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Basic Plant Care Mrs. Stoinski


Basic Plant Care Mrs. Stoinski & Mrs. Dexter 2006/07 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Plant Care Mrs. Stoinski

Basic Plant CareMrs. Stoinski Mrs.
Green House Safety
  • Handling Chemicals
  • Chemical Gloves Safety Glasses
  • Electrical
  • Cutting Tools
  • Proper Lifting
  • No Opened Toed Shoes
  • Pull long hair Back
  • Proper Handling of Tools

  • 80-90 of a plant is composed of water.
  • It is Important to understand when and how to
  • There are different watering needs for different

  • Growing Medium used for growing a plant can
    affect how much water is needed. Some mediums
    have higher water-holding capacities. (Ex.Clay
    soils hold more water than sands soils)
  • SO . . . ?
  • Drainage Most soil types are adequate for plant
    growth provided there is proper drainage, this
    helps prevent root rot.
  • WHY . . .?

The following materials may be added to soil to
promote better drainage
  • Perlite
  • 2. Vermiculite
  • 3. Sand

4. Peat Moss 5. Humus
Pot Types
  • Clay Pots absorb water need watering more
  • Pots with drain holes are best for plants. WHY??
  • Pots without drain holes need watering less
  • no drainage, can result in rot or disease if
    over watered
  • Larger pots need less watering than small pots.
  • Full Sun areas need more water than plants in
    shade, WHY?

Methods of Watering
  • Top watering Water is poured on top of the
    soil until water runs out the bottom.
  • Bottom watering Water is poured
  • into a saucer around base of container
  • and capillary action pulls water from
  • into the root ball.

Types of Water
  • Water suitable for human consumption is
    generally suitable for plants.
  • Softened Water contains sodium which can break
    up and scatter the soil structure, making it
    difficult for the roots to take up nutrients and

How to Tell when to Water
  • Feel Method If Top soil feels dry to the
    touch, water as needed. (This method is not
  • Cake-testing Insert a probe into the soil. If
    soil crumbs stick to the probe, the soil is
    moist. If not, the soil is dry
  • Weight Method Pick-up a plant that has been
    thoroughly watered. Gauge its weight. When you
    want to water it again, see if it feels lighter,
    or the same weight. The lighter the plant is, the
    more water it needs.

What is Leaching?
  • Leaching This technique is used to remove
    excess fertilizer salts from the soil
  • To Leach Water plant from the top of soil until
    the water draining out the bottom is clear.
  • Any other examples?

Under Watering Vs. Over WateringWhat will happen?
  • Whole plant wilts
  • Lower leaves turn yellow and drop. Others
    develop brown or black spots
  • Whole plant is stunted and fails to grow
  • Stems and roots become brown, and mushy and decay
  • Plant wilts, leaves may curl, cup or droop
  • Edges and tips of leaves turn brown. Entire
    leaves eventually turn brown and drop
  • General drop of green leaves
  • Roots are brown and dry

Think, Before you waterOver watering is caused
  • Not understanding a containers
    water-holding capacity
  • Ignoring lighting conditions
  • Forgetting that light changes as
    seasons change
  • Watering already moist soil

  • Most Important factor in
  • plant growth.
  • Necessary for Photosynthesis
  • (Create food and energy for plants)
  • In High light situations a plant can
    photosynthesize at a higher rate, which allows
    faster growth

Aspects of Light
  • Intensity Intensity is the amount of light that
    is received on a plants leaf surfaces.
  • Duration The length of time a plant receives
  • Quality The quality is a measure of the wave
    lengths the light emits. Plants rely on red and
    blue regions, this is where chlorophyll can
    absorb light most effectively.

Light Sources
  • High Intensity Discharge(HID)
  • Expensive (transformer,vapor bulb,and
    reflector) strong healthier seed starts, mature
    faster and produce higher yields.
  • Incandescent Emits high heat, Low power(high red
    low blue) Not as beneficial to plants. Cheaper
    than (HID)
  • Natural Light cheapest (windows or skylights).
  • Fluorescent Light
  • Artificial lighting expensive, less heat, low
    power. (High blue light) Good for starting seeds.

Light Extremes Plants not receiving enough
  • Growth will be stretched out, tall and spindly.
  • Leaves are smaller and may appear
    curly or cupped.
  • Leaves turn yellow and drop.
  • Variegated leaves lose their
  • Flowers are pale in color, or
    no bloom at all.
  • Growth is slow, stunted or no growth.
  • Excessive Light- Sun scorch, plants wilt develop
    brown or bleached spots.

Light Requirements
  • Full Sun light 5 hours of full sun, 5 ft from S
    window 2ft from E or W
  • Indirect or Diffused 4ft from N, 8ft from S or
    5ft from E or W
  • Shade or Low light 6ft from N, ft from E or W
    10 ft from S must be shaded

  • Is the process by which plants create energy
  • Plants take CO2 H2O and turn it into C6H12O6
  • This gives them energy to grow flower.
  • The reverse process is Respiration - this gives
    off H2O CO2 through the stomata, which are the
    pores (usually) underneath the leaves.

