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Art appreciation


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Title: Art appreciation

Art appreciation
  • Humanities
  • Etymology
  • Definition
  • Why do we need to study Humanities?
  • History
  • Other related fields in humanities
  • Art
  • Etymology
  • Definition
  • Work of Art
  • Importance of Art
  • Functions of Art
  • Categories
  • Different classifications
  • Other Classification
  • Elements
  • Principles
  • Different subject of work of art
  • Different ways of presenting the subject
  • Artist and his medium
  • Artist and his technique

Painting History Filipino Painters Purposes Elemen
ts Different mediums Different techniques
Sculpture Etymology Definition History Materials E
lements Types Function Processes technique
Music Etymology Definition Function Properties Ele
ments Different mediums Kinds
Cinema Etymology Definition History Elements Diffe
rent kinds
Photography Etymology Definition History Modes of
production Steps Example of photographs Award
giving body
Dance Etymology Definition History Elements Differ
ent kinds
  • ETYMOLOGYIt came from the Latin word
    humanus which means refined, culture and
    humanRefined - Norms, being civilize, and
    socializeCultured - Adaptation to environment
    (social interaction, norms)Human - Having the
    nature of people, being a person
  • Definition- The expression of ourselves
    without using of words (painting, sculptures,
    dancing, mosaic, cross stitch, collage, paper and
    folding)- The study of mans expression
    feelings, thought, intuition, values, and
    ideas- The study of mans experience, goals,
    and aspirations- It is used to dramatize
    individual expressions

  • Why do we need to study humanities?
  • The humanities serve to provide the student
    with certain skills and values through the arts.
    Students learn to appreciate the importance of
    value that no other subject can describe those
    values which are directly an exact.

  • Aim of Humanities
  • During Medieval Age
  • The humanities dealt with the metaphysics of the
    religious philosopher.
  • During Renaissance Period
  • To make man richer because during that time only
    the rich people can make art like paintings,
    sculpture and etc.
  • During 19th and 20th century
  • Is to appreciate and understand the importance
    of human being, his ideas and aspirations

  • Other Related fields in Humanities
  • Anthropology
  • History
  • Literature
  • Philosophy
  • Religion
  • Sociology
  • Visual and Performing Arts

  • Etymology
  • It came from the Latin word ars/artis which
    means to do or man made
  • Definition
  • It is a medium of expression because through arts
    we express
  • our ideas, emotions, feelings, without using
  • Creative activity which involves skill or
    expertness in
  • handling materials and organizing them
    into a new.

Work of Art
  • Definition
  • A thing of beauty having aesthetic value. Obra
    maestra, provides aesthetic values to the
  • It must have an artistic merit and literary
  • It is a symbolic state of meaning rather having a
    practical function.
  • Example

The Last Supper
Madonna and child
  • Mona Lisa

Banaue Rice Terraces
Importance of Art
  • Driven our existence
  • Satisfies the needs for personal expression
  • Develop our skills to express ourselves
  • Challenge us to see things differently
  • It unleash our hidden desires and passion
  • It can change our ways in life
  • To see the truth that we might understand before
  • It gives pleasure, satisfaction and gratification

Functions of Art
  • To express beauty
  • It gives man moment of relaxation and spiritual
  • It serves as a channel of mans passion
  • Arts reformed man
  • Overcomes the feelings of restlessness and

Categories of work of art considered to be great
  • Best selling - it is very popular in its day, or
    is produced by an artist who has done other very
    popular piece.
  • Ground breaking- that it does not follow regular
    convention or already tried artistic methods real
    closely. It is not, in short, just one more soap
    opera following an old, old formula, no matter
    how well done.
  • Inherently beautiful - means just as the art
    critics do require and demand that a work of art
    have an inner harmony, beauty, and
    emotional/intuitive meaning that are unified,
    strong and intense, and deeply moving to us.
    Something that appeals to your senses and

Different classifications of Art
  • I. By the Audience
  • - focus on how audience classified arts
  • Performing Arts- something an artist used body as
    a medium. An art form that is moving from one
    place to another.
  • Example play, movies, live music,
    movies/TV, operas, mime, puppetry, acrobatic,
    dance, and ballet
  • 2. Visual Arts- usually exist in two dimensional
    form and stay in one place. Something that we see
    and hear.

Example painting, photography, drawing,
films, sculpture, engraving, wooden materials,
silk screen, cartoon, stained glass, mosaic, and
stage setting.
  • 3. Literature- talks about language that affects
    our imagination and make us think
  • Example non fiction, fiction, stage play,
    poetry, screenplay and song
  • 4. Sculptural- a three dimensional form that we
    can touch, see, and climb. It stays in one
  • Example Monument, Architectural Designs,
    Rice terraces, Rock Garden, Eiffel Tower, Statue
    of Liberty, flower gardens, water fountain, and

  • II. By Critics
  • - Focus on how people judge art
  • Major Arts or Fine Arts- those that includes
    music, literature, sculpture, painting, dance,
    theater, photography, and architecture.
  • Minor Arts or Applied Arts- those that includes
    ceramics, furniture, weaving, photography, and
  • Pure Art- created and performed for other sake
    and to satisfies the audience
  • Example Watching movie
  • Practical Art- with a purpose, for practical use
  • something is useful
  • Example Chair and Table

  • III. By an Artist
  • - Characterize by special sensing, physical
    and special senses
  • Sight art- something that you can see, imagine,
    and create
  • Example painting, drawing, mosaic, drafting
    design, stage design, light displays and graphic
  • Sound Art- something that you can hear
  • Example Literature, Poetry, plays and Music
  • 3. Touch Art- something that you can feel or
  • Example Sculpture, Curving, Wood Craft,
  • Dance Movement, and building

