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Integumentary Systems


Integumentary Systems Structure & Functions of Integumentary System Integumentary system consists of layers of the four types of body tissues: 1) epithelial tissue ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Integumentary Systems

Integumentary Systems
  • Structure Functions of Integumentary System
  • Integumentary system consists of layers of the
    four types of body tissues
  • 1) epithelial tissue - outer layer of skin
  • 2) connective tissue - tough flexible protein
    fibers that act to hold body together
  • 3) muscle tissue - interact w/ hairs on skin
    respond to stimuli like cold and fright
  • 4) nervous tissue - detects external stimuli like
    pain and pressure (Chapter 19)

Skin The Bodys Protection
  • Main organ in integumentary system is the skin,
    which makes it the largest organ in the body
    since it is 12-15 of body weight!
  • Made of two layers
  • Epidermis outer layer of skin
  • Dermis inner layer of skin

Layers of Skin
  • Outermost layer of skin made of 2 parts
    exterior and interior portions
  • Exterior 25-30 layers of dead, flattened cells
    that are continually being shed
  • Even though dead, are important since contain
    keratin which helps protect living cells

  • Interior living cells that continually divide to
    replace dead cells
  • Contain pigment melanin that colors skin and
    protects it from damage by solar radiation
  • Melanin is not sole protector for sun damage
    can get skin cancer if are dark pigmented!
  • process of shedding takes 28 days (4 weeks)

  • Inner, thicker portion of skin
  • Contains many structures
  • Blood vessels (arteries veins)
  • Nerves nerve endings
  • Hair follicles
  • Sweat glands
  • Sebaceous (oil) glands
  • Muscles (to make hair stand up)

Subcutaneous Layer
  • Beneath dermis is subcutaneous layer
  • Made of fat and connective tissue
  • Help body absorb impacts, retain heat, store food

Functions of Skin
  • 1. Maintains homeostasis
  • Regulates internal body temperature
  • When temperature rises, small blood vessels in
    dermis dilate (increase in circumference),
    allowing blood flow to increase, so blood loses
  • When temperature lowers, blood vessels constrict
    (decrease in circumference), decreasing blood
    flow, so blood keeps in heat

Feedback loop Backward/forward
Feedback (Homeostasis) Loop
Internal Body Temperature Changes
Blood vessels dilate
Blood vessels constrict
Blood flow increases
Blood flow decreases
Blood loses heat
Blood keeps in heat
Internal Body Temperature Normalizes
  • 2. sensory organ
  • Nerve cells get information from external
    environment about pain, pressure, and temperature
    and send message to brain
  • 3. produces Vitamin D
  • When exposed to UV light, skin makes Vitamin D,
    which is essential to help body absorb calcium
  • Most calcium supplements contain Vitamin D for
    that same reason
  • 4. protective layer
  • Shields underlying tissues from physical and
    chemical damage and from invading pathogens
    (viruses and bacteria)

Skin injury and Healing
  • Injuries to skin can occur due to scrapes, cuts,
    or burns, but how skin heals depends on severity
  • Mild scrape (no blood, epidermis only)
  • Deepest layer of affected epidermal cells start
    to divide to fill in gap left by abrasion
  • Cut (blood, epidermis and dermis)
  • Blood flows out of wound until clot forms
  • Scab develops, creating barrier between bacteria
    on skin and underlying tissues

Skin injury and Healing
  • Bacteria already present in wound gets killed by
    white blood cells that migrate to site
  • New skin cells begin repairing wound from beneath
  • Scab falls off when new skin is formed
  • Large wound needs high amount of connective
    tissue which may form a scar

Healing of a Cut
Cut in skin
Blood pools, creating scab
Skin cells regenerate from bottom up
Skin Burns
  • Burn (Sun, chemicals, hot objects)
  • First degree (mild sunburn)
  • Death of epidermal cells
  • Redness and mild pain
  • Heal in 1 week w/out scar
  • Second degree
  • Damage of both epidermal and dermal cells
  • Blistering and scaring may occur

