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Psychological Therapies

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Psychological Therapies Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck and his view of Depression Noticed that depressed people were similar in the way they viewed the world. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Therapies


1
Psychological Therapies
2
Therapy
  • It used to be that if someone exhibited abnormal
    behavior, they were institutionalized.
  • Because of new drugs and better therapy, the U.S.
    went to a policy of deinstitutionalization.

3
Somatic Therapies (psychiatrist or clinical
psychologist?)
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Antipsychotics (thorazine, haldol)
  • Anti-anxiety (valium, barbiturates, Xanax)
  • Mood Disorders (serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
  • Bipolar (lithium)

4
Psychopharmacology
  • The study of the effects of drugs on mind and
    behavior.

5
Antianxiety Drugs
  • Includes drugs like Valium,Xanax Librium.
  • Like alcohol, they depress nervous system
    activity.
  • Most widely abused drugs.

Do they really solve the problem?
6
Lithium
chemical that provides an effective drug therapy
for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive)
disorders
7
Antidepressant Drugs
  • Lift you up out of depression.

Most increase the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
and serotonin.
8
Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft
  • Work by blocking serotonin reuptake.

9
Drugs and Hospitalization
10
Somatic Therapy
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- for depression.
  • Psychosurgury
  • lobotomy

11
Psychotherapy
  • An interaction between a trained therapist and
    someone suffering from psychological difficulties.

12
Psychoanalytic Therapy what name???what time of
life???
  • Psychoanalysis (manifest and latent content
    through. hypnosis free association, dream,
    interpretation).
  • Unconscious
  • Transference

13
Transference
  • In psychoanalysis, the patients transfer to the
    analyst of emotions linked with other
    relationships.

14
How effect is Psychotherapy?
  • Eysencks challenge in 1950s
  • Meta-analysis ( statistically combining the
    results of many different studies)

15
Humanistic Therapy past or present???
Schizophrenics?
  • Client-Centered Therapy by Carl Rogers
  • These are non-directive therapies and use active
    listening.
  • Self-actualization, free-will and unconditional
    positive regard.
  • Gestalt Therapy by Fritz Perls encourage clients
    to get in touch with whole self.

16
Client (Person) Centered Therapy
Most widely used Humanistic technique is
  • Developed by Carl Rogers
  • Therapist should use genuineness, acceptance and
    empathy to show unconditional positive regard
    towards their clients.

17
Active Listening
  • Central to Rogers client-centered therapy
  • Empathetic listening where the listener echoes,
    restates and clarifies.

18
Behavioral Therapies here and now/anyone other
than schiz
  • Counterconditioning
  • 1. Classical Conditioning
  • 2. Aversive Conditioning
  • 3. Systematic desensitization
  • 4.Flooding
  • 5.Operant Conditioning
  • 6.Token Economy

19
Behavior Therapies
  • Therapy that applies learning principles to the
    elimination of unwanted behaviors.
  • The behaviors are the problems- so we must change
    the behaviors.

20
Classical Conditioning Techniques
  • Counterconditioning
  • A behavioral therapy that conditions new
    responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted
    behaviors.

Two Types
21
Systematic Desensitization
  • A type of counterconditioning that associates a
    pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing
    anxiety-triggering stimuli.

How would I use systematic desensitization to
reduce my fear of old dentists?
22
ANXIETY HIERARCHY USED IN SYSTEMATC
DESENSITIZATION
23
Behavior Therapy
  • Systematic Desensitization

24
Flooding

25
Aversive Conditioning
  • What are some ways you can change the behaviors
    of your friends with aversive conditioning who
    bite their fingernails?

26
Aversive Conditioning
  • A type of counterconditioning that associates an
    unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.

How would putting poop on the fingernails of a
nail biter effect their behavior?
27
Aversive Conditioning
28
Virtual Technology Exposure Therapy
29
Operant Conditioning
  • Token Economy an operant conditioning procedure
    that rewards a desired behavior.

A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned
for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various
privileges or treats.
30
Cognitive Therapy
  • Change the way we view the world (change our
    schemas)
  • Aaron Beck
  • Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Therapy

31
Cognitive Therapy
32
Cognitive Therapies
  • A therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive
    ways of thinking and acting based on the
    assumptions that thoughts intervene between
    events and our emotional reactions.

33
Cognitive Therapy
  • Cognitive Therapists try to teach people new,
    more constructive ways of thinking.

Is .300 a good or bad batting average?
34
Cognitive Therapy
35
Aaron Beck and his view of Depression
  • Noticed that depressed people were similar in the
    way they viewed the world.
  • Used cognitive therapy get people to take off the
    dark sunglasses in which they view their
    surroundings

36
(No Transcript)
37
Cognitive Therapy- Does It Work?
38
Group Therapy
39
Eclectic Approach
  • The most popular form of therapy- it is basically
    a smorgasbord where the therapist combines
    techniques from different schools of psychology.
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