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Unit 8, 9, 10 Review


Kingdoms . There are 6 Kingdoms, in 3 different Domains: Domain Archaea: Kingdom . Archaebacteria: prokaryotes that seem to have diverged very early from bacteria. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 8, 9, 10 Review

Unit 8, 9, 10 Review
  • There are 6 Kingdoms, in 3 different Domains
  • Domain Archaea
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria prokaryotes that seem to
    have diverged very early from bacteria. More
    closely related to Eukaryotes than bacteria.
  • Domain Bacteria
  • Kingdom Eubacteria prokaryotes that have the
    same kind of lipid in their cell membranes as do
  • Domain Eukarya
  • Kingdoms
  • Protista Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants,
    or animals. Unicellular or multi-cellular.
  • Fungi mostly multi-cellular eukaryotes with
    chitin in their cell walls.
  • Plantae complex multi-cellular organisms that
    produce their own food.
  • Animalia complex multi-cellular organisms that
    eat other organisms for food.
  • Vertebrates an animal with a backbone
  • Invertebrates an animal with no backbone

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Domains and Kingdoms
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Classifying Organisms
  • There are eight levels of classification.
  • Similar genera are grouped into a family.
  • Similar families are grouped into an order.
  • Similar orders are grouped into a class.
  • Similar classes are grouped into a phylum.
  • Similar phyla are grouped into a kingdom.
  • Similar kingdom are grouped into domains.
  • Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
  • Do Kindly Pay Cash Or Furnish Good Security
  • Daring Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk

Groups at the top are more inclusive! Groups
towards the bottom are less inclusive!
Observations from fossils, comparative
morphology, and comparative biochemistry are used
to construct taxonomic systems and to organism
organisms into these various groups.
Adaptations of Plants
  • The first plants lived near water, where drying
    out was not a problem.
  • Eventually, plants developed traits to allow them
    to live in drier habitats.
  • Cuticle a waxy, watertight covering that reduces
    water loss
  • Covers the non-woody aboveground plant parts
  • Stomata (singular stomata) pores that permit
    plants to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Guard Cells Specialized cells that border stoma
  • Stomata open and close as the guard cells change

Plant Tissue Types
  • Dermal Tissue the protective outer layer of a
  • Ground Tissue makes up much of the inside of the
    non-woody parts of a plant, including roots,
    stems, and leaves.
  • Vascular Tissue tissues that distribute
    materials efficiently through the plant.
  • Xylem
  • Phloem

Conducting Tissue
  • Vascular Plant a plant with a vascular system
  • Vascular system a system of well-developed
    vascular tissues that distribute materials
    efficiently through the plant in larger, complex
  • Non-vascular Plant a plant with no vascular
  • Types of Vascular Tissue
  • Phloem soft-welled cells that transport organic
  • Xylem hard-walled cells that transport water in
    mineral nutrients
  • The Xylem and the phloem are contained in a
    strand of conducting tissue called the Vascular

Root Conducting Tissue
  • Plants developed roots to absorb nutrients
  • Roots are made of 3 types of tissue
  • Epidermis the outside layer
  • Vascular tissue the conducting tissue, contains
    the xylem and phloem
  • Cortex tissue stores sugar and starch
  • All roots have a protective covering at the end
    of the root called a root cap, And tiny root
    hairs along the side of the root that increase
    absorption of nutrients by increasing surface
  • Roots are divided into 2 categories based upon
  • Tap roots large central roots from which many
    smaller roots branch
  • Fibrous root highly branched root system
  • Additionally, some plants also have roots that
    grow from aboveground stems or leaves, which are
    called adventitious roots.

Monocots and Dicots
  • Monocots flowering plants that produce seeds
    with one seed leaf
  • Most monocots also produce flowers with parts
    that are in multiples of three
  • Have long, narrow leaves with parallel veins
  • Dicots flowering plants that produce seeds with
    two seed leaves
  • Most dicots produce flowers with parts in
    multiples of two, four, or five
  • Have leaves with branching veins

Ground Tissue
  • Makes up most of the inside of plants.
  • Can have different functions
  • Leaf Ground Tissue full of chloroplasts for
  • Stem Ground Tissue stores water, sugar, and
  • Root Ground Tissue sores water, sugar, and

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  • Male Parts
  • Anther
  • Filament
  • The anther and filament together make up the
  • Female Parts
  • Stigma
  • Style
  • Ovary
  • The stigma, style, and ovary together make up the
  • Other Parts
  • Petal
  • Sepal

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Movement of Water
  • Water moves from the roots to the leaves in the
  • Basically, water is pulled up through the plant
    through transpiration pull as water evaporates.
  • Transpiration the loss of water vapor from a
  • Root Pressure root pressure, in plants, force
    that helps to drive fluids upward into the
    water-conducting vessels (xylem)

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Guard Cells and Transpiration
  • A stoma is surrounded by a pair of guard cells
    that are shaped like two cupped hands.
  • Changes in water pressure within in the guard
    cells cause the stoma to open or close.
  • When the guard cells take in water, the swell,
    opening the stoma an allowing transpiration to
  • When water leaves the guard cells, the shorten
    and move close to each other, closing the stoma
    and stopping transpiration.

