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Personality

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Personality Part Two- Theories from: Humanistic Trait Social Cognitive – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personality


1
Personality
  • Part Two- Theories from
  • Humanistic
  • Trait
  • Social Cognitive

2
Humanistic Perspective
  • importance of self and fulfillment of potential

3
  • Personality how you feel about yourself, how
    you are meeting your goals

4
  • Free will
  • Self-awareness
  • Psychological growth
  • Focus on healthy personality
  • Individuals conscious, subjective opinion of
    self is most important

5
Carl Rogers
  • Self-conceptset of perceptions you hold about
    yourself

6
Positive Regard
  • Positive regardsense of being loved and valued
    by other people--can be conditional or
    unconditional

7
Conditional Positive Regard
  • I love you when you are doing what I approve of-
    if not, I will withdraw my love

8
Unconditional Positive Regard
  • I love you no matter what you say or do
  • I still might be mad, but you know I love you-
    you can tell me anything

9
Abraham Maslow
  • Hierarchy of Needs influences behavior- striving
    for self actualization

10
Morality, Lack of Prejudice
Self-Esteem, Confidence and Respect
Significant Other, Family and Friends
Economic and Physical security (Health and Job)
Food, Water, Oxygen, Etc
11
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12
Evaluating Humanism
  • Difficult to test or validate scientifically
  • Too optimistic, minimizing some of the more
    destructive aspects of human nature

13
Social Cognitive- Bandura
  • understanding personality involves considering
    the situation and thoughts before, during, and
    after an event

14
  • The importance of
  • observational learning,
  • conscious cognitive processes,
  • social experience,
  • Self-efficacy
  • Reciprocal determinism in personality

15
Self-efficacy
  • Belief that people have about their ability to
    meet demands of a specific situation (successful
    or not)

16
Reciprocal determinism-
  • Model that explains personality as the result of
    behavioral, cognitive, and environmental
    interactions

17
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18
Evaluation of Social Cognitive Perspective
  • May not reflect the complexity of human
    interactions
  • Ignores the influences of unconscious, emotions,
    and conflicts

19
Trait Theory
  • Description and measurement of personality
    differences

20
  • Traitrelatively stable predisposition to behave
    in a certain way

21
Five Factor Model
  • Factorsusually rated from low to high
  • Conscientiousness
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism
  • Openness to experience
  • Extraversion

22
The Big Five Traits
23
The Big Five Traits
24
The Big Five Traits
25
The Big Five Traits
26
The Big Five Traits
27
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
28
Evaluation of Trait Perspective
  • Doesnt explain why how personality
    (description only)
  • Doesnt address motives, unconscious, or beliefs
    about self affect personality development

29
Psychological Tests
  • Test is useful if it achieves two basic goals
  • Accurately and consistently reflects a persons
    characteristics
  • Predicts future psychological functioning or
    behavior

30
Self-Report Inventory
  • Standardized questions about his or her behavior
    and feelings
  • The answers are then compared to established norms

31
MMPI
  • Most widely used self-report inventory
  • Originally designed to assess mental health and
    detect psychological symptoms

32
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34
  • Has over 500 questions to which person must reply
    True or False
  • Includes lying scales

35
Strengths of Self-Reports
  • Standardizedeach person receives same
    instructions and responds to same questions

36
  • Use of established norms results are compared to
    previously established norms and are not
    subjectively evaluated

37
Weaknesses of Self-Reports
  • Evidence that people can fake responses to look
    better (or worse)
  • Tests contain hundreds of items and become
    tedious
  • People may not be good judges of their own
    behavior

38
Psychodynamic Testing
  • Projective Tests
  • Personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli
    to trigger projection of ones inner thoughts and
    feelings

39
Psychoanalytical Approach Accessing the
Unconscious Mind
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • A set of 10 inkblots, without any discernable
    patterns or images, are presented to a patient.
    Subjects simply identify what they think the
    inkblot looks like, and researchers interpret
    those identifications as personality
    characteristics.

