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Electricity and Magnetism

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Van de Graaf Generator s effect on human hair. Static on Baby s hair. ... The flow of electricity in current electricity has electrical pressure or voltage. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electricity and Magnetism


1
Electricity and Magnetism
2
Warm-Up 2/25/2013
  • Draw an atom and label all of the parts.
  • Give an example of static electricity.
  • What are the three parts of a circuit?
  • Draw a diagram (using correct symbols) of a
    closed circuit with a switch.
  • Draw a diagram (using correct symbols) of a
    parallel circuit with 3 light bulbs.
  • What are the three types of magnets?

3
What is electricity?
The collection or flow of electrons in the form
of an electric charge
4
What is static electricity? When two objects rub
against each other, electrons transfer and build
up on an object causing it to have a different
charge from its surroundings. Like the shoes
rubbing against the carpet. Electrons are
transferred from the carpet to the shoes.
5
As electrons collect on an object, it becomes
negatively charged. As electrons leave an object
it attains a positive charges. Charges interact
with each other
Often when you remove clothes from the clothes
dryer, they seem to stick together. This is
because some of the clothes have gained electrons
by rubbing against other clothes. The clothes
losing electrons become positive. The negative
clothes are attracted to the positive clothes.
Have you everrubbed a balloon on your hair and
stuck it on a wall? How do you think this works?
6
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7
What causes you to be shocked when you rub your
feet across carpet?
An electrical discharge is the passing of an
electric current through the air from a
negatively charged object to a positively charge
object. This is what causes lightning!
8
  • Check out these static electricity video clips
  • Static electricity at a gas station
  • Van de Graaf Generators effect on human hair
  • Static on Babys hair
  • Kid gets static going down a slide
  • Cat abuse by static electricity

What is a conductor and insulator? A conductor is
a material which allows an electric current to
pass. Metals are good conductors of
electricity. An insulator is a material which
does not allow an electric current to pass.
Nonmetals are good conductors of electricity.
Plastic, glass, wood, and rubber are good
insulators
9
How are static charges detected?
10
What is the difference between static electricity
and current electricity?
Static electricity is stationary or collects on
the surface of an object, whereas current
electricity is flowing very rapidly through a
conductor. The flow of electricity in current
electricity has electrical pressure or voltage.
Electric charges flow from an area of high
voltage to an area of low voltage.
Water pressure and voltage behave in similar ways.
11
  • Voltage is a measure of electrical push!
  • The greater the voltage the greater the current!

12
The pressure of the water flowing through the
pipes on the last slide compare to the voltage
(electric potential) flowing through the wires of
the circuit. The unit used to measure voltage is
volts (V). The flow of charges in a circuit is
called current. Current (I) is measured in
Amperes (A).
13
What are batteries? Batteries are composed of a
chemical substance which can generate voltage
which can be used in a circuit. There are two
kinds of batteries dry cell and wet cell
batteries. Below is an example of a dry cell.
The zinc container of the dry cell contains a
moist chemical paste surrounding a carbon rod
suspended in the middle.
14
Wet cell batteries are most commonly associated
with automobile batteries.
A wet cell contains two connected plates made of
different metals or metal compounds in a
conducting solution. Most car batteries have a
series of six cells, each containing lead and
lead oxide in a sulfuric acid solution.
15
What is electrical resistance? Resistance is the
opposition to the flow of an electric current.
The metal which makes up a light bulb filament or
stovetop eye has a high electrical resistance.
This causes light and heat to be given off.
16
The unit for measuring resistance is the ohm (O).
A thick wire has less resistance than a thin wire
and a short wire has less resistance than a long
wire.
17
What are electric circuits? Circuits typically
contain a voltage source, a wire conductor, and
one or more devices which use the electrical
energy. What is a series circuit? A series
circuit is one which provides a single pathway
for the current to flow. If the circuit breaks,
all devices using the circuit will fail.
18
What is a parallel circuit? A parallel circuit
has multiple pathways for the current to flow. If
the circuit is broken the current may pass
through other pathways and other devices will
continue to work.
19
What is the difference between an open circuit
and a closed circuit? A closed circuit is one in
which the pathway of the electrical current is
complete and unbroken. An open circuit is one in
which the pathway of the electrical current is
broken. A switch is a device in the circuit in
which the circuit can be closed (turned on) or
open (turned off).
20
How is household wiring arranged? Most household
wiring is logically designed with a combination
of parallel circuits. Electrical energy enters
the home usually at a breaker box or fuse box and
distributes the electricity through multiple
circuits. A breaker box or fuse box is a safety
feature.
21
What is magnetism? 1. Magnetism -properties and
interactions of magnets 2. Magnets are objects
attracted to iron or any material containing
iron. 3. There are three types of magnets
permanent magnets, temporary magnets, and
electromagnets.
22
4. Magnetic Poles magnets have two ends or
poles, called north and south poles. At the poles
of a magnet, the magnetic field lines are closer
together.
Like poles of magnets repel! N repels N, S
repels S Unlike poles of magnets attract! N
attracts S
23
5. Magnetic Field the area around a magnet that
has a magnetic force. The shape of the field can
be shown with lines. These lines map out the
magnetic field and are called magnetic field
lines. The closer together the lines, the
stronger the field.
24
6. What makes something magnetic? Domainssmall
areas where the groups of atoms are aligned in
the same direction. This makes something
magnetic!
25
Magnetic Force
  • A push or pull on an object that is caused by a
    magnet
  • The magnetic force is stronger in large magnets

26
Electricity and Magnetism how are they
related? A coil of wire carrying an electric
current can create a magnetic field! This is
called a solenoid!
27
What is an electromagnet? When an electric
current is passed through a coil of wire wrapped
around a metal core, a very strong magnetic field
is produced. This is called an electromagnet.
28
What are electric motors? An electric motor is a
device which changes electrical energy into
mechanical energy.
29
How does an electric motor work?
Go to the next slide ?
30
Simple as that!!
31
If an electric field can create a magnetic field,
do you think a magnetic field can create an
electric field? YES! Moving a loop of wire
through a magnetic field produces an electric
current. This is called electromagnetic
induction. A generator is used to convert
mechanical energy into electrical energy by
electromagnetic induction. Carefully study the
next diagram
32
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33
Direct current versus alternating current AC
vs DC Whats the difference? Direct current is
electrical current which comes from a battery
which supplies a constant flow of electricity in
one direction. Alternating current is electrical
current which comes from a generator. As the
electromagnet is rotated in the permanent magnet
the direction of the current alternates once for
every revolution. Go to this website and click
the button for DC then for AC to visually see the
difference between the two. You can see that the
DC source is a battery current flows in one
direction. The AC source is the generator and the
current alternates once for each revolution.
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