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THE BAUHAUS

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Title: THE BAUHAUS


1
THE BAUHAUS
2
Origins
  • Formed by merging the applied arts-oriented
    Weimar Arts and Crafts School with a fine arts
    school, the Weimar Art Academy
  • Walter Gropius (architect) was originally
    recruited before the war (1914) to lead the
    Arts and Crafts School
  • The merged school reopens in 1919 under the
    direction of Gropius

3
Origins
  • Gropius allowed to name the new entity - names it
    Das Staatliches Bauhaus (The State Home for
    Building)
  • Gropius influenced by Behrens (worked in his
    architectural office) and van de Velde
  • Manifesto states The complete building is the
    ultimate aim of all the visual arts.

4
Image for cover of Bauhaus Manifesto, Lionel
Feininger, 1919
5
First Bauhaus Seal, 1919
6
The School at Weimar
  • Sought a new unity of artists and craftsmen to
    build for the future
  • Stained glass, wood and metal workshops taught
    by an artist and a craftsman and organized under
    Medieval Buahütte lines master, journeyman,
    apprentice

7
The School at Weimar
  • Heart of the curriculum the preliminary course
    initially established by Johannes Itten
  • Goals of preliminary course
  • To release each students creative ability
  • Develop an understanding of the physical nature
    of materials
  • Teach the fundamental principles of design
    underlying all visual art

8
Bauhaus Curriculum, 1922
9
The School at Weimar
  • Overriding commitment to architecture encourages
    exploration of new ideas associated with de
    Stijl and Constructivism
  • Graphic design not specifically included in the
    curriculum at Weimar, constituent elements like
    photography and typography were taught
  • Advanced ideas about color, form and space were
    integrated into the design vocabulary

10
The School at Weimar
  • Lyonel Feininger introduces van Doesburgs ideas
    to the Bauhaus as early as 1919
  • Late 1920s, van Doesburg begins his contact with
    the Bauhaus (not teaching - Gropius thought him
    too dogmatic about his approach)
  • Difference in philosophies leads to Ittens
    departure in 1923

11
The School at Weimar
  • An exhibition mounted in 1923 romantic
    medievalism and expressionism were being replaced
    by applied design emphasis
  • Gropius changes the slogan from A Unity of Art
    and Handicraft to Art and Technology, a New
    Unity
  • Itten replaced by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy

12
New Bauhaus Seal, 1922
13
Exhibition Poster, Joost Schmidt, 1923
14
Catalog Cover, Herbert Bayer, 1923
15
Catalog Title Page, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1923
16
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946)
17
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
  • Born in Hungary, studied law in Budapest, joins
    Hungarian army in 1915, wounded in action in
    1917 and uses the recuperation period to pursue
    his interest in art
  • Awareness of avante-garde movements
    (Constructivism, de Stijl, Dada) take him to
    Vienna in 1919 and Berlin in 1921

18
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
  • His studio in Berlin becomes a popular meeting
    point for Kurt Schwitters, Hans Arp, El
    Lissitzky and Théo van Doesburg
  • Invited to teach at the Bauhaus in 1923 by
    Walter Gropius
  • Initially responsible for the metal workshop,
    soon placed in joint charge of the preliminary
    program

19
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946)
  • Restless experimenter, including
  • The areas of painting, photography, film,
    sculpture and graphic design
  • New materials ( acrylic resin, plastic)
  • New techniques (photomontage, photograms)
  • Visual means (kinetic motion, light,
    transparency)
  • Has marked influence on development of Bauhaus
    instruction and philosophy
  • (Gropius Prime Minister)

20
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946)
  • Advocates typography as a tool of communication
  • Emphasis on clarity
  • Legibility first, aesthetics second
  • In graphic design, he advocates
  • an uninhibited use of all linear directions
  • The use of all typefaces, type sizes, geometric
    forms, colors, etc.