(No Transcript)
Growing Medium Nutrients
  • The following is a guide to good medium.
  • Soil should be uniform and disease-free.
  • Ideal soil 50 solid, 25 air space, 25 water
  • The best soil is a loam, which is
  • a combination of sand,silt, and clay.

Soil Additives
  • Organic Matter Added to soil to provide drainage
    and improve water retention.
  • Coarse Aggregates Added to improve aeration and
    drainage. Sand is a common.
  • Perlite Expanded volcanic rock, should be
  • used in limited quantities due to its high
  • Flourine content
  • Vermiculite Can hold moisture and nutrients.
  • Aeration necessary to ensure O2 removal
  • of CO2 from root zone, otherwise you will
  • have Root Rot

Growing Medium
  • Happy Medium (Good medium)
  • high water holding capacity good aeration.
  • Soil pH pH between 6.2 and 6.8 ensures the best
    nutrient availability for most plants.

Plant Nutrition
  • Macronutrients these are needed on a
    _______________, by all plants these six
    nutrients include
  • (N) 1. Nitrogen essential for proper growth
  • (P) 2. Phosphorus needed to transform energy
  • (K) 3. Potassium helps with development of
  • (Ca) 4. Calcium helps soil structure makes
    other nutrients
  • readily available
  • (Mg) 5. Magnesium assists Ca can be added w/
  • (S) 6. Sulfur important in enzymatic reactions
    may reduce pH

  • Micronutrients elements essential for plant
    growth which are needed in only very___________.
  • The seven of these include
  • 1. boron (B)
  • 2. copper (Cu)
  • 3. iron (Fe)
  • 4. chloride (Cl)
  • 5. manganese (Mn)
  • 6. molybdenum (Mo)
  • 7. zinc (Zn)

  • Fertilizer solution added to soil to
    supplement available nutrients promote growth
  • Various forms liquid, soluble crystal, soluble
    tablets, slow release formula all-organic
  • Whats the Difference?
  • They are labeled in N-P-K rations,
  • ex 10-10-10 which means what?
  • 10 Nitrogen, 10 Phosphorus 10 Potassium
  • Whats the other 70?

  • Whats Comfortable for Us?
  • Most houseplants tolerate normal home
  • (65-75 degrees F)

Freezing temperatures will kill plants lt 32f
Temperature over 85f will result in poor growth
unless . . .
What about Drafts?
  • Warm air drafts Drafts such as those from a
    heating register can cause damaging water loss.
  • Cold air drafts caused by air conditioner or
    winter drafts can cause wilting and crumpling

TaxonomyWhy are there TWO names?
  • Common name
  • Snake Plant or Mother In Laws Tongue
  • Scientific name
  • Sansevieria trifasciata
    or Sansevieria trifasciata
  • This consists of the GENUS and the species.

Specialty plants
  • An X is a hybrid cross
  • EX
  • Lilium X hybridum
  • The sp. or species signifies an unknown
  • EX
  • Lilium species

What are some ways to differentiate between
  • The leaf
  • The flower
  • The fruit
  • TREES include
  • The bark
  • The bud
  • The bud or leaf scar

Two major classifications for all plants
  • ___________________ flowering plants that
    produce seeds in fruit
  • ___________________ they
  • produce naked seeds or cones

Parts of a Flower
Leave types
Other Methods of Differentiation
  • Bud - consists leaves, stems, and perhaps
    flowers, which are folded, covered
  • Bud scar - markings remaining after bud scales
  • Fruit ripened ovary, containing seeds
  • Roots supply support, water nutrients

Root Types
  • Tap - large and fleshy, grow deep, able to store
  • Fibrous - close to the surface collects
  • Adventitious - help plants climb or modified
    underground stems

Propagation reproduction
  • Two Types
  • Sexual
  • Asexual
  • Stem Cuttings cutting a pies of stem w/ leaves
  • Leaf Cuttings cutting the leaf laying on soil
  • Spores seed like bodies on ferns
  • Grafting union of two compatible plants
  • Runners Stolons planting plantlets w/o cutting
  • Division splitting multiple crowns
  • Air Layering rooting w/o detaching

RepottingH.O. 46
Insects IckHandout pg 52
  • Insects are the most serious problem in an
    interior plantscape.
  • They thrive in a warm dry atmosphere.
  • Inspect leaves stems for insects on any new
    plants before placing with existing ones.

Methods of Prevention
  • We will rotate the following each Friday
  • Red Wax Spray
  • 2. Rubbing Alcohol Spray
  • 3. Soapy Water Mix

  • 3 factors must be present for plant
  • disease to occur
  • 1. a susceptible host
  • 2. the pathogen
  • 3. a environment conducive to
  • the disease WHAT?
  • (usually wet warm)
  • -They enter through
  • wounds pores

Tobacco Disease
HOW Prevention
  • Keep Foliage Dry
  • Remove Infected Tissues
  • After tending to an infected plant, Disinfect
    tools hands
  • Use Clean potting Media when Repotting

Research Adventures
  • Look up 4 common greenhouse diseases
  • Need to have one from each category 1
  • Use books or internet
  • Can work in groups of TWO only!

