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Chapter 1 Notes

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Chapter 1 Notes The Human Organism Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy the scientific discipline that investigates the body s structure. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Notes


1
Chapter 1 Notes
  • The Human Organism

2
Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
  • Anatomy
  • the scientific discipline that investigates the
    bodys structure. Ex. Anatomy describes the shape
    and size of bones.
  • Physiology
  • the scientific investigation of the processes or
    functions of living things.

3
Types of Anatomy
  • Gross Anatomy- structures examined without a
    microscope.
  • Systemic- studied system by system.
  • Regional- studied area by area.
  • Surface- external form and relation to deeper
    structures as x-ray in anatomic imaging.
  • Microscopic Anatomy- structures seen with a
    microscope.
  • Cytology cellular anatomy.
  • Histology study of tissues.

4
Topics of Physiology
  • Reveals dynamic nature of living things.
  • Considers operations of specific organ systems.
  • Cell physiology- examines processes in cells
  • Neurophysiology- focuses on the nervous system
  • Pathology
  • Exercise Physiology

5
Structural Functional Organizations
  • Chemical level
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Cell level
  • Tissue level
  • Organ level
  • Organ system level
  • Organism level

6
Terminology and the Body Plan
  • Anatomical Position- body erect, face forward,
    feet together and palms face forward
  • Other Body Positions
  • Supine lying face upward.
  • Prone lying face downward.

7
Directional Terms
  • Superior- A structure above another.
  • Inferior- A structure below another.
  • Anterior- The front of the body.
  • Posterior- The back of the body.
  • Dorsal-Back area.
  • Ventral-Stomach area.
  • Proximal- Closer to the point of attachment to
    the body than another structure.
  • Distal- Farther from the point of attachment to
    the body than another structure.
  • Medial- Toward the midline of the body.
  • Lateral- Away from the midline of the body.
  • Superficial- Toward or on the surface.
  • Deep- Away from the surface, internal.

8
Body Terms
9
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10
Characteristics of life
  • Organization- condition in which there are
    specific relationships and functions.
  • Metabolism- all chemical reactions of the body.
  • Responsiveness- ability to sense changes and
    adjust.
  • Growth
  • Development- changes over time.
  • Differentiation- change from general to specific.
  • Morphogenesis- change in shape of tissues,
    organs.
  • Reproduction- new cells or organisms.

11
CONCEPT CHECK!
  • What is the difference between anatomy and
    physiology?
  • -A study of the structures parts of an
    organism
  • -P study of the processes functions
  • What are the levels of organization of living
    things? Describe them.
  • -cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
  • What is metabolism?
  • -all the chemical reactions in the body
  • What is the difference between growth and
    development?
  • -growth increase in height or mass
  • -development changes over time (differentiation
    morphogenesis)

12
Body Parts and Regions
  • Upper limb- consists of the arm, forearm, wrist,
    hand.
  • Lower limb- consists of the thigh, leg, ankle,
    and foot.
  • Central region of body- consists of the head,
    neck and trunk.
  • Trunk divided into the thorax (chest), abdomen,
    and pelvis.

13
Body Planes
  • Sagittal plane- divides the body vertically into
    right left portions
  • Midsagittal/Median- divides the body into equal
    right and left halves.
  • Parasagittal- runs vertically through the body to
    one side of the midline
  • Transverse (Horizontal)- divides the body into
    superior inferior portions.
  • Frontal (Coronal)- divides the body into anterior
    and posterior parts.

14
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15
Body Cavities
  • Thoracic Cavity- surrounded by the rib cage
  • Mediastinum- contains the heart, thymus gland,
    trachea, esophagus, blood, vessels.
  • Diaphragm- large muscle that separates upper
    lower cavities
  • Abdominal Cavity
  • Contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen,
    pancreas, and kidneys.
  • Pelvic Cavity
  • Contains the urinary bladder, part of the large
    intestines, and the internal reproductive organs.
  • Ambdominopelvic- large double cavity below
    breathing muscle

16
Serous Membranes
  • Serous membranes- covers the organs lining of
    the trunk cavities.
  • Visceral-thin membrane that covers the organs
    within the cavity.
  • Parietal- wall of body cavity that covers its
    surface.
  • Pericardial cavity- surrounds the heart
  • Pleural cavity- surrounds each lung.

17
Systems of the Body
  • Systems Studied ?
  • Integumentary-consists of skin, hair, nails
    sweat glands
  • Skeletal-protects/supports body, produces blood
    cells, stores minerals (bones)
  • Muscular-consists of muscles (movement)
  • Nervous-consists of brain spinal cord, nerves
    receptors
  • Vascular-blood
  • Circulatory-consists of the heart and blood
    vessels
  • Respiratory-exchanges gases btn the blood air
    regulates blood pH
  • Digestive-breaks down food absorbs nutrients
  • Reproductive-ability to reproduce new offspring
  • Not StudiedBut still important to the body ?
  • Endocrine-consists of glands that secrete
    hormones
  • Lymphatic-maintains tissue fluid balance
    absorbs fat
  • Urinary-removes waste products from the
    circulatory system regulates blood pH

18
Homeostasis
  • Values of variables fluctuate around the set
    point to establish a normal range of values.
  • Set point- the ideal normal value of a variable.
  • What is the set point for body temperature?

19
Negative Feedback
  • Most systems of the body are regulated by
    negative-feedback mechanisms that maintain
    homeostasis.
  • 3 Components
  • Receptor monitors the value of some variable
    (Ex. Blood Pressure)
  • Control Center establishes the set point around
    which the variable is maintained
  • Effector can change the value of the variable.

20
Negative Feedback
21
Positive Feedback
  • When a deviation occurs, response is to make
    deviation greater.
  • Leads away from homeostasis.
  • Can result in death. ?
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