Skin Burns
  • Burn (sun, chemicals, hot objects)
  • Third degree
  • Destruction of both epidermal and dermal cells
  • Skin function is lost, so skin grafts are
  • Fourth degree
  • Destruction through skin and into muscles,
    tendons, ligaments, and bone

Bones The Bodys Support
  • Skeletal System Structure
  • Adult human skeleton contains 206 bones! Made of
    two main parts
  • Axial skeleton skull and bones that support it
    like vertebral column, ribs, sternum
  • Appendicular skeleton bones of arms and legs
    (appendages), and all structures associated with
    them (shoulder, hips, wrists, ankles, fingers,

Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton
Skeletal joints
  • Bones meet other bones at areas called joints
  • Joints facilitate movement of bones in relation
    to one another
  • Joints can be fixed (non-moveable) or non-fixed
  • Fixed joints skull

Skeletal joints
  • Non-fixed joints knee, wrist, etc.
  • - 4 types of moveable joints
  • Ball-and-socket hips, shoulders
  • Pivot twisting arm at elbow
  • Hinge elbows, knees, fingers, toes
  • Gliding wrists, ankles

Types of Joints Found in Human
Types of Joints Found in Human
  • Joints are held together by ligaments
  • Ligament tough band of connective tissue that
    attaches one bone to another
  • Joints with a large range of motion (knee) have
    many ligaments

  • Ends of bones are covered in cartilage
  • Allows for smooth movement between bone ends
  • Cushions joints

  • Certain joints have fluid-filled sacs called
    bursae (bursa is singular)
  • Outside of joint between tendon and bone to
    reduce friction

  • Muscles are attached to bones with tendons
  • Tendons are thick bands of connective tissue

Types of Bone
  • Two types of bone tissue
  • Compact bone and spongy bone
  • Compact bone hardened bone that contains tubular
    structures called osteons (or Haversian systems)
  • Surrounds spongy bone to protect it
  • Spongy (cancellous) bone less dense bone with
    many holes and spaces
  • Living bone cells are called osteocytes, which
    receive oxygen and nutrients from small blood

Types of Bone
Formation of Bone
  • Skeleton of human embryo is actually made of
    cartilage, not bone (same as what nose is made
  • Not until embryo is 9 weeks does cartilage get
    replaced by bone
  • When blood vessels penetrate cartilage membrane,
    stimulate it to become osteoblasts (precursors to

Human skeleton growth
  • Human skeleton is almost 100 bone, with
    cartilage found only in places where flexibility
    is needed nose, ears, vertebral disks, and
    joint linings
  • Bone grows in length and diameter as result of
    sex hormones released during growth
  • Length from cartilage plates at ends of bones
  • Diameter from outer surface of bone
  • After growth stops, bone-forming cells are
    involved in repair and maintenance

Skeletal System Functions
  • Function of skeleton is five-fold
  • 1. Provide framework for tissues of body
  • Allows muscles to attach to bones so they can
    provide movement to body
  • 2. Protects internal organs
  • 3. Produce blood cells
  • Red marrow where red blood cells, white blood
    cells, blood clotting factors are produced
  • found in humerus, femur, sternum, ribs,
    vertebrae, pelvis

Skeletal System Functions
  • Function of skeleton is five-fold
  • 4. Store fat
  • Yellow marrow many other bones store fat in here
  • 5. Mineral storage
  • Bodys supply of calcium and phosphorous is
    stored in bone

Skeletal injury disease
  • Skeleton is vulnerable to injury and disease
  • Broken bones
  • Too much force against bone can cause it to break
    or fracture
  • Physician must set bone back in place so new
    osteocytes may form in broken area and put two
    ends back together

Skeletal injury disease
  • Skeleton is vulnerable to injury and disease
  • Osteoporosis
  • Loss of bone volume and mineral content which
    leads to bones becoming more porous and brittle
    and more susceptible for breakage
  • More common in older women since they produce
    lower amounts or estrogen which aids in bone

