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Policy Making

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Policy Making Who is involved in Policy making? Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch Bureaucracy Special interest groups Research groups Corporations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Policy Making


1
Policy Making
2
Who is involved in Policy making?
  • Legislative Branch
  • Executive Branch
  • Judicial Branch
  • Bureaucracy
  • Special interest groups
  • Research groups
  • Corporations
  • State and local governments
  • Citizens

3
Policy Making Process
  • Recognizing the problem/agenda setting
  • Where is the need?
  • Formulating the policy
  • Plan of action from various groups
  • Adopting the policy
  • Official action taken legislation, executive
    order, court decision

4
Process cont
  • Implementing the policy
  • Apply it to real situations, enforce, punishments
  • Evaluating the Policy
  • Good and bad
  • Changes
  • Begin process all over again

5
Types of Policies
  • Economic
  • Fiscal
  • Monetary
  • Foreign
  • Military
  • Social
  • Regulatory

6
Economic Policy
  • Laissez-Faire
  • To leave alone
  • Free market
  • NO GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT
  • Keynesian Economics (FDR)
  • Government manages economy
  • Today
  • Mix of both

7
Fiscal Policy
  • How does the government raise and spend money?
  • Income taxes (45)
  • Progressive tax
  • Social Insurance Tax (1/3 of revenues collected)
  • Social Security and Medicare
  • Borrowing
  • Deficit Spending
  • Other taxes
  • Excise (Regressive), Estate, Customs, duties,
    tariffs

8
Where does money go?
  • 2.7 trillion federal budget
  • Entitlement Programs
  • Required by law Social Security, Medicare,
    unemployment insurance, retirement pensions
  • National Defense
  • National debt
  • Interest on debt

9
Monetary Policy
  • The government controlling money
  • Inflation too much in circulation, dollar
    value goes down
  • Deflation too little in circulation
  • Federal Reserve independent from government
    control, regulate in circulation, adjusts
    interest rates

10
Foreign Policy
  • Prior 20th century Isolationist
  • WWI WWII - Involvement
  • Post WWII Containment Cold War
  • United Nations

11
Foreign Policy Goals
  • Protect national Security
  • International leadership world peace
  • Maintain balance of Power
  • Cooperating to solve international problems
  • Promote human rights/democratic values
  • Cooperative foreign trade and globalization of
    trade in international organizations

12
Who makes foreign policy?
  • The President
  • Treaties with consent of Senate
  • Executive Agreements no approval of Senate
  • The Secretary of State
  • Chief coordinator of all governmental actions
    with other countries
  • National Security council
  • Foreign/Military/economic policies that affect
    national security
  • CIA
  • Gather analyze and transmits information

13
Military Policy
  • Secretary of defense oversees Army, Navy, Air
    Force
  • President as Commander in Chief
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff military advisory board
    5 members from all branches of military service

14
Social policy
  • promote the general welfare
  • Health Care
  • Do we have a national health care system? No
    system but ok for research and regulation!
  • The Public Health Service research and gather
    info
  • FDA regulate labeling and processing of food
    drugs
  • Center for Disease control reports on diseases
    in North America

15
Social Policy cont
  • Welfare
  • Social Security for elderly, poor, disabled
  • Medicare
  • Medicaid
  • Aid to Families with Dependent Children
  • Food Stamps

16
Social Welfare cont
  • Education
  • Usually a state and local community issue
  • Federal government intervenes
  • Higher education
  • Project Head Start
  • No Child Left Behind
  • Schedules, standards, testing, curriculum,
    teacher qualifications

17
Regulatory policy
  • Regulating business
  • Monopolies and fraud
  • Regulating Labor
  • Worker safety, bargaining, equal employment
    opportunities
  • Regulating Energy and environment
  • Department of energy
  • EPA clean water, air, and waste disposal,
    pesticides, radiation

18
  • Review questions for unit 5!
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