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Trait Theories of Personality

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Trait Theories of Personality EYSENCK (1953) The INTROVERT personality A typical introvert is quiet, retiring, introspective, fond of books rather than of people ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Trait Theories of Personality


1
Trait Theories of Personality
  • EYSENCK (1953)
  • The INTROVERT personality
  • A typical introvert is quiet, retiring,
    introspective, fond of books rather than of
    people, reserved distant...

2
Trait Theories of Personality
  • EYSENCK (1953)
  • The EXTROVERT personality
  • A typical extrovert is sociable, likes parties,
    has many friends, needs people to talk to, craves
    excitement, and likes change

3
Freud s psychodynamic theory of personality
  • The tripartite structure of personality
  • ID
  • EGO
  • SUPEREGO

4
What is Multiple Personality Disorder? (MPD)
5
MPD or Schizophrenia?
  • Schizophrenia does literally mean split-mind,
    however this is referring to the loss of unity
    between psychological functions
  • MPD is dissociative disorder in which two or
    more distinct personalities co-exist within the
    same individual
  • MPD is also known as Dissociative Identity
    Disorder (DID)- mainly in the USA.

6
Dissociation
  • Is a mental process which produces a lack of
    connection in a persons thoughts, memories,
    feelings, actions or sense of identity. This is
    on a spectrum, we have all be affected mildly
    e.g. daydreaming, getting lost in a book or
    film or driving on auto-pilot.

7
MPD Symptoms
  • At least two distinct identities or personality
    states.
  • Each personality has it own lasting pattern of
    sensing, thinking and relating to self and the
    environment.
  • At least two of these personalities assume
    control of the patients behaviour

8
MPD Symptoms continued
  • Common forgetfulness cannot explain the patients
    extensive inability to remember important
    personal details
  • This behaviour is not directly caused by
    substance abuse or by a general medical condition.

9
What causes MPD?
  • Believed it is a response to extremely traumatic
    situations in which there are no physical means
    of escape. If the person goes away in their
    head they can remove themselves from the pain
    and function if it has not occurred.

10
Does it Exist? Can you fake it? Why would you
want to?
11
Thigpen and Cleckley (1954)
  • Aim to record the symptoms and treatment of a
    multiple personality disorder
  • This is a case study (and a record of a
    therapeutic process)
  • Their paper was published in the Journal of
    abnormal social psychology (1954)

12
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • Who was EVE?
  • A 25 year old woman who was referred
  • because of her SEVERE BLINDING HEADACHES and
    spells of amnesia
  • Thigpen Cleckley tested her with
  • Psychometric tests, projective tests,

13
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • In the initial interviews (EVE WHITE)
  • EVE complained of (symptoms)
  • Blinding Headaches
  • Blackouts
  • Marital Problems
  • Personal problems

14
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • What was EVE WHITE like?
  • IQ score 110
  • memory - excellent
  • repressive personality
  • conservative, shy, dutiful
  • loving wife and mother

15
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • THEN WHAT HAPPENED?
  • EVE WHITE
  • EVE showed amnesia for a recent trip and was
    HYPNOTISED in order to restore her memory

16
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • THEN WHAT HAPPENED?
  • FIRST SIGN OF SOMETHING ODD!
  • A letter arrived which was written in two kinds
    of handwriting!

17
A case of multiple personality disorder
The letter is objective evidence
18
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • What did EVE say about the letter?
  • She denied writing it, though she did say she had
    begun a letter which she had not finished

19
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • What happened then?
  • Eve became distressed and asked
  • whether hearing voices in her head meant she was
    insane
  • she said that she had heard a voice in her head
    speaking to her

20
A case of multiple personality disorder
  • This was a critical interview
  • Several times she put her hands to her head as
    if in pain
  • AND THEN...

21
  • THE TRANSFORMATION!
  • EVE WHITE CHANGED and became EVE BLACK!
  • 1st alter-ego?

22
  • THE TRANSFORMATION!
  • The therapist noted
  • A quick reckless smileHI DOC
  • Eve White now displayed
  • a childishly daredevil air
  • an erotic glance
  • even her sitting posture changed
  • Eve White became Eve Black!