Bone Fracture Types
Bone Fracture Types
  • Joints can become diseased
  • Arthritis inflammation of the joints
  • Bone spurs are outgrowths of bone inside the
    joints so it limits mobility

  • Muscles
  • Nearly half of body mass is muscle!
  • Muscle groups of fibers, or cells, bound
    together. Almost all muscle fibers have been
    present since birth
  • 3 main types of muscle
  • Smooth muscle walls of internal organs and blood
  • Cardiac muscle heart muscle
  • Skeletal muscle muscles attached to bones

Muscle Types
Muscle Types
Smooth Muscle
  • Made up of sheets of cells that form a lining for
  • Most common function is to squeeze via
    contractions, exerting pressure on space inside
    tube or organ to move material inside it
  • Ex food bolus gets squeezed through digestive
    system until it comes out semen gets squeezed
    through vas deferens, then urethra

Movement of Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle of vessel or organ
Contractions are involuntary (cant be controlled
by human) so smooth muscle is considered to be an
involuntary muscle
Direction of movement
Cardiac Muscle
  • Found in heart and is adapted to generate and
    conduct electrical impulses!
  • Considered an involuntary muscle

Skeletal Muscle
  • Muscle that is attached to and moves bones
  • Makes up majority of muscles in body which work
    in opposing pairs
  • Muscle X on one side of bone, Muscle Y on other
    side of bone
  • If Muscle X is contracted, Muscle Y is relaxed,
    and vice versa
  • Considered a voluntary muscle since contractions
    can be controlled
  • How do we contract our muscles?

Opposing Muscle Pairs
Muscle Contracted
Muscle Relaxed
Muscle Names
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
  • All muscle tissue is made of muscle fibers, which
    are very long, fused muscle cells
  • Each fiber is made of smaller units called
  • Myofibrils made of thick and thin filaments
  • Thick filaments myosin
  • Thin filaments actin
  • Myofibril can be divided into segments called

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Muscle Contraction
Relaxed Sarcomere
Z Disc
  • How do muscles contract? How do they know that
    you want to make a muscle?
  • Sliding Filament Theory

Sliding Filament Theory
  • Sliding filament theory when signaled, actin
    filaments within each sarcomeres slide toward one
    another, shortening sarcomeres in a fiber and
    causing muscle to contract
  • Myosin fibers do NOT move
  • When skeletal muscle receives a signal (via
    brain), calcium is released inside muscle fibers,
    causing two sides of sarcomere to slide toward
    each other contraction
  • When signal is gone, calcium gets absorbed,
    sarcomeres relax and slide away back into place

Sliding Filament Theory
Black Z disk
Yellow actin (thin)
Pink myosin (thick)
Muscle Strength and Exercise
  • Muscle strength does not depend on amount of
    fibers but does depend on thickness of fibers
  • You are born with the number of fibers you will
    always have, but exercise can increase thickness
    of each fiber making entire muscle bigger
  • Exercise stresses muscle fibers slightly, so to
    compensate for workload, fibers increase in
    diameter by adding myofibrils

Muscle Strength and Exercise
  • Energy that muscles need to contract comes from
    ATP produced by cellular respiration (aerobic and
    anaerobic processes)
  • Most energy comes from aerobic respiration when
    oxygen (from breathing) is delivered to muscle
    cells during rest or MODERATE activity

Muscle Strength and Exercise
  • During VIGOROUS activity (when we have tendency
    to hold our breaths delivery of oxygen is not
    as fast as it needs to be), anaerobic respiration
    kicks in and in addition to ATP being made,
    lactic acid fermentation makes lactic acid which
    makes muscles cramp up
  • Lactic acid build up gets sent into bloodstream,
    where triggers rapid breathing (panting!)
  • Inhalation of oxygen again breaks down lactic
    acid cramps go away