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Title: Prentice%20Hall%20%20%20%20%20%20EARTH%20SCIENCE


1
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE
  • Tarbuck Lutgens

?
2
Chapter 4
Earths Resources
3
4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources
? Renewable resources can be replenished over
fairly short spans of time, such as months,
years, or decades.
? Nonrenewable resources take millions of years
to form and accumulate.
4
4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources
? Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons that may be used
as fuel, including coal, oil, and natural gas.
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Anticlines Are Common Oil Traps
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4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources
? Fuels derived from tar sand and oils shales
could become good substitutes for dwindling
petroleum supplies.
11
4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources
? Some of the most important mineral deposits
form through igneous processes and from
hydrothermal solutions.
  • Ore is a useful metallic mineral that can be
    mined at a profit.

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Mineral-Rich Hot Water Seeps into Rock Fractures
16
4.1 Energy and Mineral Resources
? Nonmetallic mineral resources are extracted and
processed either for the nonmetallic elements
they contain or for their physical and chemical
properties.
17
Uses of Nonmetallic Minerals
18
4.2 Alternate Energy Sources
? Solar energy has two advantages
1. Solar energys fuel is free.
2. Solar energy is non-polluting.
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4.2 Alternate Energy Sources
? In nuclear fission, the nuclei of heavy atoms
such as uranium-235 are bombarded with neutrons.
? The uranium nuclei split into smaller nuclei
and emit neutrons and heat energy.
21
Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant
22
4.2 Alternate Energy Sources
? In the next 50 to 60 years, wind power could
meet between 5 to 10 percent of the countrys
demand for electricity.
23
Wind Turbines
24
4.2 Alternate Energy Sources
? Hydroelectric power is the power generated by
falling water.
? The water held in a reservoir behind a dam is a
form of stored energy that can be released
through the dam to produce electric power.
? The strong water flow that results drives
turbines and electric generators.
25
Glen Canyon Dam
26
4.2 Alternate Energy Sources
? Geothermal energy is harnessed by tapping
natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot
water.
? Hot water is used directly for heating and to
turn turbines that generate electric power.
27
The Geysers Is the Worlds Largest Electrical
Geothermal Facility
28
4.2 Alternate Energy Sources
? Tidal power is harnessed by constructing a dam
across the mouth of a bay or an estuary in
coastal areas.
? The strong in-and-out flow of tidal water
drives turbines and electric generators.
29
Tidal Dams
30
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources
? Each day, people use fresh water for drinking,
cooking, bathing, and growing food.
31
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources
? Freshwater Pollution
  • Point source pollution comes from a known and
    specific location, such as factory pipes.

32
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources
? Freshwater Pollution
  • Nonpoint source pollution is pollution that does
    not have a specific point of origin.

33
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources
? Freshwater Pollution
  • Runoff is the water that flows over the land
    rather than seeping into the ground, often
    carrying nonpoint source pollution.

34
Major Types of Water Pollution
35
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources
? The chemical composition of the atmosphere
helps maintain life on Earth.
? Pollution in the Air
  • The increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    has altered the carbon cycle and contributed to
    global warming(Climate Change)the unnatural
    warming of the lower atmosphere.
  • Through a series of chemical reactions, these
    pollutants in the air are converted into acids
    that are a major cause of acid precipitation.

36
Major Primary Pollutants and Their Sources
37
4.3 Water, Air, and Land Resources
? Earths land provides soil and forests, as well
as mineral and energy resources
? Damage to Land Resources
  • Mines produce many mineral resources, but mines
    are destroying soil, vegetation, and Earths
    contours.
  • Mines also cause soil erosion and pollution that
    contaminates soil and water and destroys
    ecosystems.
  • Poor agricultural practices also destroys soil.

38
Surface Mining Destroys Earths Surface
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4.4 Protecting Resources
? Conservation is the careful use of resources.
? Pollution prevention means stopping pollution
from entering the environment.
41
4.4 Protecting Resources
  • Two massive oil spills into Minnesota rivers
    devastated fish and wildlife in the early 1960s.
    ? At the time, no laws required that spills be
    reported or cleaned up.
  • These rivers are the beginning water for the
    Mississippi River where we get our drinking
    water.

42
4.4 Protecting Resources
  • ?By the early 1970s, such catastrophes were
    becoming common. In Ohio, the Cuyahoga River in
    Cleveland was so polluted that it caught fire
    for the tenth time.
  • Time Magazine reported that Lake Erie was dying
    from all the waste dumped into it. The government
    banned eating any fish from Lake Erie because of
    high mercury levels.
  • St. Louis took its drinking water from the muddy
    Missouri River because the Mississippi was far
    worse.

43
4.4 Protecting Resources
? Starting in the 1970s, the federal government
passed several laws to prevent or decrease
pollution and protect resources.
  • In 1972, the Clean Water Act (CWA) required
    industries to reduce or eliminate point source
    pollution into surface waters.
  • This led to modern day sewage plants to eliminate
    the discharge of raw sewage into lakes, streams
    or rivers.
  • Cleveland River no longer burns and just in the
    last few years Lake Erie was reopened to fishing.

