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An Approach to Maintaining Academic Integrity

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Title: An Approach to Maintaining Academic Integrity


1
An Approach to Maintaining Academic Integrity In
A Distance Learning Environment
Dr. Robert T. Kitahara Dr. Frederick
Westfall Assistant Professor, Business Regional
Chair, Business Programs Troy University
Florida Region Troy University Florida
Region Dr. Sallie J. Johnson Professor of
Distance Learning Air Command Staff College,
Maxwell AFB
2
Never underestimate the joy people derive from
hearing something they already know. Enrico
Fermi (1901-1954)
3
AGENDA
. University Standards of Conduct . Case study
of recent experiences - quantitative courses
delivered in a DL format . Literature survey
Extent of the Problem . One Approach Troy
University . Conclusions/Observations . Plan
for future research
4
Excerpts from Troy University Undergraduate
Catalog Standards of Conduct
A student is subject to disciplinary action
if In connection with the taking of, or in
contemplation of the taking of any examination by
any person a) A student knowingly
discovers or attempts to discover the contents of
an examination before the contents are revealed
by the instructor b) A student obtains,
uses, attempts to obtain or use, or supplies or
attempts to supply to any person, any
unauthorized material or device c) A
student uses, attempts to use, or supplies or
attempts to supply to any person any material or
device dishonestly.
5
...Penalties for Misconduct ...Any student
who has committed an act of misconduct may be
subject to one or more of the following
penalties a) A students grade in the
course or on the examination affected by the
misconduct may be reduced to any extent,
including a reduction to failure. b) A
student may be suspended from the University for
a specific or an indefinite period, the
suspension to begin at any time.
6
Excerpts from Florida State University Student
Handbook Codes and Policies
. (b) Violations of the Academic Honor Code.
. During examinations, violations of the
Academic Honor Code shall include referring to
information not specifically condoned by the
instructor. It shall further include receiving
information from a fellow student or another
unauthorized source. . Violations of the
Academic Honor Code shall include obtaining,
distributing, or referring to a copy of an
examination which the instructor/department has
not authorized to be made available for such
purpose. . Violations of the Academic Honor
Code shall include assisting, attempting to
assist, or conspiring to assist another student
in committing the offenses as outlined above. .
Violations of the Academic Honor Code shall
include attempting to commit any offense as
outlined above.
7
Excerpts from University of Minnesota Board of
Regents Policy Student Conduct Code
. Listed below are the disciplinary offenses
actionable by the University. (1) Scholastic
Dishonesty. Scholastic dishonesty means
plagiarizing cheating on assignments or
examinations engaging in unauthorized
collaboration on academic work taking,
acquiring, or using test materials without
faculty permission submitting false or
incomplete records of academic achievement
acting alone or in cooperation with another to
falsify records or to obtain dishonestly grades,
honors, awards, or professional endorsement or
altering, forging, or misusing a University
academic record or fabricating or falsifying of
data, research procedures, or data analysis.
8
Excerpts from Purdue University Student Conduct
Code
. The following actions constitute misconduct
for which students may be subject to
administrative action or disciplinary
penalties. . Dishonesty in connection with any
University activity. Cheating, plagiarism, or
knowingly furnishing false information to the
University are examples of dishonesty. The
commitment of the acts of cheating, lying,
stealing, and deceit in any of their diverse
forms (such as the use of ghost-written papers,
the use of substitutes for taking examinations,
the use of illegal cribs, plagiarism, and copying
during examinations) is dishonest and must not be
tolerated. Moreover, knowingly to aid and abet,
directly or indirectly, other parties in
committing dishonest acts is in itself dishonest.
9
Excerpts from Santa Clara University Student
Conduct Code
.THE FOLLOWING ACTS SUBJECT STUDENTS TO
DISCIPLINARY ACTION . Engaging in any form of
academic dishonesty, such as plagiarism
(representing the work or ideas of others as
one's own without giving proper acknowledgment),
cheating (e.g., copying the work of another
person, falsifying laboratory data, sabotaging
the work of others), and other acts generally
understood to be dishonest by faculty or students
in an academic context.