23
  • What was EVE BLACK like?
  • IQ score 104
  • memory - poor
  • regressive personality
  • childish, extrovert, mischievous
  • denied being a wife mother

24
  • The therapy lasted 14 months and 100 hours of
    interviews
  • Eve Black would sometimes appear but could only
    be CALLED OUT under hypnosis

25
  • Eve White was not aware of Eve Black
  • Eve Black was aware of Eve White
  • Eve Black had existed since childhood
  • Eve Black - would emerge, would behave badly and
    then retreat and let Eve White take the
    blame(parents verified incidents)

26
  • How T C described Eve Black
  • childish, irresponsible shallow
  • seeking pleasure excitement
  • denied marriage to EWs husband
  • whom she despised
  • denied relationship with EWs daughter

27
The Three Faces of Eve
  • Did her family not notice ANYTHING odd
  • When they observed EB they put her harshness
    aggression down to occasional temper tantrums in
    a normally gentle woman

28
  • Personality tests (psychometric tests)
  • Rorschach ink blot tests
  • EW repressive (FREUD)
  • EB regressive (FREUD)
  • Electroencephalograms (EEG) to record brain
    activity)

29
How did the therapists measure the variables of
personality?
  • Rorschach ink blot test a projective test
  • Discussion
  • What do you see?
  • Is what you see a projection of your unconscious
    mind?
  • Is this a quantitative or qualitative measure?
  • How valid is this measure?

30
How did the therapists measure the variables of
personality?
  • Thematic Apperception Test a projective test
  • Write a storyline for the pic
  • What has been happening?
  • What is happening?
  • What will happen?
  • Is your story a projection of your unconscious
    fears/desires?
  • How valid is this measure?

31
As treatment progressed
  • EW headaches recurred got worse
  • Blackouts increased
  • Both EW EW denied awareness in these blackouts
  • EW state of mind deteriorated
  • (confinement was considered)
  • THEN WHAT HAPPENED!!

32
Another personality appears!
  • A THIRD personality
  • who called herself JANE
  • JANE had full awareness of EW and EB
  • Neither EW nor EB were aware of JANE

33
What did Thigpen Cleckley do?
  • All THREE personalities were tested by
    electroencephalogram
  • clear differences were recorded
  • therapy continued to treat all THREE women in the
    ONE body

34
Psychological Tests
TESTS EW EB Jane
IQ 110 104 Not done
Memory test superior inferior Not done
EEG 11 per second (normal) 12.5 per second (psycho-pathic?) 11 per second
Personality Repressive Regressive No test
Drawings Rigid but healthy Hysterical tendencies Not done
35
The decision of Thigpen Cleckley
  • Jane seemed to be
  • the person most likely
  • to bring a solution
  • to the troubled mind
  • She was increasingly dominant over the other
    personalities

36
The moral dilemma- ethics!
  • Killing one or more personality- how ethical is
    this?
  • Who should decide which personality stays and
    which goes?

37
Other explanations?
  • Was the woman a very good actress
  • (were T C conned?)
  • Was the woman psychotic (schizophrenic?)
  • Could the hypnotism have caused the multiple
    personality effect?

38
What did T C conclude?
  • They did wonder whether they had become so
    involved that they lost their sense of judgement
    and over dramatised the case
  • They remain convinced that they witnessed a case
    of multiple personality
  • Note A film was made!

39
The Three faces of Eve - postscript
  • In 1975 a woman came forward and said SHE was EVE
    White
  • said she had experienced many other personalities
    both before therapy and since (22 in all)
  • that the fragmentation of her personality had
    been to protect herself from unbearable
    experiences

40
Ethical problems
  • Killing one/more of the personalities - who
    should decide this?
  • Making a film for profit - who benefits what
    about patient confidentiality?
  • During the treatment Eve White got worse
  • Who gives informed consent for the treatment
    procedures ?

41
Ethical problems
  • Which personality do you think T C approved of
    most?
  • Might there be a culture gender bias issue
    here? Were their judgements biased by the social
    norms of the 1950s

42
Key Concepts
  • EEG electroencephalogram electrodes placed on
    head measure brain patterns from the different
    lobes
  • MPD a neurosis, not a psychosis like
    schizophrenia
  • Repressed suppresses feelings and emotions
  • Regressive reverts to a childlike stage
  • Psychopath no empathy for others, egocentric,
    amoral

43
Questions you should be able to answer
  • What were the similarities differences between
    Eve White and Eve Black?
  • What is the main difference between multiple
    personality disorder schizophrenia?
  • What problems with the case study method does
    this study highlight?
  • What factor(s) may have influenced their
    diagnosis?

44
Questions you should be able to answer
  • If Eysencks theory of biological basis for
    personality is CORRECT could Eve have had
    multiple personalities?
  • Note These days MPD is called DID !
  • Disassociative Identity Disorder
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