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Chapter 18 Adolescence and Adulthood

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Title: Chapter 18 Adolescence and Adulthood


1
Chapter 18 Adolescence and Adulthood
2
Adolescence
  • 12 to 18 years of age.
  • Period of development during which many
    biological, cognitive, social, and personality
    traits change from childlike to adult.

3
Adolescence Sexual Maturity
  • Where do get info from?
  • Reasons for having sex
  • Conflicting Answers
  • Movie
  • magazines
  • Peers classmates
  • make sex attractive
  • Study of 174 girls gave reasons for being
    sexually active
  • Physical attraction or curious
  • Alone with partner
  • Friends were having sex

4
Adolescence Sexual Maturity
  • Decisions about becoming sexually active
  • Average marriage age 1970- 22 yrs. old
  • 1997- 26 yrs. old
  • Average of adolescence having sex
  • 1970- 29
  • 2000- 50
  • Girls being sexually active by age17
  • Today- 56
  • 1980- 42
  • Boys- 67 reported having sex by 17
  • - 43 reported no contraceptives

5
Adolescence Sexual Maturity
  • Conclusion
  • Most teenagers engage in sex earlier than what
    they think is the best age.
  • 39 of 17 yrs. Reported not having sex
  • 50 of the boys and girls use contraceptives.
  • STDs and pregnancy

6
Adolescence Cognitive Emotional Changes
  • Cognitive Development
  • Refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and
    gains an understanding of his or her world
  • through the interaction and influence of genetic
    and learned factors
  • Piagets Formal Operational Stage
  • Think about abstract or hypothetical concepts,
    understand others viewpoint, use logic to solve
    problems

7
Brain Development Reason Emotion
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Making decisions
  • Day to day planning
  • Organizing
  • Thinking about the future
  • Ability to think, reason, decide, or plan like an
    adult
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Doctors believed that the prefrontal cortex was
    fully developed in adolescence.
  • Will not be developed until early 20s
  • Teenagers simply do not have the neural basis to
    make good decisions or to think ahead.

8
Limbic System
  • Amygdala Hippocampus
  • Moody impulsive behavior
  • Limbic system grows because of the release of sex
    hormones.
  • Testosterone and Estrogen
  • Adolescents have less control over emotions and
    impulsive behaviors
  • Involved in a wide range of emotions.
  • Ecstatic
  • Depressed
  • Angry
  • Irritability

9
Limbic System Conclusion
  • Underdeveloped executive officer a
    well-developed emotional center
  • Risk taking
  • Switching moods
  • Acting impulsively

10
Kolbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • 3 levels of moral reasoning
  • Level 1 Self-Interest or preconventional
  • Lowest 2 levels of moral reasoning
  • Stage 1-
  • Decisions are based primarily on fear of
    punishment
  • Or need to be obedient
  • Stage 2
  • Moral reasoning is based on self interest
  • Involves making bargains

11
Kolbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • Level 2- Social Approval or Conventional
  • Stage 3-
  • Decisions are guided most by conforming to
    standards of others we value
  • Stage 4-
  • Moral reasoning is determined most by conforming
    to the laws of society
  • Most adolescence and adults are at this level

12
Kolbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • Level 3- Abstract Ideas or Post-conventional
  • Stage 5-
  • moral decisions are made after carefully thinking
    about all the alternatives
  • and striking a balance between human rights and
    the rights of society.
  • Some, but not all adults reach this level
  • Reach in order

13
Kolbergs Theory of Moral Reasoning
  • Criticisms
  • Focuses on moral thinking rather than moral
    behavior
  • Men and women have different moral thinking
  • Care orientation- avoiding hurt
  • Justice orientation- issues of law or equality
  • Physical structure of the brain
  • (prefrontal cortex)

14
Beyond Adolescence
  • Changes in cognitive speed
  • 20s and 30s cognitive ability peak
  • 40s and 50s memory problems begin or continue
  • 60s/ 70s/ 80s slowing of cognitive processes

15
Beyond Adolescence
  • Processing Speed
  • Rate at which we encode information into long
    term memory
  • Or recall or retrieve info from long term memory
  • Begins to slow in late 50s
  • Ability to memorize, recall words or lists

16
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17
Beyond Adolescence
  • Perceptual Speed
  • Rate at which we can identify a particular
    sensory stimuli
  • Late 50s, you start to lose it
  • Slower at decoding information
  • Reaction Time
  • Rate at which we respond (hear, see, move) to
    some stimuli
  • Slows in late 50s

18
Changes in Memory
  • 20s to 40s
  • Remember the big picture and the details
  • 50s to 70s
  • Only remember the big picture not the details
  • Memory differences
  • Young adults excel at encoding information
  • Mature adults excel at making sense of
    information
  • Have trouble encoding

19
Memory advice
  • Best way to deal w/ age related memory difficulty
  • Physical fitness
  • Exercising throughout adulthood
  • Mental fitness
  • Reading
  • Taking classes
  • Crosswords, Sedokus, Puzzles

20
Physical Changes w/ Aging
  • Normal Aging
  • Is a gradual and natural showing of our physical
    and psychological processes from middle through
    late adulthood
  • Gerontology
  • Study of aging
  • Separate normal aging from pathological aging
  • Life expectancy in 1945- 45 years old
  • Life expectancy in 2000- 76.7 years old

21
Physical Changes w/ Aging
  • Pathological Aging
  • Caused by genetic defects, physiological
    problems, and diseases all of which accelerate
    the aging process
  • Aging by Chance Theory
  • Our bodies age because of naturally occurring
    problems or breakdowns in the bodys cells,
  • which become less able to repair themselves
  • Aging by Design Theory
  • Age because there are preset biological clocks
    that determine the of times that our cell can
    divide and multiply

22
Stages of Aging
  • Early Adulthood- mid 20s
  • Middle Adulthood- 30s 40s
  • Immune system
  • senses
  • physiological response
  • and mental skills peak
  • Weight gain
  • less active
  • heart rate
  • lung capacity
  • muscle strength
  • kidney function
  • and eye sight

23
Stages of Aging
  • Late Adulthood- 50s 60s
  • Very Late- 70s and 80s
  • Decline in height
  • Lungs and kidney decline
  • Skin wrinkles
  • Joints deteriorate
  • Heart slows 35
  • Muscles deteriorate
  • Decreases in
  • Muscle strength
  • Bone density
  • Speed of nerve conduction
  • Output of lungs
  • Output of kidneys
  • Output of heart
  • Pretty much everything

24
Ericksons psychological Stages Adulthood
  • Stage 5
  • Stage 6
  • Identity v. Role Confusion
  • Adolescence (12- 20)
  • Leave behind the care free behaviors of childhood
  • Learn responsible adult behaviors
  • Intimacy v. Isolation
  • Young adulthood (20- 40)
  • Time to find develop meaningful and loving
    relationships
  • With intimacy?
  • Or without intimacy?

25
Ericksons psychological Stages Adulthood
  • Stage 7
  • Stage 8
  • Generativity v. Stagnation
  • Middle adulthood (40- 65)
  • Generativity
  • Helping the younger generation
  • Raising your own children
  • Mentoring or assisting in the community
  • Integrity v. Despair
  • Late adulthood (65 up)
  • Reflect or review on own life.
  • Do you feel content with what you accomplished?
  • Did you lead a bad life?
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