IV. Other Classification
  • Real Art- something that is understandable
    what you see is what you get, objective and
  • Example photography, stage play, dance,
    sculpture, and architecture
  • 2. Abstract Art- non subject matter, non
    representational that we cannot understand on
    the part of the listener.
  • Example Grey Tree by Piet Mondrian

Elements of Art
  • Color (Hue) - gives meaning, value, intensity and
    saturation to an object. It has series of wave
    lengths which strikes our retina.
  • Example of Color and its meaning
  • Color Meaning
  • Black - Death, despair, gloom, sorrow,
  • Blue - Infinity, Freedom, Calmness,
  • Brown - Humility
  • Green - Nature, Freshness, Prosperity, Hope,
  • Orange - Sweetness, Cheerfulness,
  • Pink - Feminity, love,
  • Red - Bravery, Energy, Passion, War, Warm
  • Violet - Royalty, Dull
  • White - Purity, Clarity, Simplicity, Virginity,
  • Yellow - Joyful, Life, Vibrant, Sunshine,

Properties of colors
  • Value- lightness, brightness, darkness of color
  • Saturation- degree of quality, purity, and
    strength such as scarlet and indigo. 2 to 3
    colors in things.

Classification of colors
a. Primary colors- colors that cannot be formed
from mixtures because they are pure colors.
Example red, blue and yellow. b.
Secondary colors- colors form out of combination
of two primary colors. Example
Blue Yellow Green Red Blue Violet Red
Yellow Orange
  • c. Intermediate colors- colors form out of
    mixing one primary and one secondary.
  • Example
  • Yellow Green Yellow green
  • Red Violet Red violet
  • Red Orange Red orange
  • d. Tertiary colors- form out of combination of
    two secondary colors.
  • Example
  • Orange purple russet
  • Orange green citron
  • Purple green olives

  • II. Line - one or two dimensional art that
    indicates direction, orientation, movement,
    and energy. It is considered as the oldest,
    simplest, universal element.
  • Direction of Line
  • Vertical line- basic framework of all forms,
    power delimination, strength, stability,
    simplicity, and efficiency.
  • Horizontal line- creates an impression of
    serenity and perfect stability. Rest, calmness,
    peace, and reposed.
  • Diagonal line- it shows movement and instability.
    Portrays movement action.
  • Jog line- it shows violence, zigzag, confusion,
    and conflict.
  • Curve line- it shows a gradual change of
    direction and
  • fluidity. It signifies subtle form.

  • III. Medium - it denotes the means of artists to
    express his ideas, it pertains to materials
    used to express feelings through art.
  • IV. Rhythm- pattern, arrangement of lines,
    color, synchronization or connection of path that
    suggest gracefulness.
  • V. Style- the typical expressing and training of
    artist and outlook in life.
  • VI. Structure- surface and quality of object
    either real or made to be appeared real. It gives
    variety and beauty on art.
  • Shape - the enclosed space defined by other
    elements of
  • art. shapes may take on the appearance of two-d
  • three- objects.

Principles of Art
  • Emphasis the composition refers to developing
    points of interest to pull the viewer's eye to
    important parts of the body of the work.
  • Balance it is a sense of stability in the body
    of work. It can be created by repeating same
    shapes and by creating a feeling of equal weight.
  • Harmony  achieved in a body of work by using
    similar elements throughout the work, harmony
    gives an uncomplicated look to your work.
  • Variety refers to the differences in the work,
    you can
  • achieve variety by using difference shapes,
    textures, colors
  • and values in your work.

  • Movement adds excitement to your work by
    showing action and directing the viewers eye
    throughout the picture plane.
  • Rhythm a type of movement in drawing and
    painting. It is seen in repeating of shapes and
    colors. Alternating lights and darks also give a
    sense of rhythm.  
  • Proportion or scale refers to the relationships
    of the size of objects in a body of work.
    Proportions give a sense of size seen as a
    relationship of objects. such as smallness or
  • Unity is seen in a painting or drawing when
    all the parts
  • equal a whole. Your work should not appear
    disjointed or
  • confusing.

Different subject of work of art
  • Nature 8. churches
  • Woman 9. Child
  • Emotion 10. Fruits
  • Places 11. Toys
  • Animals 12. Landscapes
  • Events 13. Seascapes
  • Saints 14. Religion

Different ways of presenting the subject
  • 1. Realism - the artists portrays the subject as
  • Example Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet by Gustave
    Courbet in 1854

2. Abstraction - there is no subject but only his
feelings and ideas. You cannot figure out the
subject/object. Example Figura by Arturo Luz
  • 3. Distortion - usually done to dramatize the
    shape of a figure or to create an emotional
    effect. Measurement is not proportioned.
  • Example Caricature

Artist and His Medium
  • - As the materials, the artist way of
    expressing his emotion in order to communicate
    his ideas.
  • 1. Visual - that can be seen and can occupy
  • Example painting and drawing
  • 2 Auditory/time - that can be heard.
  • Example music and literature
  • - That can be seen and heard.
  • Example opera, dance, drama and movies

Artist and His Technique
  • How to control his medium to achieve his desire
    in the work of art. It also pertains to technical
    requirement of the particular work of art. It is
    how he manipulates his medium

  • The practice of applying paint, pigment, color or
    other medium to a surface (support base). In art,
    the term describes both the act and the result,
    which is called a painting.
  • Paintings may have for their support such
    surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood,
    glass, lacquer, clay or concrete.
  • Paintings may be decorated with gold leaf, and
    some modern paintings incorporate other materials
    including sand, clay, and scraps of paper.
  • Tangible canvass that we see through the use of
    his hands.
  • It is the most widely practiced and appreciated.
  • Example canvass, paper, wood, plaster

History of Painting
  • It is originated in France and was introduced in
    the Philippines by the Spaniards during 17th
  • The history of painting reaches back in time to
    artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all
    cultures, that represent a continuous, though
    disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across
    cultures, and spanning continents and millennia,
    the history of painting is an ongoing river of
    creativity that continues into the 21st century.
    Until the early 20th century it relied primarily
    on representational, religious and classical
    motifs, after which time more purely abstract and
    conceptual approaches gained favor. Developments
    in Eastern painting historically parallel those
    in Western painting, in general, a few centuries
  • earlier.