10
A Case Study
QM3341 Business Statistics II MGT3373
Operations Management Course Requirements . 7
online quizzes 1 hour time limit (Typically
students take 30-40 minutes) . Online Final
Examination 2 hour time limit (Typically
students take 60-90 minutes) . Proctored
Examination 3 hour time limit -
Administrative controls - Distance Learning
Office must pre-approve proctors - Exam -
open-book, open-notes
11
Stating the Obvious Examination copies,
instructor materials and author test banks are
not intended for general consumption particularly
by students Examinations are intended to assess
the individuals command of the subject matter,
not the extent or accuracy of his/her data files
or work of others
12
Troy University, its instructors, delivery system
designers (Blackboard) and textbook publishers
cooperatively implement several strategies .
Blackboard controls designed to prevent students
from printing copies of exams . Blackboard
controls force completion of exams once
entered . Instructions with each exam -
Students must take assessments separately
- Students not allowed to make copies of exams
- Proctors must return all test question
exam sheets . Publishers screen applicants
for instructor materials . Publishers screen
applicants for author test banks
13
For Students Benefit
Provide, prior to Proctored Examination,
questions representative of type that will appear
on exam
For Instructor Benefit
Inserted code each test bank question to
facilitate correlation to student inquiries
14
Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1a Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05)
Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores
QM3341 Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Quiz 6 PE Quiz 8 Final
Student 1 219 100 203 100 353 100 3324 95 3611 75 846 95 56/0 1707 100 3536 96
Student 2 157 100 330 90 302 100 2614 95 2449 95 1259 90 56/0 2110 95 3737 92
Student 3 257 100 225 95 147 100 2550 20 2255 65 2325 85 56/0 1115 95 3039 94
Student 4 201 100 325 100 537 100 Lock 3923 90 4257 85 3202 90 56/0 3848 40 4648 94
Student 5 147 100 205 100 153 100 5353 90 5605 85 3556 90 41/0 905 95 7338 60
Student 6 138 100 151 100 147 100 4804 15 7111 95 3132 90 41/0 356 100 4639 94
All 6 students from same site
(Administratively changed to 0)
15
Response to Timing Irregularities
. Sent e-mail inquiries few responded.
. One student claimed timings were
reasonable . No student admitted to
possessing unapproved sources of information
. For quiz 4 - shuffled codes
timings for all 6 immediately jumped to
historical levels . For remaining quizzes,
removed codes timings remaining
generally at historical averages
16
Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1b Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05)
Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores
QM3341 Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Quiz 6 PE Quiz 8 Final
Student 1 219 100 203 100 353 100 3324 95 3611 75 846 95 56/0 1707 100 3536 96
Student 2 157 100 330 90 302 100 2614 95 2449 95 1259 90 56/0 2110 95 3737 92
Student 3 257 100 225 95 147 100 2550 20 2255 65 2325 85 56/0 1115 95 3039 94
Student 4 201 100 325 100 537 100 Lock 3923 90 4257 85 3202 90 56/0 3848 40 4648 94
Student 5 147 100 205 100 153 100 5353 90 5605 85 3556 90 41/0 905 95 7338 60
Student 6 138 100 151 100 147 100 4804 15 7111 95 3132 90 41/0 356 100 4639 94
(Administratively changed to 0)
17
The Proctored Exam
. 2 Parts - Part 1 25 multiple choice
questions - Part 2 5 quantitative
problems . Open-book, open-notes . All
questions for both parts different from previous
terms . Part 2 show all work
18
Students 1 and 2 (QM3341)
. Arranged to take their PEs from business
professor . Asked to take the examination
together - common notes . Denied request .
Offered to make copy of notes for each to
have . Students never returned to take exam .
