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EM660 PROJECT MANAGEMENT Class 4 Project Bottlenecks Hurry up and wait The client wants the project to begin as soon as possible, so you work overtime to get ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Class 4

Class 4 Agenda
  • Case Study 1
  • Presentation
  • Chapter 11 Planning
  • Smart Objectives
  • Note chapters 11 12 will comprise a large
    portion of your final project. More on that

  • The most important responsibility of the project
    manager is planning, integrating and executing
    project plans.
  • The finished plan allows you to walk through the
    project and get it organized before the work is
    actually done.
  • 1) Determines if the project charter can be done.
  • 2) Shows how the project gets accomplished.
  • 3) Planning saves time, resources and money.

Project Plan
Project Plan
  • At a minimum, a project plan answers basic
    questions about the project
  • Why? - What is the problem or proposition
    addressed by the project? Why is it being
  • What? - What is the work that will be performed
    on the project? What are the major
  • Who? - Who will be involved and what will be
    their responsibilities within the project? How
    will they be organized?
  • When? - What is the project timeline and when
    will particularly meaningful points, referred to
    as milestones, be complete?

Show WWTP Project Charter
Project Planning Control
Planning Responsibilities
  • Project Manager
  • Goals, Objectives, Milestones
  • Requirements, Ground rules, Assumptions
  • Time, Cost Performance Constraints
  • Procedures, Policies Reporting
  • 2) Line Manager
  • Work Task descriptions to implement project
  • Schedules and Manpower Allocations
  • ID areas of concern, risk, uncertainty, conflict
  • 3) Project Sponsor
  • Chief Negotiator, Clarifier, Communicator

  • Since project planning is a shared
    responsibility, project objectives are really
    joint efforts.
  • Some common problems are
  • Not everyone agrees with the objectives
  • Priorities change objectives are too rigid
  • Not enough time to do proper planning
  • Objectives dont have measurements
  • Objectives are not well defined documented
  • Project team and end customer not in sync
  • Project personnel have other assigned duties

Objective Requirements Analysis
  • What work elements are needed to satisfy
    objectives how are they interrelated?
  • Who will do the work and what is required?
  • Are enough resources available in-house?
  • How will project info communication flow?
  • This analysis will create four important project
    planning outputs (p. 425)
  • Statement of Work (SOW)
  • Project Specifications
  • Major Milestone Schedule
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Statement of Work
  • The statement of work (SOW) is a narrative
    description of the work to be accomplished.
  • SCOPE defines what is and is not included in the
    project flushes out the needs of stakeholders.
  • OUTPUT A scope statement by which project
    performance is measured.
  • The scope needs to be carefully worded or the
    project closure phase may end in conflict.

Project Standards
  • A project standards (specifications) list
    describes where man-hour, equipment and material
    estimates come from.
  • Often, there are legal or regulatory requirements
    to which organizations or customers must adhere
    to do business.
  • Specifications are standards for pricing out
    proposals. They can come from published sources
    or historical data from prior projects.

Milestone Schedules
  • A project milestone schedule
  • will contain
  • Project start date
  • Project end date
  • Major milestones
  • Report dates or scheduled reviews
  • These dates can be either forward-generated by
    the work content or backward-generated by a
    required due date (trade show or roll-out).

Work Breakdown Structure
  • The work breakdown structure (WBS) is an
    expansion of the project objectives defines
  • All effort to be expended.
  • Responsibility of specific work elements.
  • The schedules budgets for those elements.
  • The WBS is not a Gantt chart or Pert networks,
    but rather a very detailed list of work to
    complete a project.

WBS Format
  • Total Program (multiple current projects)
  • Project
  • Task
  • Subtasks
  • Work Package
  • 1. Level of Effort
  • You see where this is goingadd some times
    instant schedule. But the devil is in the

WBS Decomposition
  • Before we start linking work tasks into a
    network, the work elements need broken down into
    the smallest details possible.
  • Why?
  • It keeps you from forgetting stuff.
  • Provides better time and cost estimates.
  • Sometimes work has a specific sequence something
    needs to be done 1st.
  • Changes or additions, once the project network is
    established, are usually costly.

Network Diagrams
  • Network diagrams just show sequencing and
    dependencies and are not yet schedules.
  • Figure 11-3 shows good examples.

Network Diagrams
  • Figure 11-3

Network Diagrams
  • It is at this point that the project and
    functional managers start examining where the
    work, time and cost elements are piling up can
    be spread out to get a better project flow.
  • Formal authorization is granted once the triple
    constraint elements are fully determined.

