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Immunology

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Title: Immunology


1
  • Immunology
  • Jianzhong Chen, PhD
  • Institute of Immunology
  • Zhejiang University

2
References
  • ?? ??????????? ,??????? 2010
  • ??? ??????????? ??????? 2008
  • Abbus A K, et al. Cellular and Molecular
    Immunology. 7th Edition,Elsevier Saunders . 2012
  • Janeway C A, et al. Immunobiology. 8th ed.
    Garland Science Publishing . 2012

3
Content
  • Introduction of Immunology
  • Brief History of Immunology

4
Introduction of Immunology
5
Introduction of Immunology
  • Concept of Immunity
  • Immune Response
  • Immune Cells
  • Tissues and Organs of the Immune System
  • Immunopathology

6
Immunity
  • 1.Immunity Meaning the state of protection
    from infectious disease.
  • In 430BC, a plaque in Athens, Those who
    recovered from the plaque would not contact the
    disease a second time.
  • 2. Agents microorganisms (viruses, bacteria etc)
    and their products, foods, chemicals, pollen,
    tumor cells, etc.
  • 3.Immune system immune tissues and organs,
    immune cells, immune molecules
  • 4.Immune response collective and coordinated
    response to the introduction of foreign
    substances.
  • 5.Immunology study the structure of immune
    system and its functions.

7
Immune Response
  • Innate immune response
  • natural immune response
  • non-specific immune response
  • Adaptive immune response
  • acquired immune response
  • specific immune response

8
The innate and adaptive immune response
Characteristics Cells Molecules
Innate immunity
Responds rapidly No memory No or low specificity Physical barriers Phagocytes (PMNs and macrophages) Natural killer cells Humoral factors Complement Acute phase Proteins Cytokines
Adaptive immunity
Responds Slowly Memory Highly specific T cells B cells Dendritic cells Antibodies Cytokines Granzymes
9
Innate immunity mechanism of recognition
  • Pathogen associated molecules patterns(PAMPs)LPS,
    DNA,RNA,Protein
  • Danger-associated molecular patterns
    (DAMPS)DNA,HSP
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) Toll-like
    receptor(TLR) ,C-lectin recptor(CLR),RIG-I-Like
    recptor(RLR),NOD-like Receptor(NLR)

10
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11
Innate Immunity
Polly Matzinger
12
Adaptive immune response
13
Links between innate and adaptive immunity
14
Cells of immune system
15
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16
Lymphocytes
  • 1.Lymphocytes (except NK cells) are wholly
    responsible for the specific immune recognition
    of pathogens, so they initiate adaptive immune
    responses.
  • 2.Lymphocytes are derived from bone-marrow stem
    cells.
  • 3.B lymphocytes develop in the bone marrow.
  • T lymphocytes develop in the thymus.

17
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18
Antigen presenting cells (APC)
Introduction
  1. Dendritic cells (DC) powerful in antigen
    processing and presentation.
  2. Macrophage powerful in antigen processing and
    destruction, but low in antigen presentation.

19
Antigen presenting cells
Introduction
20
Natural killer cells (NK)
Introduction
  • 1. 5-10 of blood lymphocytes, LGL
  • 2. express neither T-cell nor B-cell
  • antigen receptors

21
Phagocytic cells
(Lung) Macrophage Attacking E. coli
22
Phagocytic cells
Introduction
  • Monocytes (blood)/Macrophages (tissues)
  • functions 1. remove particulate antigens
  • 2. take up, process and present
  • antigenic peptides to T
    cells
  • distribution Kupffer cells in the liver
  • microglial cells in the brain

23
Phagocytic cells
monocyte
neutrophil
24
Phagocytic cells
  • Polymorphonuclear granulocytes
  • 1.neutrophils basophils eosinophils
  • 2.neutrophils are short-lived phagocytic cells
  • multilobed nucleus 10-20 ?m
  • 3.neutrophils have a large arsenal of
    antibiotic
  • proteins
  • granules lysosomes lactoferrin

