Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 76dc0d-NjllY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever

Description:

Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever Once the most numerous bird on earth. In 1858, Passenger Pigeon hunting became a big business. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:141
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 45
Provided by: you79
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Core Case Study: The Passenger Pigeon: Gone Forever


1
Core Case Study The Passenger Pigeon Gone
Forever
  • Once the most numerous bird on earth.
  • In 1858, Passenger Pigeon hunting became a big
    business.
  • By 1900 they became extinct from over-harvest and
    habitat loss.

2
What Role Do Humans Play in the Premature
Extinction of Species?
  • We are degrading and destroying biodiversity in
    many parts of the world, and these threats are
    increasing.
  • Species are becoming extinct 100 to 1,000 times
    faster than they were before modern humans
    arrived on the earth (the background rate), and
    by the end of this century, the extinction rate
    is expected to be 10,000 times the background
    rate.

3
Extinctions Are Natural But Sometimes They
Increase Sharply
  • Local Extinction (Extirpation)
  • A species is no longer found in an area it once
    inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the
    world.
  • Typically the result of habitat destruction or
    overhunting and affects more than one species.
  • Examples wolf and mountain lion in Maine
  • Extinction (Global extinction) is Forever.

4
Some Human Activities Cause Premature
Extinctions the Pace Is Speeding Up
  • Estimates of current annual extinction rate
  • 0.01-1.0
  • 100 to 1,000 times greater than the background
    extinction rate of 0.0001
  • Experts predict extinction rates will increase
    over the next 50-100 years.

5
Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due to Human
Activities
  • Many animals have become prematurely extinct
    because of human activities.
  • Development, habitat destructions, hunting, etc.

6
Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due to Human
Activities
The first animal species to go are the big, the
slow, the tasty, and those with valuable
parts Edward O. Wilson
(biodiversity expert)
7
Endangered Natural Capital Species Threatened
with Premature Extinction
  • Threatened (vulnerable) species
  • Still abundant in its natural range but is likely
    to become endangered in the near future.
  • Endangered species
  • So few individual survivors that it could soon
    become extinct.

8
Endangered Natural Capital Species Threatened
with Premature Extinction
  • Extinct Ex. Dodo, Passenger Pigeon
  • Extinct in the wild Ex. Alagoas Curassow
  • Captive individuals survive, but there is no
    free-living, natural population
  • Critically endangered Ex. Ivory-billed
    Woodpecker, Javan Rhino
  • Faces an extremely high risk of extinction in
    the immediate future
  • Endangered Ex. Cheetah, Blue Whale, Snow
    Leopard
  • Vulnerable Ex. Lion, Wolverine
  • Conservation Dependent Ex. Leopard Shark,
    Bristlecone Fir
  • Would be threatened without active conservation
    programs.
  • Near Threatened Ex. California Red-legged
    Frog, Silvery Woolly Monkey
  • Likely to qualify as threatened soon.
  • Least Concern Ex.Brown Rat, Rock Pigeon,
    Common Juniper

9
Endangered Natural Capital Species Threatened
with Premature Extinction
10
Endangered Natural Capital Species Threatened
with Premature Extinction
11
Characteristics of Species That Are Prone to
Ecological and Biological Extinction
  • Some species have characteristics that make them
    more vulnerable to ecological and biological
    extinction.
  • These characteristics make survival harder when
    environmental conditions change or when humans
    interfere.

12
Passenger Pigeon Hunted to extinction
  • Former population about 6 billion animals

13
Carolina Parakeet extinct
  • Habitat loss (forest clearing), over hunted (for
    feathers and by farmers who considered them a
    pest)

14
Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Critically endangered,
possibly extinct
  • Once found in southern hardwood swamps and pine
    forests
  • Comparison of ivory-billed (top) and pileated
    woodpecker below)

15
Percentage of Various Species Threatened with
Premature Extinction
16
Science Focus Estimating Extinction Rates Is
Not Easy
  • Three problems with estimating extinction rate
  • Hard to document due to length of time
  • Only 1.8 million species identified
  • Little known about nature and ecological roles of
    species identified

17
Why Should We Care about Preventing Premature
Species Extinction?
  • We should prevent the premature extinction of
    wild species because of the economic and
    ecological services they provide and because they
    have a right to exist regardless of their
    usefulness to us.

