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Revolutions in Thought and Culture in Early Modern Europe


Chapter 14 Revolutions in Thought and Culture in Early Modern Europe Frontispiece of the Rudolphine Tables: Tabulae Rudolphinae: quibus astronomicae ... by Johannes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Revolutions in Thought and Culture in Early Modern Europe

Chapter 14 Revolutions in Thought and Culture in
Early Modern Europe
Frontispiece of the Rudolphine Tables Tabulae
Rudolphinae quibus astronomicae ... by Johannes
Kepler (15711630).
Which best describes Empiricism? It explains
planetary motion Admires antiquity and humanism
Advocated scholastic theology Knowledge comes
from observation Seeing God in rational terms
In his Letter Concerning Toleration, Locke
advocated religious tolerance for what three
One human beings cannot accurately evaluate the
truth-claims of competing religions
Two even if they could, enforcing a single "true
religion" would not have the desired effect,
because force cannot make others believe
something they dont want to believe
Three forcing religious conformity would lead to
more social and political disorder rather than
allowing diversity.
Who worked closely with her husband, Gottfried
Kirch and served as his partner in his position
as the official astronomer of the German Academy
of Science? She discovered a comet in 1707 but it
was not until 1930 that her discovery was
recognized as hers and not her husbands.
Elisabeth Koopman Hevelius Maria Winckelmann
Margaret Cavendish Maria Cunitz
What philosophy/theology concluded that religious
reality (i.e., Gods existence) came from both
reason and ordinary experience?
Who wrote The Blazing World (a fanciful depiction
of a satirical, utopian kingdom in another world
- and with different stars in the sky -that can
be reached via the North Pole), which is one of
the earliest examples of science fiction?
Margaret Cavendish
He compared himself to Christopher Columbus
because Columbus, he asserted, boldly set a
course for geographical discovery he himself set
a course for intellectual discovery John
Locke Sir Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes Nicolas
Copernicus Isaac Newton
In order to avoid a "war of all against all,
this seventeenth century English philosopher
argued that people must be subject to a
sovereigns authority for their own protection.
Thomas Hobbes
He was arguably the most influential political
philosopher of the seventeenth century and is
still regarded as the Father of Classical
John Locke
Who denied the Christian doctrine of Original Sin
but believed that psychological principles were
able to preserve religious knowledge and that
human reason and Gods revelation were mutually
compatible? John Locke Sir Francis
Bacon Thomas Hobbes Isaac Newton
Who said Cogito, Ergo Sum (I think, therefore I
am) by which he meant he could be sure of his own
existence by his own act of thinking.
René Descartes
Royal Society of London
The members of the ______________________
founded under a charter granted by Charles II
saw themselves as the intellectual descendants of
Sir Francis Bacon and his vision that the
scientific community should have confidence in
its own abilities to discover and learn.
Her most important works were Observations upon
Experimental Philosophy (1666) and Grounds of
Natural Philosophy (1668) and she was the only
woman to be allowed to visit a meeting of the
Royal Society. Elisabeth Koopman Hevelius
Maria Winckelmann Margaret Cavendish Maria
The Scientific Revolution traced its origins to
the late Renaissance and continued into the late
eighteenth century when it was called
The Enlightenment
The Scientific Revolution was a slow,
hit-and-miss process that involved relatively few
people and was scattered in crude laboratories in
Poland, Prussia, Italy, Denmark, Bohemia, France
and Great Britain and it began with
  • True or False
  • Many natural philosophers were Christians who had
    no intention of undermining the Christian
  • Pascals Wager was an apology or defense of the
    Christian Religion
  • In 1637, John Locke published his Discourse on
  • Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan
  • The first Academy of the New Science was the
    Royal Academy in London
  • Dogmatism is open mindedness

It was Descartes
It was the Academy of Experiments in Florence
What does heliocentric mean?
The planets revolve around the sun
What does elliptical mean?
Oval or egg shaped
What does mechanistic mean?
Like a machine runs automatically
This Italian mathematician was the first to show
that the heavens were not the perfect,
unblemished Aristotelian cosmos and he
popularized Copernicus heliocentric vision of the
universe Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo
Galilei Nicolas Copernicus Isaac Newton
In his _________, Ptolemy taught a motionless
earth surrounded by nine spheres (the sun, moon,
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, the
stars with _______beyond these) thus Ptolemy
taught that the earth was the ____________________
- which remained the scientific standard in
Medieval Europe and the Islamic world.
center of the universe
Pascal believed that only two things could
prevail in religious matters. What were
they? Dogamatism Leap of faith the
wager Irresistible Grace Reasons of the heart
Who postulated that the human mind at birth was
like a blank slate or Tabula Rasa and that
knowledge is determined only by experience
derived from sense perception?