  • African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese
    art, and Japanese art each had significant
    influence on Western art, and, eventually,
  • The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte
    Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to
    be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and
    painted using red ochre and black pigment and
    show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth
    or humans often hunting. However the earliest
    evidence of painting has been discovered in two
    rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern
    Australia. In the lowest layer of material at
    these sites there are used pieces of ochre
    estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists
    have also found a fragment of rock painting
    preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the
    Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that
    is dated 40 000 years old. 1There are examples
    of cave paintings all over the worldin France,
    Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, India etc.
  • In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor
    painting are the best known media, with
    rich and complex traditions in
  • style and subject matter. In the East, ink and
    color ink historically predominated the choice of
    media with equally rich and complex traditions.

Filipino Painters
  • Juan Lunas famous works include the The Death
    of Cleopatra, which won him a silver medal at
    the National Exposition of Fine Arts (1881) and
    The Spolarium, his greatest masterpiece that
    won him a gold medal at the National Exposition
    of Fine Arts held in Madrid in 1884. The Battle
    of Lepanto won him another gold medal at the
    Barcelona Exposition in 1888. Among his
  • last painting include El Pacto de Sangre which
    won first prize
  • in Paris and at the St. Louis Exposition, USA in

  • Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo's place in Philippine
    Art was secured in the last quarter of the
    nineteenth century through his large Neoclassical
    canvases which harvested Gold and Silver Medals
    in prestigious International Exhibitions. At a
    time when merely to have one's painting accepted
    and hung in the highly competitive International
    Exhibits was a mark of having arrived as a
    painter, Hidalgo's entries stood out among
    thousands of paintings (representing in these
    Exhibits the best Europe and America had to
    offer) to win distinction a Gold Medal for his
    major work, La Barca de Aqueronte and Silver
    Medals for two others (Jovenes Cristianas
    Expuestas al Populacho and Adios del Sol). It is
    therefore through these two historical paintings
    in the grand manner" (a seascape with figure,
    Adios del Sol is a departure from the traditional
    manner) that Hidalgo's reputation as a painter is
    assured in both Philippine Art history and the
    popular mind. He is the painter of Assassination
    of Gov. Gen. Fernando Bustamante.

  • Purposes of Painting
  • 1. Painting commemorates historical events.
  • 2. For recognition of religious activities.

Elements of Painting
  • Line it is a mans own invention extension of
    a point.
  • Vertical lines power, stability, strength
  • Horizontal lines relaxation, calmness, at
    peace, laziness
  • Diagonal lines movement
  • Curve lines graceful movements, fluidity,
  • Shape it is an area of flat surface enclosed by
    a line.
  • Texture it refers to the feel or tactile
    quality of a surface of an object the roughness
    or smoothness of an object.
  • Size it is smallness or largeness of an object.
  • Color it a series of wave lengths which strike
    our retina. Spectrum consists of different
    colors red, orange, blue, indigo and violet.

  • Paints are composed of three materials
  • Pigment
  • Binder
  • Solvent

  • Pigment natural or synthetic colored materials
    finely ground into power clay, gemstones,
    minerals, plants and insects.

  • Binder holds the pigment together and adheres
    the paint to a surface, egg yolks, oil and wax.

  • Solvent can be added to thin or thicken paint,
    slow or speed up its drying time with oil or

Painting Styles
  • Fresco
  • mixing pigments with plaster (walls, ceilings)
  • Buon true Fresco paint is bound in the wet
  • Fresco secco paint is applied to dry plaster.

  • Tempera
  • water based, egg binder, used prior to 1400s,
    colors cannot be mixed, narrow range, fast-drying

  • Oil
  • easily mixed, more permanent, used after 1400,
  • painting with pigments that are bound with a
    medium of drying oil. It had a glossy and
    varnish-like effect.

  • MURAL PAINTING involved blowing colored
    pigments through tubes onto the canvas or walls.

  • PENCIL cheap, easily available, easy to work
    with and can be erased. Graphite pencils or lead
    pencils have probably made more drawings than any
    other medium.

  • A metal point drawing is made by dragging a metal
    stylus over the surface of a prepared paper,
    leaving a mark much like a graphite pencil.  
  • Many metals such as copper, brass, silver, gold
    and platinum can be used to create a metal point
    drawing, each having unique characteristics.  
  • Metal point drawings are labor intensive and
    require great patience .

  • CHARCOAL Dark, soft and harsh lines. They are
    burned sticks of wood . It is used greatly for
    sketches and portraits.

  • The main difference between them is the BINDER (
    the substance that holds the pigment together).
    Chalk have nonfat binders while crayons have
    greasy or oily, fat and wax binders.

  • is a painting medium in the form of a stick,
    consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.
  • Pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged,
    its preservation requires protective measures.

  • PEN AND INK Uses pens and ink to create
    uninterrupted lines. A major variable in ink
    drawings is the thickness or thinness of lines.

  • BRUSH AND INK When ink is diluted in water and
    applied with a brush, the result is called a WASH.

  • Also known as hot wax painting, involves using
    heated beeswax to which colored pigments are
  • The liquid/paste is then applied to a
    surfaceusually prepared wood, though canvas and
    other materials are often used.
  • Wax gives a clear luminous/shining effect.

