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History of the Modern Periodic Table

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Title: The History of the Modern Periodic Table Subject: Periodic Table Author: Michael Geyer Description: Modified from original Periodic Table PowerPoint file. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of the Modern Periodic Table


1
History of the Modern Periodic Table
2
During the nineteenth century, chemists began to
categorize the elements according to similarities
in physical and chemical properties. The result
- our modern periodic table.
3
Antoine Lavoisier
In 1790s, he had a list of 23 elements.No
organization, just a list."father of modern
chemistry"
1743 - 1794
4
Johann Dobereiner
In 1829, classified some elements into groups of
three.The elements in a triad had similar
chemical properties.
(ex. Cl, Br, I and Ca, Sr, Ba)
Model of triads
1780 - 1849
5
John Newlands
In 1863, he suggested that elements be arranged
in octaves because he noticed (after arranging
the elements in order of increasing atomic mass)
that certain properties repeated every 8th
element.
Law of Octaves
1838 - 1898
6
Dmitri Mendeleev
In 1869 he published a table of the elements
organized by increasing atomic mass.
1834 - 1907
7
Lothar Meyer
At the same time, published his own table of the
elements organized by increasing atomic mass.
1830 - 1895
8
Mendeleev...
  • used his table to predict the physical properties
    of three elements that were yet unknown.

After the discovery of these unknown elements
between 1874 and 1885, and the fact that
Mendeleevs predictions for Sc, Ga, and Ge were
amazingly close to the actual values, his table
was generally accepted.
9
Henry Moseley
In 1913, through his work with X-rays, he
determined the actual nuclear charge (atomic
number) of the elements. He rearranged the
elements in order of increasing atomic number.
1887 - 1915
10
Glenn T. Seaborg
After co-discovering 10 new elements, in 1944 he
moved 14 elements out of the main body of the
periodic table to their current location below
the Lanthanide series. These became known as the
Actinide series.
1912 - 1999
11
Glenn T. Seaborg
He is the only person to have an element named
after him while still alive.
"This is the greatest honor ever bestowed upon me
- even better, I think, thanwinning the Nobel
Prize."
1912 - 1999
12
Periodic Table Geography
13
(No Transcript)
14
The horizontal rows of the periodic table are
called PERIODS.
15
The elements in any group of the periodic table
have similar physical and chemical properties!
The vertical columns of the periodic table are
called GROUPS, or FAMILIES.
16
Periodic Law
When elements are arranged in order of increasing
atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in
their physical and chemical properties.
17
Alkali Metals
18
Alkaline Earth Metals
19
Transition Metals
20
InnerTransition Metals
These elements are also called the rare-earth
elements.
21
Halogens
22
Noble Gases
23
The s and p block elementsare calledREPRESENTATI
VE ELEMENTS.akaGROUP A ELEMENTS
24
Classification of the Elements
  • Metals
  • Nonmetals
  • Metalloids

25
METALS
  • Shiny when smooth and clean
  • Solids at room temperature
  • Good conductors of heat electricity
  • Most are malleable ductile

26
NONMETALS
  • Gases or brittle dull-looking solids
  • Poor conductors of heat electricity
  • Include highly reactive HALOGENS (Group 7A)
  • Include very unreactive NOBLE GASES (Group 8A)

27
NONMETALS
  • Include Nitrogen Oxygen which make up most of
    the air we breathe
  • Include CARBON which is the basic element in all
    organic substances

28
METALLOIDS
  • aka semimetals
  • Physical Chemical properties of both metals and
    nonmetals
  • Include SILICON GERMANIUM used in computer
    chips and solar cells

29
Mapping Metals and Nonmetal in the Periodic Table
  • NONMETALS
  • METALS

  • METALLOIDS

30
The periodic table is the most important tool in
the chemists toolbox!
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