Went to another university official to serve as
proctor (5 of the 6 students used the
same proctor)
19
Table 2 Proctored Exam Irregularities (QM 3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 2 Proctored Exam Irregularities (QM 3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 2 Proctored Exam Irregularities (QM 3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 2 Proctored Exam Irregularities (QM 3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 2 Proctored Exam Irregularities (QM 3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05)
QM3341 Answer Sheets Group A (Students 1,2,3,4) Group B (Students 5,6) Rest of Class Historically similar test - same format, same authors test bank
Part 1 25 Multiple Choice - Same 2 Errors - Same 2 Erroneous Choices - Same 2 Errors (Same as Group A) - No student missed both questions as A,B - No other pair had identical MC sheets No pair had identical sheets
Part 2 5 Quantitative Problems Virtually identical Same - Answers - Layout - Detail - Errors - Omissions - Inclusions - Decimal place rounding - Wording (90) Virtually identical Same - Answers - Layout - Detail - Errors - Omissions - Inclusions - Decimal place rounding - Wording (90) - None matched A,B - No other pair had matching answer sheets No pair had matching answer sheets
Decimal accuracy to 6 decimal places
20
Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05)
Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores
QM3341 Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Quiz 6 PE Quiz 8 Final
Student 1 219 100 203 100 353 100 3324 95 3611 75 846 95 56/0 1707 100 3536 96
Student 2 157 100 330 90 302 100 2614 95 2449 95 1259 90 56/0 2110 95 3737 92
Student 3 257 100 225 95 147 100 2550 20 2255 65 2325 85 56/0 1115 95 3039 94
Student 4 201 100 325 100 537 100 L 3923 90 4257 85 3202 90 56/0 3848 40 4648 94
Student 5 147 100 205 100 153 100 5353 90 5605 85 3556 90 41/0 905 95 7338 60
Student 6 138 100 151 100 147 100 4804 15 7111 95 3132 90 41/0 356 100 4639 94
(Administratively changed to 0)
21
Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1c Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05)
Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores
QM3341 Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Quiz 6 PE Quiz 8 Final
Student 1 219 100 203 100 353 100 3324 95 3611 75 846 95 56/0 1707 100 3536 96
Student 2 157 100 330 90 302 100 2614 95 2449 95 1259 90 56/0 2110 95 3737 92
Student 3 257 100 225 95 147 100 2550 20 2255 65 2325 85 56/0 1115 95 3039 94
Student 4 201 100 325 100 537 100 L 3923 90 4257 85 3202 90 56/0 3848 40 4648 94
Student 5 147 100 205 100 153 100 5353 90 5605 85 3556 90 41/0 905 95 7338 60
Student 6 138 100 151 100 147 100 4804 15 7111 95 3132 90 41/0 356 100 4639 94
(Administratively changed to 0)
22
Response to Proctored Exam Irregularities
. Only 3 of the students responded .
Vehemently denied illegal or wrongful activity
. 2 immediately threatened lawsuits
Students 1 2 also taking MGT3373 Operations
Management
. Behavior in that course similar . Identical
answer sheets for Part 1 . Virtually-identical
answer sheets Part 2 . Same denials .
Threats of lawsuits
23
Table 3 Proctored Exam Irregularities (MGT3373 Operations Management - Term T2/05) Table 3 Proctored Exam Irregularities (MGT3373 Operations Management - Term T2/05) Table 3 Proctored Exam Irregularities (MGT3373 Operations Management - Term T2/05) Table 3 Proctored Exam Irregularities (MGT3373 Operations Management - Term T2/05)
MGT3373 Answer Sheets 2 Students (1,2) Rest of Class Historically similar test - same format, same authors test bank
Part 1 25 Multiple Choice - Same 2 Errors - Same 2 Erroneous Choices Same 2 students showed similar behavior in QM3341 - No student sheet matched 1,2 - No other pair had identical MC sheets No pair had identical sheets
Part 2 5 Short Essay Questions (4/5 Open Ended) Virtually identical Same - Answers - Detail - Omissions - Inclusions - Examples - Wording 90 Same 2 students showed similar behavior in QM3341 - None matched 1,2 - No other pair had matching answer sheets No pair had matching answer sheets
24
Relevant Aside
. Students 1 2 showed same behavior
QM2241 Business Statistics I (Term 1/05) .
1-hour quizzes in 2-3 minutes . 2-hour final
exam in 5 minutes . Identical answer sheets
for Part 1 of PE . Identical answer sheets for
Part 2 of PE
25
Administrative Actions
. Initial focus unreasonable assessment
timings . Concern over open-notes policy .