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  • OIL
  • Painting with pigments that are bound with a
    medium of drying oil.
  • Use of oil started with 15th century
    Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck.
  • The presence of oil makes the painting shiny and
    varnished. It dries slowly.

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  • Also known as water paint, splash or body color.
  • Gouache is a water based paint consisting of
    pigment to be used in an opaque/cloudy painting
  • Gouache differs from watercolor in that the
    particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to
    water is much higher .
  • This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with
    greater reflective qualities.

  • WATERCOLOR - paints are made of pigments
    suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The
    traditional and most common support for
    watercolor paintings is paper other supports
    include fabric/cloth, wood, and canvas.

  • WATER-BASED ACRYLICS most popular synthetic
    paint introduced in 1950s. Quick-drying and
    intense colors.

  • THINNED DOWN ACRYLICS synthetic paints that are
    shot through airbrushes and spray paint

Different Techniques
  • Ability which artist fulfill his work of art and
    manipulates ideas.
  • 1. Realism - introduced by a French man named
    Gustave Courbet in 19th century. Adopted to
    describe things represent figures and exactly how
    they look like in real life.
  • Example sunset, sunrise, and nature

  • 2. Surealism - invented from the word super
    naturalism. It is used to emphasize the
    unconscious creative activity of the mind.
  • Example

  • 3. Cubism - initiated by Cezanne, the father of
    cubism. It shows
  • the flatness of the picture and rejects
    traditional perspectives.
  • Example Demoiselles d Avignon in 1907 by Pablo

  • 4. Expressionism - tries to express subjective
    feelings and emotions of the artists. It is how
    the artist feels about the subject.
  • Example The Scream by Edvard Munch in 1892

  • 5. Impressionism - the artist depicts what
    stimulates the eye. What we see is important in
    an impressionist. When they create an art they
    are more concerned with the effects of lights
    that would get the attention of the audience.
  • Example Soleil Levant (Impression, sunrise) by
    Claude Monet in 1872

  • 6. Symbolism - the visible sign of something
    invisible such as ideas or quality. Something
    that you can create in the mind such as
  • ideas that can be depicted through painting.
  • Example La mort du fossoyeur ("The death of the
    gravedigger") by Carlos Schwabe

  • 7. Pointillism - a style of painting in which the
    artists use small distinct dots of color forming
    a figure and it has an item of luminosity and
    create the impression of a wide selection of
    other colors and blending.
  • Example La Parade de Cirqu by Seurat (1889)

  • 8. Futurism - an art movement that originated in
    Italy in the early 20th century. Machine and
    motions is the main subject of this technique
    which try to show movement and speed. Rejected
    the traditional perspectives and attempted to
    glorify a new life.
  • Example The City Rises by Umberto Boccioni

  • 9. Minimalism - the form is reduced to outmost
    simplicity geometrical shape which emphasizes
  • Example The reconstruction of German Pavillion
    in Barcelona, Spain

  • 10. Fauvism - the painter try to paint picture by
    using bright and extreme colors in order to
    assume positive characters.
  • Example The portrait of Madame Matisse (The
    green line) by Henry Matisse in 1905

  • 11. Dadaism - a post-World War I cultural
    movement in visual art as well as literature
    (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. It
    shows a movement that shock and provokes the
  • Example Hitler in Hell by George Grosz

  • 12.Constructivism - derived from the word
    construction. Construction of abstract pictures
    such as metal and wire.
  • Example Model of the Monument to the Third
    International by Tatlin Tower.

  • Etymology
  • The term of " sculpture" comes from Latin word "
    sculpere" which means to cut or remove pieces
    with a stone.
  • Definition
  • It is three-dimensional artwork created by
    shaping or combining hard and/or plastic
    material, sound, and/or text and or light,
    commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal,
    glass, or wood.
  • Aesthetic art of modeling shaping single block or
    mash materials into a 3 dimensional form out of
    rock, wood, and metal.
  • Example Statue of David and U.P Oblation

  • Statue of David
  • U.P Oblation

  • The sculpture prowess of the Philippines occurred
    during Spanish regime.
  • The sculpture started when people begun to
    worship statues anino.
  • People began to do something on clays, loams then
    it evolves through technology.
  • It is often use to form religious item like
    catholic saints.
  • It is known to be the oldest art form.

  • It varied and is illustrative of how sculpture
    has changed extensively over the ages. The art of
    sculpture continues as a vital art form
  • From pre-historic and ancient civilizations to
    the contemporary, from the utilitarian and
    religious to modernist abstraction, and
    conceptual manifestations of both form and
    content, a continuous stream of creativity an
    extremely modest show of compassion.

  • Sculpture has been central in religious devotion
    in many cultures, and until recent centuries
    large sculptures, too expensive for private
    individuals to create, were usually an expression
    of religion or politics.

Historical Background of Sculpture
  • Pre-Historic Sculpture
  • The primitive people produced the so called
    fertility statues. It has been described as
    giving emphasis on the female sexual attributes.
    It emphasizes the womens wide hips and opulent
  • Primitive men made this for fear of extinction
    and it will remind them to go on and on to
    produce more offspring.

  • Egyptian Sculpture
  • The sphinx is the most popular piece in Egypt.
  • It is a huge sculpture which is described as the
    human head with a body of a croaching lion.
  • The head of the Sphinx is symbolic of the
    pharaoh, the mighty reler of Egypt, and the body
    of the croaching lion is symbolic of the mighty
    country Egypt.
  • Therefore it symbolizes the mighty strengths and
    protective power of Egypt.

