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FORMING LATIN VERB TENSES

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FORMING LATIN VERB TENSES How to turn any* Latin verb into any tense. * Any regular verb; these are irregular in the present, imperfect and future: sum, possum, volo ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FORMING LATIN VERB TENSES


1
FORMING LATIN VERB TENSES
  • How to turn any Latin verb into any tense.
  • Any regular verb these are irregular in the
    present, imperfect and future sum, possum, volo,
    nolo, eo, fero

2
INFINITIVES
  • amo,
  • teneo,
  • peto,
  • capio,
  • audio,
  • amAre gtgt stem ends in A
  • tenEre gtgt stem ends in -E
  • petere gtgt stem ends in t
  • capere gtgt stem ends in i
  • audIre gtgt stem ends in -I

3
MAKE THE PRESENT TENSEadd person endings to the
stem
  • amo
  • amas
  • amat
  • amamus
  • amatis
  • amant

peto petis petit petimus petitis petunt
teneo tenes tenet tenemus tenetis tenent
audio audis audit audimus auditis audiunt
4
MAKE THE IMPERFECT TENSEadd ba-endings to the
stemfor 3rd and 4th conj, glue in the ba-
with an e
  • amabam
  • amabas
  • amabat
  • amabamus
  • amabatis
  • amabant

tenebam tenebas tenebat tenebamus tenebatis teneba
nt
audiebam audiebas audiebat audiebamus audiebatis a
udiebant
petebam petebas petebat petebamus petebatis peteba
nt
5
MAKE THE FUTURE TENSE 1-2add bi-endings to
the stem
  • amabo
  • amabis
  • amabit
  • amabimus
  • amabitis
  • amabunt

tenebo tenebis tenebit tenebimus tenebitis tenebun
t
notice how the bi- changes to bo in 1st sg,
and to bu in 3rd pl
6
MAKE THE FUTURE TENSE 3-4add a/eendings to
the stem
audiam audies audiet audiemus audietis audient
petam petes petet petemus petetis petent
capiam capies capiet capiemus capietis capient
7
3 PERFECT TENSES
  • use a PERFECT STEM FROM THE 3RD PRINCIPAL PART
  • amavi I have loved
  • tenui I have held
  • petivi I have sought
  • cepi I have taken
  • audivi I have heard
  • amo, amare
  • teneo, tenere
  • peto, petere
  • capio, capere
  • audio, audire

8
MAKE THE PERFECT TENSEadd PERFECT person endings
to the stem
cepi cepisti cepit cepimus cepistis ceperunt
audivi audivisti audivit audivimus audivistis audi
verunt
  • tenui
  • tenuisti
  • tenuit
  • tenuimus
  • tenuistis
  • tenuerunt

amavi amavisti amavit amavimus amavistis amaverunt
9
PERFECT ENDINGS again
i isti it imus istis erunt
  • tenui
  • tenuisti
  • tenuit
  • tenuimus
  • tenuistis
  • tenuerunt

cepi cepisti cepit cepimus cepistis ceperunt
audivi audivisti audivit audivimus audivistis audi
verunt
10
These PERFECT ENDINGS are used only on the
PERFECT TENSE
  • Compare them to the normal personal endings used
    on other tenses

-o -s -t -mus -tis -nt
-i -isti -it -imus -istis -erunt
11
MAKE THE PLUPERFECT TENSEadd -era- normal
endings to the PERFECT stem
amaveram amaveras amaverat amaveramus amaveratis a
maverant
  • tenueram
  • tenueras
  • tenuerat
  • tenueramus
  • tenueratis
  • tenuerant

ceperam ceperas ceperat ceperamus ceperatis cepera
nt
audiveram audiveras audiverat audiveramus audivera
tis audiverant
Translate all forms into English with HAD ED
12
MAKE THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSEadd eri- normal
endings to the PERFECT stem
amavero amaveris amaverit amaverimus amaveritis am
averint
  • tenuero
  • tenueris
  • tenuerit
  • tenuerimus
  • tenueritis
  • tenuerint

cepero ceperis ceperit ceperimus ceperitis ceperin
t
audivero audiveris audiverit audiverimus audiverit
is audiverint
N.B. ero ending on 1st person singularKEEP THE
ERINT for 3rd person pl, to distinguish it from
the PERFECT -ERUNT
13
TRANSLATING THE PERFECT TENSES
PERFECT I loved, I HAVE loved he loved, he
HAS loved
PLUPERFECT I HAD loved ---all forms need the
word HAD
FUTURE PERFECT I WILL HAVE loved all forms
need the words WILL HAVE
14
Lay-out of the 6 Tenses
  • Always start with the principal parts to get the
    proper stems
  • amo, amare amavi
  • PRES amo, amas, amat PERFECT amavi,
    amavisti, amavit
  • IMPEF amabam,amabas PLUPERF amaveram,
    amaveras
  • FUTURE amabo, amabis, FUT. PERF amavero,
    amaveris
  • First 3 tenses use the PRESENT STEM from the
    INFINITIVE
  • Last 3 tenses use PERFECT STEM from the 3rd
    Principal part.
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