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World War I and the Aftermath

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World War I and the Aftermath By: Whitney R. McBeth Oak Grove High School Hattiesburg, MS 39402 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War I and the Aftermath


1
World War I and the Aftermath
  • By Whitney R. McBeth
  • Oak Grove High School
  • Hattiesburg, MS 39402

2
Setting the Stage
  • At the end of the 1800s (19th Century) and
    beginning of the 1900s (20th Century), Europe was
    setting up for a major conflict.
  • Many powers were involved and many factors were
    the cause.

3
Causes
  • Aggressive Nationalism
  • France v. Germany
  • Pan-Slavism in Eastern Europe
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism and the Arms Race
  • Alliances
  • Triple Alliance/Central Powers (Germany, Austria
    Italy)?
  • Triple Entente/Allied Powers (France, Britain,
    Russia 1914-1917 and U.S. 1917-1918)?

4
(No Transcript)
5
The Guns of August
  • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
    decided to visit Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia).
  • Many Serbs and Slavs lived in Bosnia and didnt
    like that they were controlled by
    Austria-Hungary.
  • Many people living in Bosnia and neighboring
    Slavic nations were unhappy with the visit.

6
  • The Serbian terrorist group carried out an
    assassination of the Archduke and his wife on
    their visit.
  • Princip, a member of the Black Hand, was captured
    and imprisoned for the assassinations.
  • The emperor of Austria-Hungary wanted Serbia to
    turn Princip over to him. They refused and the
    war was on!

7
  • Germany promised to support Austria-Hungary if
    they took action.
  • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
  • Serbia received helped from its fellow-Slavic
    country, Russia.
  • Germany declared war on Russia.
  • France declared war on Germany and Germany, in
    turn, declared war on France.

8
  • Britain tried to stay out of the conflict but was
    not successful.
  • Germany planned to fight France and Russia using
    the Schlieffen Plan.
  • This means they would defeat France quickly and
    then turn their attention toward Russia.
  • In order to fight France they would have to cross
    into neutral Belgium.
  • Britain vowed to protect Belgiums neutrality and
    was eventually drawn into the conflict.

9
The Course of the War
  • When battle on the Western Front (French/German
    border) took longer than expected, both sides
    dug in to the countryside.
  • This type of fighting was called Trench Warfare.
  • Battles like Verdun and the Somme took months to
    fight with no true victor.

10
  • New technology aided both sides
  • Machine guns-good for No Mans Land
  • Poison gas
  • Gas masks
  • Tanks
  • Planes
  • U-Boats--German weapon of choice!
  • Fighting also occurred in Eastern and Southern
    Europe, as well as in the Colonies.

11
The Cost of War
  • At the beginning of WWI, Europeans everywhere
    were excited about the conflict.
  • However, they changed their minds as it became a
    total war.
  • Total war is the channeling of a nations entire
    resources into a war effort.

12
  • European governments enacted the Draft.
  • Governments raised taxes and rationed supplies to
    send to the war front.
  • Above all, governments had to get the public
    involved in the war effort, so they waged a
    propaganda war.
  • Propaganda-the spreading of ideas to promote a
    cause or to damage an opposing cause.

13
Examples of Propaganda
14
  • Women joined the war effort by taking on many
    mens jobs while they were fighting.
  • This kept Europes many economies going strong.
  • Women also became nurses to help on the war
    front.
  • Womens role in World War I helped them gain the
    right to vote in places like Britain and the
    United States.

15
  • In the meantime, Russia had to pull out of the
    war in 1917 because Communists were trying to
    take over there.
  • However, the U.S. joined the Allies in 1917 for a
    couple of reasons
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Sinking of the Sussex
  • Violation of the Sussex Pledge
  • Cultural Ties to the Allies
  • Zimmermann Note-Germany plea to get Mexico to
    distract the U.S. for the duration of the War.

16
  • When the U.S. joined, morale was restored to the
    Allied Powers.
  • Within a year, the Central Powers surrendered.
  • President Woodrow Wilson of the United States
    took the lead in deciding the terms of peace.
  • He issued his 14 Points, his post-war plan for
    the world
  • Reduction of Arms
  • Self-determination for Eastern Europe
  • Peacekeeping organization for the world

17
Making the Peace
  • At the end of the war, millions had died in war
    related deaths.
  • The physical, economic and social structure of
    European countries were destroyed.
  • The Treaty of Versailles promised to solve the
    problems the war had created.
  • The leaders of Britain, France and the U.S. took
    the lead in the Treaty. They were known as the
    Big Three.

18
  • The Treaty of Versailles made the following
    decisions
  • Germany had to pay the Allies 30 billion in
    reparations, or war payments
  • Limited the size of Germanys military
  • Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France
  • Germany was stripped of its overseas empire
  • Territories around the world came under the
    control of western powers

19
Self-Determination for Eastern Europe
  • New countries were created
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Estonia
  • Poland
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Austria
  • Hungary
  • Yugoslavia

20
The League of Nations
  • The League of Nations promised to be the
    peacekeeping organization for the world after
    WWI.
  • While it was President Wilsons idea, Congress
    refused to allow the U.S. to join the
    organization.
  • In time, it would prove to be a disaster.
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