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  • Greek Sculpture
  • the Golden Age of Athens was the complete
    fulfillment of the term classic for it was the
    culmination of the ideals of the time and of the
    ancient world as well. It falls into four
  • Sculptures created without regard to their
    ultimate location or method of display. Free
  • Free standing sculpture ,that is surrounded on
    all sides by space, except the base.
  • Statues identified as kore otherwise known as
    female standing sculpture.
  • Statues identified as kouros otherwise known a
    male standing sculpture.
  • Sculptures designed as ornaments for specific

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  • Roman Sculpture
  • Given the Etruscan descendant of naturalism,
    Roman portraiture set an early standard of
    excellence that became the model for the whole
    Western tradition.
  • It falls into two classes portraits and
    historical relief.
  • Both reflect the highly developed Roman taste of

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  • Baroque Sculpture
  • A restless, dynamic style with its diagonals and
    floating curved lines, and its sensuous textural
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini was the Baroque artist par
  • His known sculpture is the Ecstasy of St.

Ecstasy of St. Therese
  • Byzantine Sculpture
  • Sculptured relief during the Byzantine was used
    to adorn magnificent palaces and churches.
  • It is the richest expression of Christian

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  • Renaissance Sculpture
  • It showed some traces of classical influence in
    the pulpits of the Cathedrals of Pisa and Sienna.
  • The great master of this period is Michaelangelo.
  • His masterpiece was the Pieta today a treasure
    of St. Peters in Rome.

  • Elements of Sculpture
  • Form
  • Color
  • Line
  • Volume
  • Perspective
  • Texture
  • Style
  • Materials in Sculpture
  • Plastic
  • Aluminum
  • Bronze
  • Rock
  • Wood
  • Metal

Types of Sculpture
  • Some common forms of sculpture are
  • Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is
    surrounded on all sides by space, except the
    base. It is also known as sculpture "in the
    round", and is meant to be viewed from any angle.

  • Sound sculpture - Sound sculpture (related to
    sound art and sound installation) is an
    intermedia and time based art form in which
    sculpture or any kind of art object produces
    sound, or the reverse (in the sense that sound is
    manipulated in such a way as to create a
    sculptural as opposed to temporal form or mass).

  • 3. Light sculpture - is an intermedia and time
    based art form in which sculpture or any kind of
    art object produces light, or the reverse (in the
    sense that light is manipulated in such a way as
    to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal
    form or mass).

  • 4. Jewelry objects of personal adornment made
    of precious metals, gems, or imitation materials.

  • 5. Relief - the sculpture is still attached to a
    background types are bas-relief, alto-relievo,
    and sunken-relief.

  • 6. Site-specific art - is artwork created to
    exist in a certain place.

  • 7. Kinetic sculpture - involves aspects of
    physical motion.

  • Statue - representation list sculpture depicting
    a specific entity, usually a person, event,
    animal or object
  • Bust - representation of a person from the chest
  • Equestrian statue - typically showing a
    significant person on horseback

  • Stacked art - a form of sculpture formed by
    assembling objects and 'stacking' them.

  1. Architectural sculpture - Architectural sculpture
    is the term for the use of sculpture by an
    architect and/or sculptor in the design of a
    building, bridge, mausoleum or other such

  • Function
  • Sculpture functions as an integral part of many
    ceremonies and events.
  • Often unnoticed, it gives us a visual reference
    for our emotional experiences throughout the
    passages of life.
  • Tombstones, for example, are a form of sculpture
    commemorating death, a universal event.

  • Processes and Techniques
  • Processes in sculpting vary, and always depend on
    the materials used. There is cast sculpture,
    where a material, such as bronze, begins as a
    clay form that is cast in a mould to produce a
    given shape there is also carved sculpture, such
    as wood or stone.
  • Two distinct methods have emerged an additive
    process, where material is added again and again
    to build up the form, for example with clay, and
    the subtractive process, where the artist removes
    or subtracts materials to create the form, as in
    marble or stone carving.

  • Sculpture may be free standing (sometimes
    referred to as sculpture in the round even if it
    is a square shape), often on a pedestal or base
    where you can walk around it, or relief, where
    raised forms project from a background or
  • There is low relief, where the figure emerges at
    a level closer to the surface and high relief,
    where the figure may almost be completely
    detached from the surface or ground.

  • Types of representation and composition in relief
    are defined by their need for the ground plane on
    which the forms are superimposed or from which
    they emerge.
  • Relief can be carved in wood or stone molded in
    clay or wax cast in metal, plaster or resin.

  • Etymology
  • The word music comes from the Greek mousikê
    (tekhnê) by way of the Latin musica. It is
    ultimately derived from mousa, the Greek word
    for muse.
  • Definition
  • Consist of sounds and silences in such a manner
  • as to convey emotions and feelings of the
  • Combination of melodious tones, and sounds
  • of varying pitch to produce harmony.

Function of Music
  • Religious and ceremonial purpose
  • Release the tensions and emotion
  • To listen to music intelligently
  • Therapeutic value
  • For entertainment
  • Experience reflect music
  • 7. Learning is made easy to music

Properties of Music
  • 1. Pitch - highness and lowness of tone.
  • 2. Duration - the length of time over which
    vibration is maintained.
  • 3. Volume - loudness and softness of voice.
  • Timber/tone color - distinctive or individual
    quality of the sound.
  • Elements of Music
  • 1. Rhythm - the over all movement or swing of
    music, slow or fast movements.
  • Melody - emotional motions, sometimes called the
  • element of music. It is what the listener

  • 3. Harmony - it is the combination of different
    tones and blending of voice.
  • 4. Dynamics - the softness and loudness of voice.
    It is the force of music.
  • Style - the result of restraining, temperament.
    Singers way of doing his music.
  • Different Mediums of Music
  • I. Vocal medium refers to human voice.
  • Vocal classes
  • Soprano - highest register of voice for female
  • Example Sylvia dela Torre and Armida
  • Siguion-Reyna, (coloratura soprano) Charlotte