Simple Task List-Start of House II
Simple Network from Tasklist
  1. LS of B?
  2. ES of B?
  3. ES of C?
  4. LS of C?
  5. EF of E?
  6. ES of D?
  7. LS of D?
  8. Slack Time of C?
  9. Slack Time of B?
  10. Critical Path?
  • Possible Paths?
  • Path Duration
  • A-B-E 15
  • A-C-E 21
  • A-D-F-E 24
  • Critical Path is A-D-F-E with largest duration
    equal to 24

Simple Network from Tasklist
Critical Path A-D-F-E Shown in Sequence
Latest Start of B?
Earliest Start of B?
Latest Start of C? C must finish before E starts
Earliest Start of C? A must finish before C starts
Earliest Finish of E? (24 d.) Earliest Start of
D? (day 4) Latest Start of D? (day 4)
  • For days on the critical path the earliest start
    and latest start times are the same.

Slack Time of C? (7-4 3 days) Latest Start of
C? (day 7)
Earliest Start of C? (day 4)
Slack Time of B? Latest Start of B Day 13
Earliest Start of B Day 4 Slack Time of B 13
9 4 days
Detailed Schedules
  • NOTE Well cover network scheduling techniques
    presentations in chapters 12 13.
  • The scheduling of activities is the next major
    requirement after go-ahead authorization.
  • Activity schedules show how resources are being
    used and allow what if, trade-off, schedule
    crashing fast tracking to draw in the final
    project completion date create budgets.

Master Production Scheduling
  • An offshoot of the project schedule is the Master
    Production Schedule (MPS). The MPS is a statement
  • What will be made.
  • How many units will be made.
  • When it will be made.
  • The MPS compares the demand on a plants
    resources against the available capacity. The MPS
    is a very important step must coincide w/the
    project dates promised to the customer.

Master Production Scheduling
  • A Master Production Schedule or MPS is the plan
    that a company has developed for production,
    inventory, staffing, etc. It sets the quantity of
    each end item to be completed in each week of a
    short-range planning horizon.

  • NOTE We are only about halfway done with the
    project planning elements necessary prior to
    project execution. Were not making anything yet,
    but were thinking about it at this point.
  • We still have to consider
  • Price, costing, trade-offs (CH 14, 15, 16)
  • Risk planning and management (CH 17)
  • Purchasing contract management (CH 19)
  • Quality standards and requirements (CH 20)
  • These items are also planning components.

Configuration Management
  • Configuration management is a formal change
    review and approval process. It provides a focal
    point of input for internal and external parties
    wishing to add changes to the project.
  • The change requests need to be evaluated against
    the triple constraints (cost, time, scope).
  • - What is the cost of the change is it
  • What is the impact to the delivery date?
  • Do the changes preserve/improve quality?

Project Bottlenecks
  • Hurry up and wait     The client wants the
    project to begin
  • as soon as possible, so you work overtime
    to get the scope
  • document, budget, and timeline together.
    But when you are ready, the client fails to make
    its resources  information and people 
    available in a timely manner.
  • Scope creep     You work overtime to meet the
    client's expectations, even though their
    expectations included deliverables that weren't
    part of the original scope discussion. This is
    especially problematic for fixed-price contracts.
  • Endless brainstorming     Sometimes the client
    has an idea of what they want you to discover
    during the course of a project, and if you don't
    find it, they want you to try again.
  • Two departments, one project objective    
    Sometimes, especially at larger companies, you
    get involved in a project and you find out that
    another department is working on a similar
  • Late or no payment     Some consultants fail to
    set proper payment expectations with clients,
    resulting in an excessively delayed payment.

Planning recommendations
  • Identify the project champion, they can
  • 1-Ensure that you have access to client staff
    and information to prevent bottlenecks that could
    affect your project timeline.
  • 2-Gather feedback on project hypotheses by
    researching findings and status from within the
    organization as a litmus test for how other
    client executives might react.
  • 3-Identify any other projects within the
    organization that have similar objectives. You
    want to make sure that the client resources are
    being used effectively and that any complementary
    efforts are coordinated.
  • 4-Establish clear project scope
  • 5-Clearly outline the project timeline
  • 6-Define how to handle billing issues
  • 7-Present your project plan in a kickoff meeting
  • 8-Maintain clear communication

Project Champion Definition
  • A project champion is an individual who has the
    authority to use resources within or outside an
    organization for completion of a given project. A
    project champion is chosen by the management so
    as to ensure supervision of a specific project
    from its initiation phase to its execution phase.

MS Projects Tutorial
Next time
  • Well work on Network Diagrams and Graphics and
    review the project handouts.
  • Case Study 2 Feb 12th
  • Project proposals are due March 5th.
  • Network Homework is 12-14 12-17 Due Feb 19th
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