21
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946)
  • Seeks to create a new language of typography
    (elasticity, variability, freshness)
  • Passion for typography and photography
  • Inspiration of Bauhaus toward visual
    communication
  • The development of the typophoto concept- the
    objective integration of word and image to
    communicate a message with immediacy
  • Photography objectivity

22
Proposed Broom Title Page, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy,
1923
23
Typophoto Poster, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1923
24
Chairs at Margate, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1935
25
Photogram, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1922
26
Photoplastic, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1927
27
The Bauhaus Moves
  • Growing tension between the Bauhaus and the
    Weimar government (a new, more conservative
    regime comes into power)
  • December 26, 1924 - the director and the masters
    all sign a resignation letter effective April 1,
    1924 when contracts expired
  • Two weeks later, the students sign a letter
    saying theyre leaving with the masters

28
The Dessau Period (1925-32)
  • Gropius signs agreement with the mayor of the
    provincial town of Dessau
  • Temporary school opens in April 1925
  • The new building opens in the fall of 1926 along
    with a reorganized curriculum
  • Bauhaus Corporation established to sell products
    of the workshops

29
Bauhaus at Dessau, Walter Gropius, 1925
30
From the Metal Workshop
31
From the Metal Workshop
32
From the Metal Workshop
33
From the Metal Workshop
34
From the weaving workshop
35
The Dessau Period (1925-32)
  • De Stijl and Constructivist influences evident,
    but as understood design principles that could
    be applied intelligently to design problems
  • Masters now called professors
  • Master/journeyman/apprentice system abandoned
  • Bauhaus renamed Hochschule für Gestaltung (High
    School for Form)

36
The Dessau Period (1925-32)
  • Bauhaus magazine and books begin publication
  • Five former students appointed as masters,
    including
  • Josef Albers - taught systematic preliminary
    course investigating the constructive quality of
    materials
  • Marcel Breur - head of furniture workshop
  • Herbert Bayer - professor of newly added
    typography and graphic design workshop

37
Bauhaus magazine cover, Herbert Bayer, 1928
38
Bauhaus brochure, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1929
39
Bauhaus brochure covers, late 1920s
40
Chair, Marcel Breuer, 1922
41
Kandinksy chair, Marcel Breuer, 1925
42
Herbert Bayer (1900-85)
43
Herbert Bayer
  • As a student (1921-23), encouraged by Gropius to
    explore graphic design, studies under Kandinsky
    and Moholy-Nagy
  • Develops quickly into a designer of wide-ranging
    abilities
  • Designs series of bold, functional typographic
    banknotes (inflation currency) for the State Bank
    of Thurginia in 1923

44
Logo for Kraus stained glass workshop, Herbert
Bayer, 1923
45
Proposed Modular Terminal/Station Design, Herbert
Bayer, 1922
46
Inflationary note, Herbert Bayer, 1923
47
Herbert Bayer (1900-85)
  • Appointed as professor in 1925
  • Uses the Bauhaus publications as a vehicle for
    his radical typographic ideas
  • Advocates the use of sans serif typefaces as the
    typographic expression of the age
  • Develops geometric universal alphabet
  • Never cut as typeface
  • Calls for the abolition of capital letters

48
Universal Alphabet, Herbert Bayer, 1925
49
Kandinsky Exhibition Poster, Herbert Bayer, 1926
50
The Final Years (1928-32)
  • Gropius resigns his post to resume private
    architectural practice (1928)
  • Swiss Architect Hannes Meyer takes over
    directorship (strong socialist beliefs)
  • Bayer and Moholy-Nagy depart to pursue graphic
    design in Berlin (1928)

51
The Final Years (1928-32)
  • Former student Joost Schmidt takes over Bayers
    typographic and design workshop (1928)
  • Moves away from strict Constructivist ideas
  • Stocks the workshop with a larger variety of
    type fonts
  • Exhibition design flourishes

52
Bauhaus magazine cover, Joost Schmidt, 1929
53
Bauhaus Exhibition Design, Joost Schmidt, 1930
54
The Final Years (1928-32)
  • Conflicts with municipal authorities forces
    Meyers resignation in 1930
  • Prominent Berlin architect Ludwig Mies van der
    Rohe (less is more) becomes director
  • Involvement of Nazis in operation of school
    leads to closure in 1933

55
THE NEW TYPOGRAPHY
56
Background
  • Much of the creative innovation in graphic design
    during the first decades of the century occurred
    as part of modern art movements and at the
    Bauhaus
  • They had yet to make their way into the
    mainstream of graphic design

