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Articles and Connecting Words


Title: Child Protection System Author: Susan Aiello Last modified by: BGastel Created Date: 10/21/2002 2:07:19 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Articles and Connecting Words

Articles and Connecting Words
ESL Short Subject
Intensive Course in Research Writing Texas AM
University July 11-15, 2011 Susan E. Aiello,
DVM, ELS WordsWorld
  • An article is a special type of modifier called a
  • a, an indefinite articles
  • the definite article
  • no article indefinite

Guidelines for Article Use
  • Every time you use a common noun or noun phrase
    (the noun plus its modifiers), you must decide
  • a
  • an (used before a vowel sound)
  • the
  • no article

Guidelines for Article Use
  • First determine whether the noun is countable or
  • If classifying a countable noun, use a or an.
  • If classifying an uncountable or plural noun, do
    not use an article.
  • To identify a noun, countable or uncountable,
    singular or plural, use the.

Guidelines for Article Use
  • the identifies the noun
  • Example I ate the apple in my lunch.
  • a, an, or no article does not identify the
    specific noun but shows to what class or group
    the noun belongs.
  • Examples I eat an apple every day.
  • I like police movies.

Guidelines for Article Use
  • If the noun is a singular countable noun, use a
    or an.
  • Example Last week, I bought ___ chemistry
    book at the University Book Store.
  • If the noun is uncountable or plural, do not use
    an article. Note The determiner some can be
    used with uncountable and plural nouns but only
    when an amount can be indicated.
  • Example Many people drink ___ bottled water.
  • Example Before I go to the office, I had better
    buy ___ printer paper.

Guidelines for Article Use
  • To identify a common noun, use the.
  • After you have classified a noun with a, use
    the when you use the noun again.
  • Example I found ___ used car that I liked
    yesterday and bought it. Now I have to buy
    insurance for ___ car.

Guidelines for Article Use
  • In the following circumstances, use the. The
    noun can be singular or plural, countable or
  • The noun is identified by a ranking adjective
    that identifies it as one of a kind (the best,
    the next, the only, etc)
  • The noun is identifiable to the reader and the
    writer through shared knowledge. The sun is
    going to rise at 600 am tomorrow. I left my
    papers in the break room.

Guidelines for Article Use
  • In the following circumstances, use the. The
    noun can be singular or plural, countable or
  • The noun phrase is identified by the modification
    that follows it. Last week I finally read ___
    article that Dr. Gastel recommended.
  • The noun is part of an of phrase showing
    quantity. Susan noticed that half of ___
    chicken had been eaten already. Some of ___
    horses will be moved to a larger paddock.

Connecting Words
  • A connector is a word or phrase used to link
    paragraphs, sentences, clauses, or words.

Types of Connectors
  • Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases,
    or independent clauses.
  • The dog ran out of the house and barked at the
  • Vincent wanted to study philosophy, but his
    father convinced him to study veterinary
  • Correlative conjunctions connect similar
    grammatical structures.
  • You will have to either get a higher-paying job
    or cut down on your expenses to pay your bills.

Connecting Words
  • Transitional words and phrases link sentences and
    paragraphs. I dislike working at night however,
    I cannot find a day job.
  • Subordinating conjunctions connect a dependent
    (or subordinate) clause with an independent
    clause. When we have finished the training
    course, we will have a test.

Connecting Words
  • Used to link items together (eg, two sentences)
    or to lead the reader to a new point
  • Help make writing clear and easy to follow by
    providing smooth links between ideas
  • Be certain of the meaning of connectors!

Connecting Words
Connecting words that add information
  • and
  • not onlybut also
  • bothand
  • also
  • beside
  • moreover
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • additionally

Connecting Words
Connecting words that give an example or
illustrate a point
  • for example
  • for instance
  • to illustrate
  • specifically
  • in particular

Connecting Words
Connecting words that show a contrast
  • but
  • however
  • in contrast
  • conversely
  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand
  • otherwise
  • still
  • instead

Connecting Words
Connecting words that show a similarity
  • likewise
  • similarly
  • in the same way

Connecting Words
Connecting words that show a concession
  • yet
  • nevertheless
  • even so
  • admittedly

Connecting Words
Connecting words that show a result
  • so
  • accordingly
  • as a result
  • consequently
  • as a consequence
  • therefore
  • thus

Connecting Words
Connecting words that give a reason or cause
  • for
  • because

Connecting Words
Connecting words that establish a time
relationship or order
  • first
  • second
  • afterward
  • finally
  • in conclusion
  • meanwhile
  • previously
  • next
  • subsequently

Connecting Words
Connecting words that show a condition
  • or (or else can also be used)
  • whetheror

Connecting Words
Connecting words that explain or emphasize
  • in fact
  • namely
  • that is
  • actually
  • in other words

Connecting Words
Connecting words that give a choice or
  • or
  • eitheror

Connecting Words
Pets play an important role in societies
throughout the world. They are important
companions in many households, contributing to
the physical, social, and emotional development
of children and the well-being of their owners,
especially senior citizens. Although pets make
important contributions, however, pet ownership
may also be associated with potential hazards.
For example, more and more exotic animals are
being invited into homes as pets. Unfortunately,
though, pet owners, and often physicians, do not
know as much as they should about the potential
of many of these unusual animals to transmit
zoonotic diseases.
Connecting Words
  • Transitional words and phrases lead your reader
    from one idea to another.
  • Connectors can introduce an example, indicate the
    order of ideas, show a contrast, etc.

Preposition Use
  • In a phrase (eg, during the daytime)
  • With a two- or three-word verb (eg, turn in,
    check up on)
  • After a noun or an adjective (eg, to be happy

Correct use of prepositions is learned mainly
through listening and reading.
Prepositions of Time
  • in month, year in February, in 1999
  • on day of the week, date on Monday, on June 1
  • in time of day in the morning, in the
    afternoon, in the evening (but at
  • at specific time of day at 800 am, at
    330 pm sharp

Prepositions of Place
  • in city, country in Dallas, in Mexico
  • on street on First Street
  • at address at 119 Royfield Dr.
  • in inside of a place in the lab, in the library
  • at a specific place at work, at home, at the
    store, at the airport, at the movies

Prepositions of Position
  • on on top of on the desk, on the chair
  • in inside in my office, in my car, in my desk