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Movement of Organic Compounds
  • Organic compounds move through a plant within the
  • Source the part of a plant that provides organic
    compounds for other parts
  • A leaf is a source because it makes starch in
  • Sink the part of a plant that organic compounds
    are delivered to
  • Actively growing areas are sinks because they
    need sugar to grow
  • Translocation the movement of organic compounds
    within a plant from a source to a sink

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Pollination and Germination
  • Pollination the transfer of pollen grains from
    the male reproductive structures of a plant to
    the female reproductive structures of a plant.
  • Germination the beginning of growth or
    development in a seed, spore, or zygote,
    especially after a period of inactivity.

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Seeds Sprout
  • Seeds contain a plant embryo that is in a state
    of suspended animation.
  • Seeds sprout with a burst of growth in response
    to certain changes in the environment.
  • Examples rising temperature, increased moisture
  • Endosperm a triploid tissue that develops in the
    seeds of angiosperms and that provides food for a
    developing embryo

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  • Meristem a region of undifferentiated plant
    cells that are capable of dividing and developing
    into specialized plant tissues.
  • Primary Growth growth that increases the length
    or height of a plant.cell division.
  • Secondary Growth growth that increases the width
    of stems and roots.

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Hormonal Control of Growth
  • Plants bend toward light as they grow.
  • Auxin the chemical that causes the stem to bend
    towards light.

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  • Tropism a response in which a plant grows either
    toward or away from a stimulus.
  • Three Types of Tropisms
  • Phototropism responses to light
  • A plant bends towards light, this is called
    positive phototrophism.
  • Gravitropisms responses to gravity
  • The upward growth of shoots is a negative
    gravitropism the downward growth of roots is a
    positive gravitropism.
  • Thigmotropism response to touch
  • The coiling of a grapevine around a wire is

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Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
  • Arteries blood vessels that carry blood away
    from the heart. Eventually blood is pushed
    through to the much smaller capillaries.
  • Capillaries tiny blood vessels that allow the
    exchange of gases, nutrients, hormones, and other
    molecules in the blood. From the capillaries,
    the blood flows into venules and then veins.
  • Veins blood vessels that carry blood back to the

Three Types of Blood Cells
  • Red Blood Cells the majority of blood cells,
    these are cells that carry oxygen. Also called
  • White Blood Cells defend the body against
  • Platelets help blood to clot, so that all of
    your blood wont leak out of your body!

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The Digestive System
  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Salivary Glands
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small Intestine
  • Large Intestine
  • Duodenum
  • Rectum
  • Anus
  • Gallbladder
  • Liver
  • Pancreas

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Neurons and Synapses
  • Neurons nerve cells
  • Dendrites extend from nerve cell body
  • Axon Long membrane-covered extension of
    cytoplasm that conducts nerve impulses
  • Nerves Bundles of axons
  • Synapse a junction at which a neuron meets

The Brain
  • The Brain The bodys main processing center.
  • Cerebrum controls learning, memory, perception,
    and intellectual function.
  • Cerebellum regulates balance, posture, and
  • Brain Stem important to homeostasis regulates
    heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature.
  • Thalamus sensory processing
  • Hypothalamus help regulates breathing, heart
    rate, hunger, thirst, and the endocrine system
  • The Hypothalamus is a great example of the
    important connection between the nervous and
    endocrine systems.

The Spinal Cord a dense cable of nervous tissue
that runs through the vertebral column, starting
at the medulla oblongata.
The Endocrine System
  • Endocrine Glands ductless organs that secrete
    hormones directly into either the bloodstream or
    the fluid around cells (extracellular fluid).
  • All endocrine glands and hormones together make
    up the Endocrine System.

Feedback Mechanisms
  • The human body makes more than 40 hormones, and
    it must regulate the release.
  • The endocrine system plays an important role in
    homeostasis different hormones moving through
    the bloodstream affect specific target tissues,
    and the amounts of various hormones must be
    maintained in a very narrow range.
  • Feedback mechanisms detect the amount of hormones
    in circulation and the endocrine system then
    adjusts the amount of hormones being made or

Negative Feedback
  • Positive Feedback when high levels of a hormone
    stimulate the output of even MORE hormone.
  • Example the hormone that stimulates egg release
    also regulates the female hormone estrogen. A
    rise in estrogen levels, however, will stimulate
    the release of more of the regulatory hormone.
  • Negative Feedback a change in one direction
    stimulates the control mechanism to counteract
    further change in the same direction.
  • Controls most hormone release in humans.
  • Example high levels of a hormone inhibit the
    production of more hormone, whereas low levels of
    a hormone stimulate the production of more
  • The liver plays a role in negative feedback by
    removing the hormones from the blood and breaking
    them down.
  • Negative feedback works like trying to maintain a
    certain speed by pressing or releasing the gas