  • Mezzo soprano - medium register of voice for
  • Example Betty Allen (america) and Lea Salonga
  • Alto - lowest register of voice for female
  • Example Claire dela Fuente and Isay Alvarez
  • Tenor - highest register of voice for male
  • Example Luciano Pavarotti was (this century's
    most famous tenor) Carreras, Pavorotti, Placido
    Domingo, and Eric Caruso
  • Baritone - medium register of voice for male
  • Example Nonoy Zuñiga
  • Bass - lowest register of voice for male
  • Example Tim Riley (performed in Gold City

Solo - singing without accompanimentDuet - a
group of two singers or a composition of two
voicesAcappella- is an all-male Contemporary
Christian vocal group founded in 1982 by Keith
Lancaster, who has variously played the role of
singer, songwriter and producer throughout the
group's history. Chorus or choir - a musical
ensemble of singers. Choir/chorus - a body of
singers who perform together. Often applied to
groups affiliated with a church.Quartet - a
method of instrumentation (or a medium), used to
perform a musical composition, and consisting of
four parts.
  • II. Instrumental medium - with the use of musical
  • 1. Strings - They consist of the violin, viola,
    cello, and double bass. They all have the same
    basic shape, but are very different in size.
    They each have four strings, are made of wood,
    and are played by drawing a bow across the
    strings or plucking the strings with the

  • Brass - instruments are the loudest members of
    the orchestra. They include French horn, trumpet,
    trombone, and tuba. Brass instruments are long
    tubes of metal which the player blows into
    through a mouth-piece at one end. The player
    makes a buzzing sound with his or her lips, and
    the sound comes out the other end which is wider,
    like a bell.

  • Woodwinds - instruments are most commonly made of
    wood or metal, and are played by blowing air
    across an opening at one end or through a "reed",
    and by covering and uncovering holes along the
    instrument with fingers or levers, keys, and
    pads. The members of this family are flute and
    piccolo, oboe and English horn, clarinet and bass
    clarinet, and bassoon and contra-bassoon.

  1. Percussion - instruments are the rhythm section
    of the orchestra. They make sounds when they are
    struck, scraped, or rattled with hands or special
    sticks. Some percussion instruments have a
    definite highness or lowness, a quality called
    pitch, and some do not have a definite pitch.
    Xylophone, timpani, chimes, vibraphone, and
    Celesta are examples of pitched percussion
    instruments, while bass drum, snare drum,
    triangle, cymbals, and tambourine are non-pitched
    percussion instruments.

Kinds of Music
  • Program music - any music which is connected on
    poem or story more on literature.
  • Example An Alpine Symphony by Richard Strauss
  • Folk music - tradition music of people, race,
    generation which is past from one generation to
    another generation.
  • Example Tinikling, Singkil, Itik-Itik
  • Art music - normally accompanied by piano. The
    most sophisticated of all.
  • Example Serenade by Franz Schubert

  • 4. Jazz music - more on trumphets, violin,
    clarinet, trombone, drums, and saxophone.
  • Example Careless Whisper and Somewhere Over
    the Rainbow
  • 5. Classical music - depicts love
  • Example Oh ilaw, hating gabe, nasan ka irog
  • 6. Opera - combination of song, dance, acting,
    ballet, Broadway
  • Example Miss Saigon, Chicago, les
  • New York

  • Composer - a person who create musical or
    literary work
  • Best Composers
  • Vennie Saturno Be my Lady
  • Ogie Alcasid Kung mawawala ka
  • Danny Tan Close to where you are
  • Lito Camo Para Sayo
  • Ryan Cayabyab Kailangan Kita
  • Jose Marie Chan Christmas in our hearts
  • Louie Ocampo Say that you love me
  • George Canseco Kastilyong Buhangin

  • Etymology
  • The word Dance comes from an old German word,
    Danson, which means to stretch.
  • Definition
  • a sport and art form that generally refers to
    movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to
    music used as a form of expression, social
    interaction or presented in a spiritual or
    performance setting.
  • - It is an art performed by individuals or groups
    of human beings, existing in time and space, in
    which the human body is the instrument and
    movement is the medium
  • - Rhythmic movement of the body to create
    emotions with music
  • Succession or arrangement of steps performed for
  • such as rituals or expression of inner thoughts

  • History
  • Dance has certainly been an important part of
    ceremony, rituals, celebrations and entertainment
    since before the birth of the earliest human
    civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of
    dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000
    year old Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka paintings in
    India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting
    dancing figures from circa 3300 BC.Dance does not
    leave behind clearly identifiable physical
    artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements
    or cave paintings. It is not possible to say when
    dance became part of human culture.
  • One of the earliest structured uses of dances
    may have been in the performance and in the
    telling of myths. It was also
  • sometimes used to show feelings for one of the
    opposite gender.
  • It is also linked to the origin of "love making."
  • the production of written languages, dance was
    one of
  • the methods of passing these stories down from
  • generation to generation.