57
Jan Tschichold (1902-74)
58
Jan Tschichold
  • German-born, son of sign-writer
  • Trained originally as teacher
  • Transfers to the Leipzig Academy for the Graphic
    Arts and Book Production Trade
  • Goes to work as freelance typographer/ traditional
    calligrapher

59
Handlettering example, Jan Tschichold, 1922
60
Jan Tschichold
  • Visits the first Bauhaus exhibition in 1923
  • Deeply impressed
  • Rapidly assimilates the Constructivist and
    Bauhaus concepts into his work
  • In 1925, writes an article/insert for a special
    issue of Typographische Mitteilungen, entitled
    elementarie typographie, explains and
    demonstrates asymmetrical type design to
    printers, typesetters and designers

61
Poster Design, Jan Tschichold, 1924
62
Elementare Typographie cover, Jan Tschichold, 1925
63
Elementare Typographie interior spread, Jan
Tschichold, 1925
64
Elementare Typographie interior spread, Jan
Tschichold, 1925
65
Jan Tschichold (1902-74)
  • Much German printing still used medieval textura
    type and symmetrical layouts
  • Tschicholds insert was a revelation and
    generated enthusiasm for the new approach
  • 1928 book, Die Nue Typographie (The New
    Typography), advocated these new ideas

66
Brochure layout, Jan Tschichold, 1928
67
Ad layout, Jan Tschichold, 1927
68
Cine poster, Jan Tschichold, 1927
69
Poster design, Jan Tschichold, 1927
70
Jan Tschichold (1902-74)
  • Begins to question (and eventually reject) the
    new typography - a dogma he came to associate
    with German fascism
  • After WWII, leads an international revival of
    traditional typography
  • Believes designers should draw on the whole of
    history of design to create solutions expressing
    content

71
Book cover, Jan Tschichold, 1947
72
Book cover, Jan Tschichold, 1950
73
TYPOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENTS
74
Railway Type, Edward Johnston, 1916
75
Gil Sans Family, Eric Gill, 1928-30
76
Futura, Paul Renner, 1927
77
Futura Family, Paul Renner, 1927-30
78
Kabel Light, Rudolf Koch, 1928
79
Times, Stanley Morison (typographic advisor), 1932
80
Times, Stanley Morison (typographic advisor), 1932
81
THE NEW TYPOGRAPHY SPREADS
82
The Netherlands and Switzerland
  • Influenced by modern movements and the new
    typography
  • Very personal and original visions

83
Piet Zwart (1885-1977)
  • Creates synthesis from Dadas playful vitality
    and de Stijls functionalism and formal clarity
  • No formal training in typography - uninhibited
    by the rules and methods of the traditional
    professional practice

84
Folder design, Piet Zwart, 1924
85
Ad, Piet Zwart, 1926
86
Catalog spread, Piet Zwart, 1928
87
Catalog spread, Piet Zwart, 1928
88
Catalog page, Piet Zwart, 1928
89
Personal logo, Piet Zwart, 1927
90
The Other Dutch Designers
  • Hendrik N. Werkman (1882-1945)
  • Noted for experimentation with type, ink and ink
    rollers for purely artistic expression
  • Small magazine of type experiments - next call
  • Paul Schuitema (1897-1973)
  • Overprinting and organized space
  • Willem Sandberg (1897-1984)
  • experimenta typographica

91
Next Call, Hendrick Werkman, 1924
92
Next Call, Hendrik Werkman, 1924
93
Next Call, Hendrik Werkman, 1924
94
Cover design, Paul Schuitema, 1929
95
Willem Sandberg, 1956
96
Willem Sandberg, 1956
97
Willem Sandberg, 1963
98
The Swiss Designers
  • Herbert Matter (1907-84)
  • Pioneers the extreme contrast of scale and the
    integration of black and white photography, signs
    and color areas
  • Walter Herdeg (1908-95)
  • Launches Graphis, international graphic design
    magazine - published, edited and designed it for
    42 years (256 issues)

99
Poster Design, Herbert Matter, 1934
100
Poster Design, Herbert Matter, 1935
101
Poster Design, Herbert Matter, 1934
102
Poster Design, Walter Herdeg, 1926
103
Poster Design, Walter Herdeg, 1920s
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