44
4.4 Protecting Resources
? Starting in the 1970s, the federal government
passed several laws to prevent or decrease
pollution and protect resources.
  • The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 helped
    protect drinking resources.
  • This set maximum contaminate levels for many
    pollutants that can harm the health of the
    people.
  • Requires water companies to continuously test and
    monitor water quality levels.

45
Preventing Water Pollution
46
4.4 Protecting Resources
? In the 1970s, Congress passed the Clean Air
Act, the nations most important air pollution
law.
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
    established for six criteria pollutants known
    to cause health problems carbon monoxide,
    ozone, lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and
    particulates (fine particles).

47
4.4 Protecting Resources
? In the 1970s, Congress passed the Clean Air
Act, the nations most important air pollution
law.
  • Reason today you have pollution controls on cars,
    catalytic converters, and nonleaded gasoline.
  • Power plants and other industries now have smoke
    stack scrubbers.

48
4.4 Protecting Resources
? In the 1970s, Congress passed the Clean Air
Act, the nations most important air pollution
law.
  • One reason for energy conservation today.
  • Less energy used the fewer resources used and the
    fewer emissions released into the atmosphere.

49
Saving Energy
50
4.4 Protecting Resources
? Protecting land resources involves preventing
pollution and managing land resources wisely.
  • Compost is partly decomposed organic material
    that can be used as fertilizer.
  • Recycling is the collecting and processing of
    used items so that they can be made into new
    products.

51
4.4 Protecting Resources
? The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) of 1976
  • Requires companies to store, transport, and
    dispose of hazardous waste according to strict
    guidelines.

52
4.4 Protecting Resources
? 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund)
  • Mandates the cleaning up of abandoned hazardous
    waste sites that are a danger to the public or
    environment
  • How does this affect you?
  • Times Beach

53
Times Beach
  • 1925 at 67.50
  • 17 miles Saint Louis
  • 1970s-Russell Bliss
  • 1972-76 Contamination
  • 1982-1983 EPA Task Force
  • 1996-1997 Removal
  • 1999 Route 66

54
5.2 Soil
? Soil is part of the regolith that supports the
growth of plants.
Regolith is the layer of rock and mineral
fragments that covers most of Earths land
surface.
55
5.2 Soil
? Soil Composition
Soil has four major components mineral
matter, or broken-down rock humus, which is the
decayed remains of organisms water and air.
56
Composition by Volume of Good-Quality Soil
57
5.2 Soil
? Soil Texture
Texture refers to the proportions of different
particle sizes.
- Sand (large size)
- Silt
- Clay (small size)
Loam (a mixture of all three sizes) is best
suited for plant life.
58
Soil Texture
59
5.2 Soil
? Soil Structure
Soil particles clump together to give a soil
its structure.
60
5.2 Soil
? The most important factors in soil formation
are parent material, time, climate, organisms,
and slope.
1. Parent material
Residual soilparent material is the bedrock
Transported soilparent material has been
carried from elsewhere and deposited
61
Parent Material and Soils
62
5.2 Soil
2. Time
Important in all geologic processes
The longer a soil has been forming, the
thicker it becomes.
3. Climate
Greatest effect on soil formation
63
5.2 Soil
4. Organisms
Organisms influence the soil's physical and
chemical properties.
Furnish organic matter to soil
5. Slope
Angle
- Steep slopes often have poorly developed soils.
- Optimum slope is a flat-to-undulating upland
surface.
64
5.2 Soil
5. Slope
Orientation, or direction the slope is facing,
influences soil formation.
- Soil temperature
- Moisture
65
5.2 Soil
? Soil varies in composition, texture, structure,
and color at different depths. Soil horizons are
zones or layers of soil. A soil profile is a
vertical section through all the soil horizons.
The A horizon is commonly know as topsoil.
The B horizon is subsoil and contains clay
particles washed out from the A horizon.
The C horizon is between B horizon and
unaltered parent material.
66
Soil Profile
67
A Soil Profile Showing Different Horizons
68
5.2 Soil
? Three common types of soil are pedalfer,
pedocal, and laterite.
1. Pedalfer
Best developed under forest vegetation
Accumulation of iron oxides and aluminum-rich
clays in the B horizon
69
5.2 Soil
2. Pedocal
Accumulates calcium carbonate
Associated with drier grasslands
3. Laterite
Hot, wet, tropical climates
Intense chemical weathering
70
5.2 Soil
? Water erodes soil.
? Rates of Erosion
Human activities that remove natural
vegetation, such as farming, logging, and
construction, have greatly accelerated erosion.
? Sediment Deposition
Reservoirs fill with sediment.
Sediments are contaminated by pesticides and
fertilizers.
71
5.2 Soil
? Controlling Erosion
Planting rows of trees called windbreaks
  • Terracing hillsides
  • Plowing along the contours of hills
  • Rotating crops
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