  • Elements of Dance
  • Choreography - creation of steps with music and
    movement with a rhythm of music
  • 2. Costumes- the style of dress that a dancer
    wears. It depends upon the color
  • Dancer - a person who perform synchronize
    movement. usually employed on contract or for
    particular performances/productions such as Anna
    Pavlova Patrick Swayze Rudolf Nureyev.
  • Decoration - it pertains to props, design and
  • Movement - the action of the dancer as they move
  • create various and to communicate with audience

  • Music - the mood and the plan based on the music
  • Technique - control of the muscles over the body
  • 8. Theme - it is actually the main content of the
    dance. It tells us what the dance is trying to
  • Choreographer - Choreographers are generally
    university trained and are typically employed for
    particular projects or, more rarely may work on
    contract as the resident choreographer for a
    specific dance company. Joy Cancho, Geleen
    Eugenio, Leonides D. Arpon, Gerald Casel, and Max
    Luna III Filipino

  • 1. Folk Dance - it pertains to traditional dance
  • Example Tinikling, Cariñosa,
  • Social Dance - it is a kind of dance that we
    perform in small gatherings
  • Example Ballroom Dance, Cha Cha, Rumba, Waltz,
    and Sway
  • Modern Dance - based on the natural expressive
    movements by which means the dancer expresses a
    wide range of emotions
  • Example Solo, Group Dance, and Interpretative
  • Ethnic Dance - used to perform their rituals
  • Example Pagdiwata of the Tagbanwa of Palawan

  • Indian Dance - highly exaggerated facial
    expression and extensive vocabulary of hand
  • Example Kathakali, Bhangra, and Punjab
  • Ballet - a stage entertainment which enacts a
    story of expresses a dramatic idea through dance
    or theatrical story telling. It is a combined
    with music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and
  • Example The Swan
  • Court Dance - a street dance.
  • Example Panagbenga and Ati-atihan
  • Theatrical Dance - perform in order to convey
    drama or play.
  • Example Opera, Myme, and Classical dance

  • Etymology
  • The word "photography" comes from the Greek
    (phos) "light" (graphis) "stylus", "paintbrush"
    or (graphê) "representation by means of lines" or
    "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light."
    Traditionally, the products of photography have
    been called negatives and photographs, commonly
    shortened to photos.
  • Definition
  • It is the art or process of producing images
    through the use of a light sensitive chemical or
  • A photography is an actual likeness, that
    production of
  • which may not actually involve artists
    creativity. One only
  • has to press a button on a camera to produce
    this actual likeness.

  • History
  • Photography is the result of combining several
    technical discoveries. Chinese philosopher Mo Ti
    described a pinhole camera in the 5th century
  • Photography as a usable process goes back to
    the 1820s with the development of chemical
    photography. The first permanent photograph was
    an image produced in 1825 by the French inventor
    Nicéphore Niépce. However, because his
    photographs took so long to expose, he sought to
    find a new process. Working in conjunction with
    Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver
    compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz
    discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture
    darkens when exposed to light.

Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the
work, eventually culminating with the development
of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the
first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while
taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a
pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough
to be captured by the long exposure
  • Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a
    pension for his formula, in exchange for his
    promise to announce his discovery to the world as
    the gift of France, which he did in 1839.
  • Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created
    a very similar process in 1832, naming it
    Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier
    discovered another means to fix a silver process
    image but had kept it secret. After reading about
    Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process
    so that portraits were made readily available to
    the masses. By 1840, Talbot had invented the
    calotype process, which creates negative images.
    John Herschel made many contributions to the new
    methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now
    familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to
    use the terms "photography", "negative" and

He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be
a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed
Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that
it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them
permanent. He made the first glass negative in
late 1839.
  • In March 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published
    his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate
    collodion process. This became the most widely
    used process between 1852 and the late 1880s when
    the dry plate was introduced. There are three
    subsets to the Collodion process the Ambrotype
    (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or
    Tintype (positive image on metal) and the
    negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt
  • Many advances in photographic glass plates and
    printing were made in through the nineteenth
    century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the
    technology of film to replace photographic
    plates, leading to the technology used by film
    cameras today.
  • In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate
    in Physics
  • for his method of reproducing colors
    photographically based
  • on the phenomenon of interference, also known as
  • Lippmann plate.

Modes of production
  • Amateurism
  • An amateur photographer is one who practices
    photography as a hobby and not for profit. The
    quality of some amateur work is comparable or
    superior to that of many professionals and may be
    highly specialized or eclectic in its choice of
    subjects. Amateur photography is often
    pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have
    little prospect of commercial use or reward.
  • Commerce
  • Commercial photography is probably best defined
  • as any photography for which the photographer is
  • for images rather than works of art. In this
    light money
  • could be paid for the subject of the photograph
    or the
  • photograph itself. The commercial photographic
  • world could includes

  • Advertising photography photographs made to
    illustrate and usually sell a service or product.
    These images, such as pack shots, are generally
    done with an advertising agency, design firm or
    with an in-house corporate design team.
  • Fashion and glamour photography This type of
    photography usually incorporates models. Fashion
    photography emphasizes the clothes or product,
    glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography
    is popular in advertising and in men's magazines.
    Models in glamour photography may be nude, but
    this is not always the case.
  • Crime Scene Photography This type of photography
    consists of photographing scenes of crime such as
    robberies and murders. A black and white camera
    or an infrared camera may be used to capture
    specific details.
  • Still life photography it depicts inanimate
    subject matter, typically commonplace objects
    which may be either natural or man-made.

  • Food photography it can be used for editorial,
    packaging or advertising use. Food photography is
    similar to still life photography, but requires
    some special skills.
  • Editorial photography photographs made to
    illustrate a story or idea within the context of
    a magazine. These are usually assigned by the
  • Photojournalism this can be considered a
    subset of editorial photography. Photographs made
    in this context are accepted as a documentation
    of a news story.
  • Portrait and wedding photography photographs
    made and sold directly to the end user of the
  • Landscape photography photographs of different
  • Wildlife photography it demonstrates life of
    the animals.
  • Photo sharing publishing or transfer of a
    user's digital
  • photos online.