18
Species Are a Vital Part of the Earths Natural
Capital
  • Instrumental value Usefulness in terms of
    economic and ecological services
  • Use value economic goods or services
  • Ecotourism wildlife tourism
  • Genetic information
  • Potential value for medicines, foods
  • and other products
  • Nonuse value
  • Existence value happy knowing they are around
  • Aesthetic value pleasing to the eye
  • Bequest value available for future generations
  • Ecological value vital component of the
    ecosystem

19
How do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction?
  • The greatest threats to any species are
  • - loss or degradation of its habitat
  • - invasive species
  • -human population growth
  • - pollution
  • - climate change
  • -overexploitation.

20
Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to
Species Remember H.I.P.P.C.O.
  • H.I.P.P.C.O. the most important causes of
    premature extinction
  • Habitat destruction, degradation, and
    fragmentation
  • Invasive (nonnative) species
  • Population and resource use growth
  • Pollution
  • Climate change
  • Overexploitation

21
Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of
World Species
22
H.I.P.P.C.O. HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND
FRAGMENTATION
  • Habitat loss is the GREATEST threat to
    biodiversity on this planet.
  • Deforestation
  • Degradation of coral reefs
  • Draining wetlands
  • Plowing grasslands
  • Habitat fragmentation when a large continuous
    habitat is divided into smaller, scattered
    patches.
  • By roads, agriculture, urban developed, etc.

23
H.I.P.P.C.O. HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND
FRAGMENTATION
  • Reduction in ranges of four wildlife species,
    mostly due to habitat loss and overharvest.

24
H.I.P.P.C.O. HABITAT LOSS, DEGRADATION, AND
FRAGMENTATION
  • Endemic Species
  • Only live in one specific place (geographic
    location or habitat type usually islands)
  • Very vulnerable to extinction as a result of
    habitat loss or degradation.

25
  • The dusky seaside sparrow is extinct. The last of
    these birds died in 1987. These sparrows lost
    their homes as marshes were destroyed.
  • Since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in
    1620, more than 500 species have become extinct
    in the U.S. alone.

26
H.I.P.P.C.O. INVASIVE SPECIES
  • Many nonnative species are beneficial
  • Food, Medicine, Aesthetic enjoyment
  • However, a few can wipe out native species,
    disrupt ecosystems, and cause large economic
    losses.
  • Nonnative species can become a problem since they
    may have no natural
  • Predators
  • Competitors
  • Pathogens/Diseases

Kudzu vine was introduced to the southeastern
U.S. in the 1930s to control erosion. Since
then, it has taken over native species habitats.
27
H.I.P.P.C.O. INVASIVE SPECIES
  • Many invasive species have been introduced
    intentionally

28
H.I.P.P.C.O. INVASIVE SPECIES
  • other invasive species have been introduced
    unintentionally.

29
H.I.P.P.C.O. INVASIVE SPECIES
  • The Argentina fire ant was introduced to Mobile,
    Alabama in 1932 from South America.
  • Most likely from ships
  • No natural predators
  • Pesticide spraying in 1950s and 1960s worsened
    conditions
  • Removed competition
  • Lead to pesticide resistance

30
Characteristics of Invader Species and Ecosystems
Vulnerable to Invading Species
  • Prevention is the best way to reduce threats from
    invasive species, because once they arrive it is
    almost impossible to slow their spread.

31
H.I.P.P.C.O. POPULATION GROWTH
  • Humans have increased the species extinction rate
    by approximately 1,000 times.
  • Experts predict that these rates will continue,
    or accelerate, in the future.