40
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41
  • Black ink. A roughly triangular shape, point
    down, suggesting a broad, fox like face with
    prominent ears. Naughty bits a pair of breasts
    (rounded projections at top of blot) a vertical
    female figure, her torso partly visible through a
    gauzy dress (along center line). The first blot
    is easy. How fast you answer is taken as an
    indication of how well you cope with new
    situations. The best reaction is to give one of
    the most common responses immediately. Good
    answers are bat, butterfly, moth, and (in center
    of blot) a female figure. Mask, jack-o'-lantern,
    and animal face are common responses too, but in
    some interpretation schemes they suggest
    paranoia. A bad response is any that says
    something untoward about the central female
    figure. "She" is often judged to be a projection
    of your own self-image. Avoid the obvious comment
    that the figure has two breasts but no head. If
    you don't give more than one answer for Plate I,
    many psychologists will drop a hint--tell you to
    look closer.

42
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43
  • Black and red ink. Two dark-gray splotches
    suggesting dancing figures. Red splotches at top
    of each figure and at bottom center. Naughty
    bits penis (upper center, black ink) vagina
    (the red area at bottom center). It is
    important to see this blot as two human figures
    usually females or clowns. If you don't, it's
    seen as a sign that you have trouble relating to
    people. You may give other responses as well,
    such as cave entrance (the triangular white space
    between the two figures) and butterfly (the red
    "vagina," bottom center). Should you mention
    the penis and vagina? Not necessarily. Every
    Rorsehach plate has at least one obvious
    representation of sexual anatomy. You're not
    expected to mention them all. In some
    interpretation schemes, mentioning more than four
    sex images in the ten plates is diagnostic of
    schizophrenia. The trouble is, subjects who took
    Psychology 101 often assume they should detail
    every possible sex response, so allowances must
    be made. Most Rorschach workers believe the sex
    images should play a part in the interpretation
    of responses even when not mentioned. You may not
    say that the lower red area looks like a vagina,
    but psychologists assume that what you do say
    will show how you feel about women. Nix on
    "crab" stick with "butterfly."

44
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45
  • Black and red ink. Two obvious .figures (black
    ink) facing each other. Butterfly-shaped red blot
    between the figures an elongated red blot behind
    each figure's head. Naughty bits penises and
    breasts (at anatomically appropriate positions
    for each figure). This is the blot that
    supposedly can determine sexual preference. Most
    people see the two human figures. Both figures
    have prominent "breasts" and an equally prominent
    "penis." If you don't volunteer the gender of the
    figures, you'll be asked to specify it. By the
    traditional interpretation, seeing the figures as
    male is a heterosexual response (for test
    subjects of both sexes). Describing the figures
    as female or acknowledging the androgynous nature
    of the blot is supposed to be a homosexual
    response. Does it work? Not really--many
    straights describe the figures as women, and not
    all gays give a gay response. A 1971 study at
    Mount Sinai Hospital in New York showed the
    traditionally heterosexual response (two male
    figures) to be declining in popularity. The
    splotches of red ink are usually perceived
    separately. Common responses are "bow-tie" or
    "ribbon" (inner red area) and a stomach and
    esophagus (outer red areas).

46

                                                
                                                  
                                   Plate V
47
  • Black ink. A simple, bat like shape. Naughty
    bits two penises (the "ears" or "antennae").
    Rorschach himself thought this was the easiest
    blot to interpret. It is a bat or a butterfly,
    period. You don't want to mention anything else.
    Seeing the projections on the ends of the bat
    wings as crocodile heads signifies hostility.
    Seeing the paired butterfly antennae or feet as
    scissors or pliers signifies a castration
    complex. Schizophrenics sometimes see moving
    people in this blot. Many psychologists take
    particular note of the number of responses given
    to this plate. If you mention more images here
    than in either Plate IV or VI, it is suggestive
    of schizophrenia.

48
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • Slightly less ambiguous that the inkblot
  • uses real pictures of objects or people
  • participant is asked to say what is going on in
    the picture, what has happened just before the
    event depicted and what will happen afterwards.
  • Like the inkblot, because the scene is ambiguous,
    the individual will project onto the scene
    something of themself and in this way their
    'inner' or hidden self will be revealed.
  • The validity of projective tests is very
    difficult to assess and therefore they must be
    used with extreme caution.

49
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • what is going on in the picture?
  • what has happened just before the event depicted?
  • what will happen next?

50
  • what is going on in the picture?
  • what has happened just before the event depicted?
  • what will happen next?

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
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