  • Steps in Photography
  • Choosing the subject- requires the wise judgment
    and artistic sense of the photographer.
  • Mechanical one- a light sensitized film contained
    in a darken box is exposed to the light from the
    object being photographed.
  • Chemical one- after the film has been exposed, it
    is treated with a series of chemical solutions to
    develop the film and produce a permanent
    negative. A photographic paint is produced from
    the negative.

Example of Photographs
  • Colours of life
  • Life photography by Kas Chan on may 26 2009

  • Journey
  • by Ferne Merrylees
  • Journey of life

Award Giving Body
  • Camera club of the Philippines
  • Best Photographers for 2007
  • Federico M. Ortiz - Master Photographer
  • Philip Clayton S. Yu - 2nd Place
  • Raphael L. Santos - 3rd Place
  • Gerardo M. Sabado - 4th Place
  • Francisco G. Balagtas - 5th Place
  • Norlito S. Quimel - 6th Place
  • Rodolfo M. de Leon - 7th Place
  • E. Billy B. Mondonedo - 8th Place
  • Leonardo A. Riingen - 9th Place
  • Raoul E. Littaua - 10th Place

  • Etymology
  • Derived from the Greek word kineo (to stir
    literally or figuratively to stir
    (transitively), literally or figuratively)
  • Definition
  • It is a term that embraces many types of film or
    movies cartoons, newsreels, commercials,
    industrial film, educational films, social
    documentaries, and even home movies.
  • It is an act of presentation in lights made
    picture possible to appear in a two dimensional
  • It is combination of frames and lights
  • It is a way of expressing ideas, attitudes,
    feelings, dreams,
  • and fantasies to an audience through series of
    lights and
  • images.

  • History
  • It was the time of Shakespeare when drama
    became modern of play. The play came from
    Shakespeare story. It was Thomas Edison who made
    cinema possible through his invention called
    optic lights which gives rise to motion pictures.
    We cannot imagine life without cinema because
    through this we appreciate the past.
  • Elements of Cinema
  • 1. Music - a movie is being remembered by its
    music and it is usually came out during the
    climax of the story
  • 2. Characters - those who act to portray the
    role of the story
  • that is being presented

  • 3. Directors - the one who do and undo the film
    regarded as the captain of the ship
  • 4. Script - the subject of the film. It is the
    story itself
  • 5. Cinematography - anything you see in the
    screen it is the picture in motion that you see
    in the cinema.
  • 6. Camera shots - gives the definite point of
    view, the focus, the angles, and the movement
  • 7. Value - to make a man a better person,
    cultured, and refined

  • Different Kinds of Film
  • Action - a movie with a lot of exciting effects
    like car chases and gun fights, involving
    stuntmen. They usually involve 'goodies' and
    'baddies', so war and crime are common subjects.
    Action films usually need very little effort to
    watch, since the plot is normally simple
  • Example Die hard, Saving Private Ryan, Quantum
    of Solace, Rambo, Isang Bala ka lang, Batas ng
    lansangan, and Anak ni Baby Ama.
  • Comedy - are funny movies about people being
    silly or doing unusual things that make the
    audience laugh.
  • Example Bruce Almighty, Click, The Love Guru,
  • You Don't Mess with the Zohan, Pedro Penduko,
  • Skul Bukol

  • Horror - films use fear to excite the audience.
    Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in film
    studios where the film is made) are all designed
    to add to the feeling.
  • Example The Ring, The grudge, Shutter, Ouija
    Board, Halimaw sa Banga, and Feng shui
  • 4. Drama - are serious and often about people
    falling in love or people who have to make a big
    decision in their life. They tell stories about
    relationships between people. They usually follow
    a basic plot where one or two main characters
    (each actor plays a character) have to 'overcome'
    (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them)
    to get what they want.
  • Example A Walk to Remember, Hwang Jini, Mila,
  • Abakada Ina, and Bata Bata Pano ka ginawa?

  • Documentary - present a fact without bias
    judgment and comment. Movies that are about real
    people and real events. They are nearly always
    serious and may involve strongly emotional
  • Example Batang Kalabaw, Nanay na si Nene,
  • Animated - movies use childish images like
    talking pigs to tell a story. These films used to
    be drawn by hand, one frame at a time, but are
    now made on computers.
  • Example Babes, Cats and Dogs, Ice Age,
    Fantasia, Kung Fu Panda, Bolt, Mulan, and
    Prinsesa Urduja
  • 7. Fantasy - a movie of daydream or illusion
  • Example Peter Pan, Harry Potter, Lord of the
  • Darna, Captain Barbel, and Lastikman

  • 8. Thrillers/Suspense - are usually about a
    mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be
    solved. The audience is kept guessing until the
    final minutes, when there are usually 'twists' in
    the plot (surprises).
  • Example Da Vinci code, Angels and Demons,
    Sigaw, and Patayin sa Sindak si Barbara
  • Romance - are usually love stories about 2 people
    from different worlds, who must overcome
    obstacles to be together. It is always
    light-hearted, but may include some emotion.
  • Example Titanic, Twilight, Slumdog Millionaire,
    One More Chance, The Promise, and I
    Will Always Love You
  • Buddy - movies involve 2 heroes, one must save
    the other,
  • both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often
  • involve comedy, but there is also some emotion,
  • of the close friendship between the
  • Example Shanghai Nights, Forbidden Kingdom,
    Shaolin Kid,
  • and Buddy and Sol

  • - These are institutions, academies and
    fellowships that are handing out awards,
    citations and recognitions to outstanding film
    achievements for a certain calendar year.
  • FAMAS - Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and
  • FAP - Film Academy of the Philippines
  • MMFF - Metro Manila Film Festival
  • Gawad Urian- Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino
  • Star Awards for Movies (Philippine Movie Press
  • Catholic Mass Media Awards (Archdiocese of

  • Gawad Pasado (Film Desk Critics' Circle)