John Locke
Who wanted Stockholm to become the Athens of the
North and brought René Descartes to Sweden to
organize a scientific academy?
Queen Christina of Sweden
In 1543, this Prussian priest and astronomer
published On he Revolution of the Heavenly
Spheres which FIRST set forth the Heliocentric
Theory Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo
Galilei Nicolas Copernicus Isaac Newton
The idea that knowledge comes only or primarily
from sensory experience, usually in the form of
observation is called
In 1687, this English mathematician published
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in
which he united the heavens and the earth in a
vast, cosmic system.
Sir Isaac Newton
He painted the Night Watch. Rembrandt van
Rijn Blaise Pascal John Ray Isaac
Newton Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Francis Bacon argued that there were two books of
divine revelation. What were they?
The Bible and nature
When John Ray asserted that seeing God in
rational terms allowed people to see themselves
in rational terms, what did he mean?
He meant that people would be able to improve
their lives by freeing themselves from the
irrational and superstitious traditions of the
This German mathematician and astronomer
hypothesized that the planets moved in elliptical
orbits and that the speed of a planet varied
inversely depending upon its distance from the
Sun. Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo
Galilei Nicolas Copernicus Isaac Newton
Who wrote, My aim is to show that the machine of
the universe is not similar to a divine animated
being but similar to a clock.
Johannes Kepler
Building on Keplers idea above, how did some
early scientists begin to view God?
As a kind of divine watchmaker who created a
universe that would run on its own.
Who said that it is better to believe that there
is more to be gained by believing in God than by
not believing in God. John Ray Thomas
Hobbes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Copernicus
Isaac Newton
90 of humans are right-handed. Joe is a human.
Therefore, the probability that Joe is
right-handed is 90. What kind of reasoning or
logic is this?
All men are mortal. Henry VIII is a man.
Therefore, Henry VIII is mortal. What kind of
reasoning or logic is this?
He explained that planets and all other physical
bodies in the universe moved through mutual
attraction, or gravity. Thus he explained why
planets moved in an orderly manner Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Nicolas
Copernicus Isaac Newton
He was an English naturalist who, in The Wisdom
of God Manifested in His Works of Creation argued
that that God had placed human beings in the
world to understand it and then to put that
understanding to good use.
John Wray or John Ray
What was the 17th century artistic style that
used exaggerated motion, hidden light source and
clear detail to produce drama, exuberance, and
grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture,
literature, and music.
In his 1573 treatise, De Nova Stella (On the new
star), he refuted the Aristotelian belief in an
unchanging celestial realm. Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Nicolas
Copernicus Isaac Newton
_________________met regularly to hear
dissertations and observe experiments. They were
taken seriously in society because individuals of
__________________ (i.e., the nobility) often
took part. Scientific Societies usually published
their findings, established libraries and tried
to create intellectual arenas for the
Scientific Societies
higher social standing
exchange of ideas and civic debate
Who founded the German Academy of Science
(actually the Prussian/Brandenburg Academy of
Sciences)? Sir Francis Bacon Frederick
I Queen Christina of Sweden Johannes Hevelius
Jan Vermeer
Remember he was the least Prussian of the
Prussian kings
Bacon was critical of the scholastic idea that
most _____ was already discovered and only
required explanation and so he criticized the
scholastics for being too focused on tradition
and knowledge of the ancient world. He became an
advocate of __________ he wanted what was
already known to serve as a basis for an improved
understanding of nature and he wanted people to
have confidence in their own abilities to
discover and learn
His quintessential work was his Second Treatise
of Government, in which he argued that the people
formed governments to protect their natural
rights and that the best form of government was
the one that had limited power and was accepted
by all its citizens. Sir Francis Bacon John
Wray René Descartes John Locke
Basically, what would we call Sir Francis Bacons
concept of Inductive Logic?
The Scientific Method
Who echoed a Calvinistic viewpoint from his
education and believed that human beings were
nasty, greedy and selfish and therefore needed
a strong and strict governmental contract.