32
H.I.P.P.C.O. POLLUTION
  • Human activities can pollute the water, soil, or
    air on both on a local and global scale
  • Water sewage, fertilizers, toxic chemicals and
    oil
  • Soil pesticides, waste, herbicides and toxic
    chemicals (which may be washed from the
    land into water)
  • Air smoke and gases such as CO2, CH4 or other
    gases that can lead to climate change and
    other problems

33
H.I.P.P.C.O. POLLUTION
  • In the 1950s and 1960s populations of fish
    eating birds plummeted to dangerously low levels
  • Cause? The pesticide known as DDT
  • Banned in the U.S. in 1972
  • Bioaccumulation
  • DDT is fat soluble and can accumulate in tissues
  • Biomagnification
  • the concentration of DDT in tissues increases as
    you go up the trophic levels

34
H.I.P.P.C.O. CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Climate change caused by global warming could
    lead to the extinction of up to 25 of all land
    plants and animals by the year 2100.
  • Many (but not all) extinctions will take place in
    the upper latitudes
  • Polar bears
  • 17 Penguin species

35
H.I.P.P.C.O. OVEREXPLOITATION
  • Some protected species are killed for their
    valuable parts or are sold live to collectors.
  • Killing predators and pests that bother us or
    cause economic losses threatens some species with
    premature extinction.
  • Legal and illegal trade in wildlife species used
    as pets or for decorative purposes threatens some
    species with extinction.
  • Bush meat indigenous people sustainably hunting
    for foodmore people more hunting

36
H.I.P.P.C.O. OVEREXPLOITATION
  • Poaching
  • Rhinoceros are killed for their horns and sold
    illegally on the black market.
  • Elephants are killed for their ivory tusks
  • Tigers and other cats killed for their pelts

37
How Can We Protect Wild Species from Premature
Extinction?
  • use existing environmental laws and treaties and
    work to enact new laws designed to prevent
    species extinction and protect overall
    biodiversity.
  • help to prevent species extinction by creating
    and maintaining wildlife refuges, gene banks,
    botanical gardens, zoos, and aquariums.
  • According to the precautionary principle, we
    should take measures to prevent or reduce harm to
    the environment and to human health, even if some
    of the cause-and-effect relationships have not
    been fully established, scientifically.

38
International Treaties Can Help Protect Species
  • International treaties have helped reduce the
    trade of endangered and threatened species.
  • One of the most powerful is
  • The 1975 Convention on International Trade of
    Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Lists 900 species that cannot be commercially
    traded as live specimens or wildlife products
  • Signed by 172 countries
  • Enforcement is difficult
  • Probably only 10 of illegal trade in the U.S. is
    caught

39
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act
  • One of the worlds most far-reaching and
    controversial environmental laws
  • The 1973 U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)
  • Overall goal is to identify and protect
    endangered species in the U.S. and abroad.
  • ESA makes it illegal for Americans to engage in
    commerce associated with, or hunt / kill /
    collect, endangered or threatened species.
  • ESA forbids federal agencies (besides defense
    department) to carry out / fund projects that
    would jeopardize an endangered species.

40
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act
  • Accomplishments
  • More than half of the species listed are stable
    or improving
  • 99 of all listed species are still living
  • Challenges
  • Very small budget
  • Species are listed when faced with serious threat
    of extinction
  • It can take decades to bring a species
    populations up
  • Suggested changes to ESA
  • Increase the budget
  • Develop recovery plans more quickly
  • Establish a core of the endangered organisms
    survival habitat

41
We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other
Protected Areas
  • The U.S. has set aside 544 federal refuges for
    wildlife.

42
Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms
Can Help Protect Species
  • Gene banks and botanical gardens to raise
    threatened species can help prevent extinction.
  • Zoos and aquariums can help protect endangered
    animal species by preserving some individuals
    with the long-term goal of reintroduction.

43
Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms
Can Help Protect Species
  • Techniques for preserving endangered terrestrial
    animal species
  • Egg pulling
  • Captive breeding
  • Artificial insemination
  • Embryo transfer
  • Use of incubators
  • Cross-fostering

44
The Precautionary Principle
  • The Precautionary Principle
  • When preliminary evidence indicates that an
    activity can harm the environment or human
    health, we should take precautionary measures to
    prevent or reduce such harm, even if we dont
    fully understand the cause/effect relationship.
  • Better Safe Than Sorry
  • Scientists use the precautionary principle to
    argue for the
  • Preservation of species
  • Preservation of ecosystems
About PowerShow.com