Students offered grades based on items
submitted . Upon further review degree of
similarity, particularly on quantitative
essay portions, not be explained by common
notes . Final grades reassigned as failing
. Apprised of their rights to appeal
26
Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05) Table 1d Summary of Quiz Timing Irregularities (QM3341 Business Statistics II Term 2/05)
Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores Timings (MinutesSeconds) and Scores
QM3341 Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Quiz 6 PE Quiz 8 Final
Student 1 219 100 203 100 353 100 3324 95 3611 75 846 95 56/0 1707 100 3536 96
Student 2 157 100 330 90 302 100 2614 95 2449 95 1259 90 56/0 2110 95 3737 92
Student 3 257 100 225 95 147 100 2550 20 2255 65 2325 85 56/0 1115 95 3039 94
Student 4 201 100 325 100 537 100 Lock 3923 90 4257 85 3202 90 56/0 3848 40 4648 94
Student 5 147 100 205 100 153 100 5353 90 5605 85 3556 90 41/0 905 95 7338 60
Student 6 138 100 151 100 147 100 4804 15 7111 95 3132 90 41/0 356 100 4639 94
Students 1,2 also received 0 on PE for MGT3373
(Administratively changed to 0)
27
Early Stages of Appeals
. 2 students admitted to possessing unapproved
materials . One claimed they had copies of all
past exams . Another admitted they had
textbook test bank - found on an open
website . Included these in their notes
did nothing wrong . None of 6 students
responded to issue of high degree of
similarity of answer sheets
28
Final Appeals Resolution
. 5 Students dropped their appeals given the
evidence - Accepted their failing
grades . 1 Student persisted. This student took
his appeal to - Several campus deans
- Dean of the School of Business -
Senior Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs
- University Chancellor . Could not explain the
answer sheet similarities . Decision to assign
a failing grade upheld . 8 failing grades held
for all 8 cases
29
What It Cost !!
. 5 Months of Aggravation . Personally 200 Man
Hours . Regional Administration Support Staff
50 Man Hours . Main Campus Administration
Support 30 Man Hours . Main Campus Deans
Leadership 20 Man Hours
What It Entailed
. Constant threats of lawsuits . Threats of
personal lawsuits . Persistent badgering and lies
by students . Faced several flip-flops in
administrative decisions . Pressure to let it go
Is it any wonder that many/most students go
unchallenged?
30
Post Script
. In Term 4/06 several of the offending students
repeated the courses with me again . In
QM3341 two of those students (Students 5 6)
repeated the same acts! . Failing grades
were assigned to both students, once again
for cheating on the Proctored Examination .
Student 5 admitted to the acts and cooperated in
the investigation of the case. . Student
5 verified ALL suspicions in Terms 2/05 and
4/06 . Student 5 was allowed to receive a grade
of D (reduced from a C) based upon submitted
work
31
Literature Extent of the Problem
Cheating is on the Rise . At least 50 of
students cheat from middle school through
college . 75 of high school students admit to
cheating on exams and papers . 50 of
undergraduates admitted to cheating more than
once . On most campuses 75 of students admit to
some form of cheating . 41 of students believe
plagiarism occurs often . Surveys show
incidence rates on the rise . 40 incidence rate
for graduate students The anecdotal and
statistical evidence that dishonesty in
the business world is also growing.
32
Evolution of Methods of Cheating
Traditional methods . Copying from other
students . Crib notes . Writing on palms of
hands . Whispering answers . Tapping Morse Code .
Stealing exam copies
Newer methods . Cell phones . PDA devices .
Programmable calculators . Internet connected
laptops . Mobile internet devices. . Hand-held
Blackberry units . Tape recorders . Small
video cameras . Digital media (CD, DVD,
flash drives, mini hard drives,iPods)
Instructors and administrators must keep pace.
33
Disturbing Trends in Cheating
. Nationwide most forms at record levels .
Underclassmen cheat more than upperclassmen .
More prominent among fraternity, sorority members
athletes . Those who perceive others arent
caught likely to cheat . Younger students cheat
more often . Some surveys showed 80 of
faculty observed some form of serious cheating
More than 30 did nothing about it . Less
cheating occurs at universities with strong Honor
Codes
34
A Culture of Cheating?
.
. Students perceive the practice is (more)
acceptable . Everybody is doing it .
Hard-core cheaters not concerned with long-term
consequences . Diminishing social stigma .
Cheaters shun accountability (blame teachers,
parents) . Society becoming increasingly tolerant
35
Establishing a Climate of Honesty Integrity
  • -   Affirm the importance of academic integrity.
  • -   Foster love of learning.
  • -   Treat students as ends in themselves.
  • -   Promote an environment of trust in the
    classroom.
  • -   Encourage student responsibility for academic
    integrity.
  • -   Clarify expectations for students.
  • -   Develop fair and relevant forms of
    assessment.
  • -   Reduce opportunities to engage in academic
    dishonesty.
  • -   Challenge academic dishonesty when it occurs.
  • Help define and support campus-wide academic
    integrity
  • standards

Faculty and administrators must be concerned and
involved.