In negative feedback, a secondary substance
blocks production of its initial stimulating
  • Once new species start moving into this newly
    formed habitat, they go through process called
  • Succession a somewhat regular progression of
    species replacement
  • Primary Succession succession that occurs where
    life has not existed before
  • Volcanic island
  • Secondary Succession succession that occurs in
    areas where there has been previous growth
  • Abandoned field

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Trophic Levels
  • Trophic Level one of the steps in a food chain
    or pyramid.
  • First Level (lowest level) producers which
    perform photosynthesis and sometimes absorb
    nitrogen gas with the help of nitrogen-fixing
  • Second Level Herbivores, which eat primary
    producers. Use microorganisms to help digest
    plant materials in their guts.
  • Third Level Secondary consumers animals that
    eat other animals.
  • Fourth Level Tertiary Consumers carnivores that
    eat other carnivores
  • Detritivores organisms that obtain their energy
    from the organic wastes produced at all trophic
  • Decomposers Bacteria and fungi are decomposers
    because they cause decay.
  • Decay is very important because it allows for the
    recycling of nutrients.

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The Pyramid of Energy
  • Ecologists often illustrate the flow of energy
    through an ecosystem using an energy pyramid.
  • Energy Pyramid a diagram in which each Trophic
    level is represented by blocks stacked one
  • The width of the block indicates how much energy
    is stored at each trophic level.
  • Only about 1/10 of the energy in a trophic level
    is found in the next trophic level, so it takes a
    pyramid shape.

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The Water Cycle
  • Of all nonliving components of an ecosystem,
    water has the greatest impact on the inhabitants
  • Precipitation (rain and snow)
  • Ground water (water stored under ground)
  • Ultimately the water cycle is caused by heating
    by the sun leading to evaporation.
  • Living Systems
  • Transpiration

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The Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon cycles between the nonliving environment
    and living organisms.
  • The nutrient cycling of carbon is very closely
    related to the cycling of Oxygen (O2).
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air/water is used by
    plants, algae, or bacteria in photosynthesis to
    make new organic nutrients (sugars). Carbon
    atoms can return to the pool of CO2 in the air
    and water in three ways
  • Respiration
  • Combustion
  • Erosion

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The Phosphorus Cycle
  • Phosphorus is an essential part of our bodies.
  • Essential for ATP and DNA creation.
  • Phosphorous is usually stored in soil and rock as
    calcium phosphate.
  • It dissolves in water to form phosphate ions,
  • This phosphate is absorbed by the roots of plants
    and used to build organic molecules.
  • Animals eat the plants and reuse the organic

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The Nitrogen Cycle
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  • The atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen gas, N2.
  • In spite of how much nitrogen is around us, most
    organisms cannot use it in that form because of
    the strong bonds between the two N atoms.
  • Some bacteria can break the bond and make
    ammonia, NH3 in a process called Nitrogen
  • Nitrogen Fixation the process by which gaseous
    nitrogen is converted into ammonia, a compound
    that organisms can use to make amino acids.
  • Nitrogen fixation is performed by bacteria that
    live in the soil and root nodules (swellings) of
    plants like alder trees.

Acid Rain
  • Coal-burning power plants make smoke with lots of
    sulfur, because the coal contained lots of
  • Sulfur introduced into the atmosphere combines
    with water vapor to form sulfuric acid.
  • Sulfuric acid carried back to Earths surface in
    precipitation (rain or snow) is called Acid
  • Lowering the pH of water (making it more acidic)
    can cause death of organisms such as lake
    animals, tree root fungi, and plant death.

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Ozone Destruction
  • The ozone is being destroyed primarily by a class
    of chemicals called Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
    CFCs are normally stable.
  • CFCs are used as coolants in refrigerators and
    air conditions, as propellants in aerosol spray
    cans, and foaming agents in plastic-foam
  • It turns out, high in the atmosphere where we
    find the ozone layer, CFCs are not so stable.
  • They lose a chlorine atom, which enters into a
    series of reactions that destroy the Ozone (O3)
    and turn it into regular Oxygen (O2).
  • CFCS are now banned as aerosol can propellants in
    the U.S.

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The Greenhouse Effect
  • Our planet would be cold except that we have a
    layer of Greenhouse Gases containing water vapor,
    carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and nitrous oxide
    keeping it warm because the bonds between these
    atoms absorbs solar energy as heat radiates from
    earth. This is called the Greenhouse Effect.
  • Greenhouse Effect heat is trapped within the
    atmosphere of the Earth in the same way that
    glass traps heat in a greenhouse.
  • Due to the burning of fossil fuels, we have
    increased the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

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Types of Chemical Pollution
  • Biological Magnification the accumulation of
    increasingly large amounts of toxic substances
    within each successive link of the food chain.
  • In birds, DDT causes eggs to be thin, and
    fragilethese eggs often break.
  • This was the worst in predatory birds because
    they are high in the food chain and occupy a high
    trophic level.
  • As such, the numbers of predatory birds dwindled.
  • In 1972 the use of DDT was restricted in the U.S.

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Climate, Temperature, and Moisture
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