
Digestive tract
110 mg/dL
Normal blood glucose range
70 mg/dL
Low blood glucose
Body cells
How the Body Handles Carbohydrates
  • Insulin
  • A hormone secreted by the pancreas in response
    to high blood glucose levels it assists cells in
    drawing glucose from the blood.
  • Glucagon
  • A hormone released by the pancreas that
    signals the liver to release glucose into the

Carbohydrates--Friend or Foe?
  • Glycemic index (GI)
  • A scale that ranks carbohydrate-containing
    foods by how much they raise blood glucose levels
    compared to a standard food such as glucose or
    white bread. The glycemic load (GL) is a measure
    of the extent to which blood glucose is raised by
    a given amount of carbohydrate-containing food.
  • Glycemic effect
  • The effect of food on a persons blood glucose
    and insulin response how fast and high the
    blood glucose rises and how quickly the body
    responds by normalizing.

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High glycemic index foods French, white, other
soft breads/bagels Rice (medium-grain) Certain
cereals (Cheerios, Corn Flakes, Rice
Krispies) Waffles Mashed potatoes Honey, regular
soft drinks, jelly beans Pretzels
Intermediate glycemic index foods Watermelon Crea
m of Wheat, instant oatmeal, Shredded
Wheat Sourdough rye breads Banana, pineapple,
orange juice Ice cream Popcorn Raisins
Low glycemic index foods Whole-grain, heavy
breads Rice (long-grain) Bran cereals, toasted
Muesli cereal, whole oats Apples, oranges,
peaches Baked beans, lentils, other
legumes Carrots Milk, yogurt Sweet
potatoes Tomato soup
Hypoglycemia Diabetes
  • Hypoglycemia
  • An abnormally low blood glucose
    concentrationbelow 60 to 70 mg/100 mL.
  • Ketosis
  • Abnormal amounts of ketone bodies in the blood
    and urine ketone bodies are produced from the
    incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is
    unavailable for the brain and nerve cells.
  • Hyperglycemia
  • An abnormally high blood glucose
    concentration, often a symptom of diabetes.

  • Diabetes
  • A disorder (technically termed diabetes
    mellitus) characterized by insufficiency or
    relative ineffectiveness of insulin, which
    renders a person unable to regulate the blood
    glucose level normally.
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes

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Prevalence of Diagnosed Diabetes by State
Sugar and Health
  • Research studies have not shown a direct link
    between sugar and obesity, diabetes, heart
    disease, hyperactivity in children or criminal
  • Does show a link with tooth decay
  • Diluted naturally occurring sugars found in milk
    and fruits should not be confused with
    concentrated, refined sugar foods, such as table
    sugar, honey, and corn syrup. These concentrated
    sweets should be used in moderation, so as not to
    displace needed nutrients.
  • Empty-calorie foods
  • A phrase used to indicate that a food
    supplies calories but negligible nutrients.

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Keeping a Healthy Smile
  • Dental caries
  • Decay of the teeth, or cavities.
  • Dental plaque
  • A colorless film, consisting of bacteria and
    their by-products, that is constantly forming on
    the teeth.
  • Periodontal disease
  • Inflammation or degeneration of the tissues
    that surround and support the teeth.
  • Nursing bottle syndrome
  • Decay of all the upper and sometimes the back
    lower teeth that occurs in infants given
    carbohydrate-containing fluids when they sleep,
    or to carry around and sip all day.

Choosing Carbohydrates
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend
    that you
  • reduce the intake of calories from added

Bacteria living in the mouth feed on sugar found
in foods release an acid that can eat away at
tooth enamel result in a cavity.
Dental caries decay of the teeth, or cavities.
Carbohydrate Consumption
  • The more often you choose the items listed above,
    the higher your diet is likely to be in sugars.
    You may need to cut back on sugar-containing
    foods, especially those you checked as 3 to 5
    times a week or more. This does not mean totally
    eliminating these foods from your diet.

Check Your Diet for Fiber
Sweet Talk--Alternatives to Sugar
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