36
Best Practices of Electronically Delivered
Degree and Certificate Programs
Best Practices of Electronically Delivered
Degree and Certificate Programs
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools,
Commission on Colleges
How do you do that in a Distance Learning
Environment?
37
One Approach Troy University
Securexam Remote ProctorTM (Prototype)
Will take the place of a human proctor.
38
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39
Indeed your class attendance gives new
meaning to the term Distance Learning
40
Securexam Remote ProctorTM Features
. Fingerprint scanner and student verification
system . 360 degree field-of-view camera . Omni
directional microphone . Remote recording of
real-time audio and video . Integrated motion
detection software to detect and flag
suspicious activity . Specialized exam software
to disable unwanted, student computer
functions . Connection via USB port . Onsite
hardware does not contain student information .
Permits use by different users . Target cost 100
41
What do some people think? Comments found on the
web
And now electronic proctors? As Bob Dylan said,
"the times they are a changin."
I think this is a fantastic development. I have
been concerned about security in distance
learning environments for a while Any kind of
testing process is useless unless security and
integrity can be attained. I certainly hope this
effort is successful. Peter, Southwestern
Community College, Sylva, NC
Yes, I can see it now. Just like the Italian Job,
or Oceans 11, or whatever. The student prerecords
him or herself dutifully typing, then broadcasts
it directly into the device, complete with fake
time stamp. I would hate to think our professors
would easily adopt the tactics of the CIA or NSA.
Ken
I am fascinated by this. setting aside the (lack
of) effectiveness of the Web cam as a proctor, I
cannot imagine students would want to have their
fingerprints on file and used as an exam
verification tool. Also, isn't it a whole lot
cheaper to hire one or even more real proctors
that to set up 200 devices at each desk? To me,
this seems like a solution in search of a
problem. Touro University
Just sounds like a lot of headache.  I think the
honor code should work just fine. Samford
University
42
(No Transcript)
43
(No Transcript)
44
Conclusions/Observations
  • - New tools resources to obtain unethical edge
  • - Job of University, instructors, course
    delivery system
  • designers publishers much more difficult
  • More apt to threaten lawyers and lawsuits
  • Believe university will ultimately back down
  • Requires more thought, time energy to
    maintain
  • academic integrity
  • Multifaceted approaches being pursued
  • Courses with large quantitative content impose
    additional
  • challenges

45
Pressing Questions
. If a student has resources which give him/her
an unfair advantage over other students, does
this constitute unethical behavior,
violations of the Universitys Standards of
Conduct, or cheating? . If a student obtains
instructor materials, such as the authors
test banks for the course textbook, which give
him/her prior knowledge of examination
questions and therefore an unfair advantage
over other students, does this constitute
unethical behavior or cheating? . Is it
possible to write a statement of the Standards of
Conduct which is comprehensive and which
will withstand the scrutiny of attorneys in
a court of law?
46
. How must these standards be communicated in a
course syllabus? . Will largely
technology-based solutions be sufficient? .
Have student attitudes toward academic integrity
changed? . What are the special
implications of these issues on courses taught
in the DL format?
47
Plan for Future Research
  • Review of Troy Universitys history
    comparison with
  • other universities ID trends in academias
    views of
  • ethical behavior, if any
  • Comparison of alternate solutions
  • Set of surveys - differences in views of
    academic
  • integrity between students instructors - ID
    acts which
  • both populations consider unethical,
    violations of
  • Academic Code, or cheating
  • Expand literature review surveys - propensity
  • of students to threaten lawsuits and reaction
    of
  • universities

48
  • Statistical analyses - ID correlations trends
    in student
  • instructor views sorted by appropriate
    demographic
  • factors
  • Survey selected local businesses for current
    employee
  • attitudes - comparison with academia
  • Statistical analyses - ID changes trends in
    attitudes
  • (transition from pupil to university student
    and ultimately
  • to working professional)
  • Develop proposals - revisions of university
    policies toward
  • Standards of Conduct recommend corresponding
  • adjustments to course syllabi, particularly
    for DL courses

49
What Message To Take Away?
  • Academic integrity issues on the rise.
  • Students are finding new, creative ways to gain
    advantages (cheat)
  • Professors need to be vigilant in pursuit of
    irregularities and enforcement of academic
    integrity (regardless of personal cost).
  • Administrators need to ensure Academic Integrity
    policies will deal with technical alternatives
    available in the 21st century.

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