25
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26
Innate immunity mechanism of recognition
  • Pathogen associated molecules patterns(PAMPs)LPS,
    DNA,RNA,Protein
  • Danger-associated molecular patterns
    (DAMPS)DNA,HSP
  • Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) Toll-like
    receptor(TLR) ,C-lectin recptor(CLR),RIG-I-Like
    recptor(RLR),NOD-like Receptor(NLR)

27
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28
Innate Immunity
Polly Matzinger
29
Tissues and organs of the immune system
  • Primary (or central) lymphoid organs
  • bone marrow
  • thymus
  • Secondary (or peripheral) lymphoid organs
  • spleen
  • lymph nodes
  • Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)

30
Mucosal immune system (MIS)
  • 1.non-encapsulated lymphoid tissue in the lamina
    propria and submucosal areas of the
    gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary
    tracts.
  • 2. tonsil, appendix, Peyers patches
  • 3. B cell IgA
  • IEL Adaptive immune (?? T cell)
  • 4. function local (mucosal) immunity

31
Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
32
Immunopathology
  • Hypersensitivity
  • - overactive immune response
  • Immunodeficiency
  • - ineffective immune response
  • Autoimmunity
  • - inappropriate reaction to self antigens

33
Brief History of Immunology
34
Brief History of Immunology
  • 1. Empirical Immunology(AD1700-1900)
  • 2. Scientific Immunology(1900-1950s)
  • 3. Modern Immunology(1960s-Present)

35
Documents show that as early as AD 1000, the
ancient Chinese custom existed of having children
inhale powders made from the crusty skin lesions
of patients recovering from smallpox
36
Jenner vaccination
Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
37
Ali Maali
38
Why Can we eradicate the smallpox?
  • No animal reservoir
  • Lifelong immunity
  • Subclinical cases rare
  • One serotype
  • Effective vaccine
  • Major commitment by governments

39
  • Lious Pasteur (18221895).
  • The genius of Pasteur carried him to the solution
    of many problems the spoilage of beers and
    wines, with the accompanying pasteurization
    process the discovery of anaerobic bacteria,
    virus vaccines, and attenuation of virulence and
    studies of spontaneous generation. His studies in
    immunology have rightly earned him the position
    as father of the science.

40
  • Von Behring (18541917) discovered the antitoxin
    and the principles of antiserum therapy. He
    established one of the first corporations to
    product immunologic products.

41
  • Robert Koch (18431910)
  • for his investigations and discoveries in
    relation to tuberculosis"

42
  • Elie Metchnikoff (18451916) converted his
    discoveries of phagocytosis into a doctrine that
    gained many disciples from his coterie of
    students. He shared the Nobel Prize with Ehrlich
    in 1908.

43
  • Paul Ehrlich (18541915).
  • Selective theories(Paul Ehrlich,1900) The binding
    like the fitting of a lock with key,the
    side-chain specificity was determined before its
    exposure to Ag, and the Ag selected the
    appropriate side-chain receptor.
  • He shared the Nobel Prize with Metchnikoff in
    1908.

44
Clonal selection theory and immune tolerance
45
The clonal selection hypothesis
46
  • Rodney R. Porter (19171985) shared the Nobel
    Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Edelman in
    1972.
  • Gerald M. Edelman (1929) was only 43 years of
    age when he shared the Nobel Prize with Porter in
    1972.

47
MHC
48
Monoclonal Ab and
49
Antibody Diversity
Susumu Tonegawa is a Japanese Scientist  who won
the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine in
1987 "for his discovery of the genetic principle
for generation of antibody diversity"
50
Peter C. Doherty Rolf M.
Zinkernagel for their discoveries concerning the
specificity of the cell mediated immune defence
51
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler
and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries
concerning the activation of innate immunity" and
the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his
discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in
adaptive immunity".
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