Thomas Hobbes
Which of the following best describes John
Lockes theory of Tabula Rasa? a mechanistic
understanding of human beings and their passions
a defense of religion reconciliation of faith
and science people formed governments to
protect their natural rights experiences form
Before the Scientific Revolution, the explanation
of how the universe came into being and operated
was based on the teachings of two men Claudius
Ptolemy Thomas Aquinas Plato Tycho
Braho Aristotle
What does apolitical mean?
having nothing to do with politics and/or the
Who were Projectors?
People who bought and sold new ideas (good and
bad) but still advanced technology
Who was called the Silesian Pallas and wrote
Urania Propitia?
Maria Cunitz
Who was "the founder of lunar topography" and
described ten new constellations? She came to be
known as the mother of moon charts and both a
minor planet and a crater on Venus are named in
her honor. Elisabeth Koopman Hevelius Maria
Winckelmann Margaret Cavendish Maria Cunitz
What three challenges did the Scientific
Revolution present to religion?
One that certain theories and discoveries did
not agree with the Bible.
Two these differences produced the problem as to
who would decide which theories or discoveries
were right or wrong church authorities or
natural philosophers.
Three to many Christians the New Science seemed
to replace a universe of spiritual meaning with a
universe that was purely materialistic.
He was a friend and admirer of Galileo who gave
Galileo permission to continue the Copernican
system which he did in his Dialogue on the Two
Chief World Systems in 1632. Charles II of
England Maria Theresa of Austria Pope Urban
VIII Louis XIV of France Grand Duchess
Because Descartes could be sure of his own
existence by his own act of thinking, he was able
to deduce
The existence of God
Descartes divided all things into two categories.
What were they?
1. Thinking things (or the mind)
2. things occupying space (or the body).
He was offended by the Jesuits use of Casuistry
(or the resolving of cases of conscience, duty,
or conduct through interpretation of ethical
principles or religious doctrine), which he
thought was hypocritical. John Ray Blaise
Pascal Rene Descartes Isaac Newton Pope Urban
She inspired the Salon Movement?
Madame Geoffrin
They are people who deny the existence of God and
all religion.
What does Pensées mean? Who wrote them?
Thoughts Blaise Pascal
Trained in rhetoric, he used these skills to
argue in favor of the Copernican model of the
universe. Unfortunately for him, his arguments
as well thought out as they were would cause
him to be hauled before the Inquisition. Johannes
Kepler Galileo Galilei Nicolas Copernicus
Isaac Newton
He saw two essential truths in the Christian
religion (1) that a loving God exists and (2)
that human beings, because they are corrupt by
nature, are utterly unworthy of God.
Blaise Pascal
This kind of logic Logic uses true premises to
reach a conclusion that is also true.
This was a method used by the Jesuits by which
they investigated cases of conscience and/or
conduct and determined a degree of right or wrong
in any given act. Pascal believed it was
When Newton argued for the idea of a first Cause
of all things that is a Creator, who could not
have been mechanical, he meant
that science and religion were not only
compatible but mutually inclusive.
He created both the sculpture of Saint Teresa of
Avila in religious ecstasy in the Church of Santa
Maria de la Vittoria and the great Baldacchino in
Saint Peters Basilica. Rembrandt van
Rijn Claude Le Nain Carravagio Velasquez Bern
This was founded in 1657 in Florence and was one
of the first of new institutions of the
Scientific Revolution that began to collaborate
and share information that went beyond what the
typical universities did.
The Academy of Experiments
What was the background for John Locke writing
his Letter on Toleration?
It was written in 1689 when many English were
afraid that Roman Catholics might try to restore
James II.
The mindset (attitude) of the Baroque was
grounded in Jansenism The Counter
Reformation The Reformation Scholasticism Class
ical (Greek and Roman) Art
  • True or False
  • An apology is a defense.
  • Witch hunts were sporadic and quickly disappeared
    after 1700
  • Francis Bacon denied that the natural philosopher
    achieve a deeper knowledge of things divine in
    than could a theologian.
  • Thomas Hobbes wrote A History of the
    Peloponnesian War.
  • The French Academy of Sciences was linked to
    Scholasticism .
  • Margaret Cavendish praised the Royal Society for
    solving practical problems

Why did Scientific Societies grow and flourish?
Because of the failure of the universities to
shed Scholasticism which did not generally accept
the New Science.
Who was the most famous Baroque artist
according to the book, at least?
Michelangelo Caravaggio