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Polymer Synthesis

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Polymer Synthesis (Step Polymerization) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Polymer Synthesis


1
Polymer Synthesis
2
??????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????????
  • ???????????????? (Step Polymerization)
    ??????????? ??? ??????????????????? (Condensation
    Polymerization)
  • ?????????????????? (Chain Polymerization)
    ?????????????? ???????????????? (Addition
    Polymerization)

3
???????????????? (Step Polymerization)
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????? ????
    OH ??? -COOH
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? ?
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????? ??????????????
    ???????????????????????? ???? ??? HCl
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????

4
?????????????????? (Chain Polymerization)
  • ?????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    (Initiator) ????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????

5
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????

Chain Polymerization
Step Polymerization
6
?????????????????????????????????????? (Step
Polymerization)
7
?????????????????????????????????
O

R
-OH
R
-C-Cl
  • Alcohol
  • Acid chloride

R
-NCO
R
-NH2
  • Isocyanate
  • Amine

OH
O
R
-C-OH
- Phenol
  • Carboxylic acid

8
?????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????? ????????????????????????
???????????????????????
?????????????????????
????????????????????????????
- ???????????????????????????????????
- ??????????????????????????????
9
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????
  • ???? CH3OH HOOC(CH2)4 CH3
  • CH3OC(CH2)4CH3 HOH

10
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
(???)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????
  • 1) ????????????????????
  • ???? HO(CH2)4COOH ?????????????? A ???
    OH
  • ???????????????B ??? COOH
  • 2) ??????????????????
  • ???? HO(CH2)3OH ?????????????? A ??? -OH
    ??????????????
  • HOOC(CH2)4COOH ????????????B ??? -COOH

11
????????????????????????????????????????????
  • monomer monomer dimer
  • dimer monomer trimer
  • dimer dimer
    tetramer

  • POLYMER
  • ??????????????????????????? ?????????
    ????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????

12
??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????????? (ester linkage)

13
??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????????

14
????????????????????????????
15
??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????? (amide linkage)

16
??????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????

17
??????????????????????????
  • Polyhexamethyleneadipamide ????????????????? ???
    nylon 6,6 ?? R1 - (CH2)6- ??? R2 - (CH2)4-

18
??????????????????????????
  • Aramids ???? aromatic polyamide ?? R1 ??? R2
    ??????????????
  • Aramids ???????? ??????????????? ??? Kevlar ???
    Nomex1

Kevlar ????????????????????????????????????????
1 ??? 4 ( para-linkage)
19
??????????????????????????
Nomex ???????????????????????????????????????? 1
??? 3 ( meta-linkage)
Kevlar ??? Nomex-?????????????????????????????????
????
20
  • ???????????????????????????????????????? (Chain
    Polymerization)

21
???????????????????????
??????????????????????? (chain polymerization)
????????????????????????????????? (Addition
polymerization)
??????? ? ????????????????????????????????????????
?????? ?????? ?????????????? (vinyl monomers)
22
????????????????????????????????
23
????????????????????
?????????????????????? (initiator)
??????????????????????????
???????????????????? 3 ??????? 1.
???????????????????? (Initiation) 2.
????????????????? (Propagation) 3.
???????????????????? (Termination)
24
????????????????????
1. ???????????????????????????????????????????????
???
2. ???????????????????????????????????????????????
??
25
?????????????????
26
????????????????????
?????????????????????????????? 1.
?????????????????????? (combination reaction)
27
???????????????????? (???)
2. ?????????????????????????????? (disproportionat
ion reaction)
28
Step Polyn vs. Chain Polyn
1. ????????? Step polyn ????????????????????????
???????????????????? ???? OH ???
-COOH Chain polyn ??????????????????????????????
??? 2.????????????????????????? Step polyn
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????? Cha
in polyn ????????????????????????????????????????
????????? ??????????????????????????
?????
29
Step Polyn vs. Chain Polyn
3. ???????????????????? Step polyn
?????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????? Chain polyn
?????????????????????????????????????????????
(Initiator) ???????????????????????
??????????
30
Step Polyn vs. Chain Polyn
4. ????????????????????????????? Step polyn
??????????????????????? ??????????????????????????
?????????? ??????????
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