Customer Relations
  • The Customer is your new Boss!
  • In any industry the Customer pays your
    paycheck, so it is important to keep them HAPPY.
    The most common reasons people leave a business
  • 68 - leave because of an indifferent
  • attitude from an employee
  • 14 - leave because they were
  • dissatisfied with the product
  • 9 - left for competitive prices
  • 8 - miscellaneous

Sales Blue Prints
  • There are six steps in a
  • successful sale
  • 1. Greeting NameEyesAttitudeSmileSpace
  • 2. Determine Buying Needs- Occasion?
  • 3. Descriptive Selling color, money, flowers
  • 4. Handling Objections what is it? apologize
  • 5. The Close total, delivery, card, repeat
  • 6. Wrap-Up Thanks, Reassurance receipt

  • Create a Sales skit- go through ALL 6 steps
  • Teams of 2 -1 customer, 1 floral worker
  • Fill in the blanks in your note guide
  • Can be a phone call, or in person
  • Must be start to finish
  • Must include one complaint or objection
  • Must use props
  • 10 minutes get your props script written

Handling Money
  • http//
  • Online stations second yr stations
  • Total 16.25
  • They give you a 20.00 what do you do?
  • You owe them 3.75
  • With each dollar you count up, 17.25, 18.25,
  • When there is only change left . . . give them
    the change say the amount they gave you .75
  • And twenty (20.00)

Cut Flower Care from the CPF Truck
  • Check the order for mistakes observe each bunch
    while looking at what is written on the receipt.
  • Check for completion condition

Proper Incoming Flower Care Handout 16/ 11
  • Recut remix solution for flowers (Mondays)
    being kept for more than 4 days.
  • Clean nippers scrubbed buckets must be used.
  • Photosynthesis is interrupted when a flower is
  • The Flower needs energy to open and develop.
  • Flower preservative can increase a vase life by
  • With a marked bucket, add water to the fill line.
  • Use the proper amount of floral life to
  • Mix well!
  • But Whats in It?

Water Quality
  • Correct pH for fresh flowers
  • 3.5 4.5
  • Gases in water can air bubbles which can
    cause blockage. The higher the temperature
    is the less the amount of gas.
  • The correct temperature should be 100ish.
  • Clean sanitize tools weekly
  • (Mondays) use a bleach detergent
  • mixture.

Tools Supplies pg 110/111
  • Worksheet match up
  • Place the letter of the tools in your guide next
    to the description you believe fits
  • After you are finished well go through the
    correct answers

Wet, Live, Floral Foam Preparation
  • In order to wet oasis, fill a floral bucket with
    water 100-110 degrees F
  • Add Floral Life then place oasis on top and allow
    to Sink on its own.
  • DO NOT Force down! This will create Air pockets,
    stems placed in these pockets will Die due to
    Lack of O2.
  • Pre-soaked oasis Cannot be reused

Containers the 1st element
  • Select by observing
  • Style, quality, price, flowers occasion
  • Flowers should be cut to roughly 1 ½ x the size
    of the container.
  • Is there anything that shouldnt be used?
  • Accents are used to complement
  • or enhance the arrangement

  • Are the KEY in Floral Design. Complete HO pg 127
  • They can create Drama, softness cheerfulness.
  • The Color Wheel should be used as a tool when
    creating designs.
  • What is a Color Scheme?
  • 1. __________________ using one hue, including
    different shades, tints tones
  • 2. __________________ using 2 colors directly
    across from each other
  • 3. __________________ using 3 colors, creating
    an triangle on the wheel
  • 4. __________________ using colors adjacent in a
    90 degree angle.

Which are these?
Complete Color Wheel
Proportion Scale
  • P Relationship between containers, accessories,
  • Arrangement should be ______ the ___________or
    _________ of container.
  • The ___________ is the most important part of
    proportion because it determines size, shape,
    color texture.
  • S Relationship between arrangement and
    surrounding area it will be placed.

Questions in note guide
Balance Symmetry
  • B Visual achieved by balancing color
  • Physical achieved by actual placement of
  • S 1. ________________ Equal weight, creates a
    vertical line
  • 2. ________________ Unequal weight, line
  • shifted
  • Dark Colors should be placed low, due to
  • Large flowers should be placed in low groups
    central and small light flowers place higher

  • Rhythm Repetition like music
  • Refer to floral handout page 116
  • Harmony
  • Addresses aesthetic qualities in an arrangement.
  • Does the container, flowers
  • accessories convey the message
  • that you want them to?

  • Occurs when flowers foliage are distributed
    around a central point.
  • If some lines point forward some backward this
    will be achieved.
  • Also vary the facing of flowers or use cool
    colors to recede towards the back.
  • Look at the arrangement at all angles sides
  • What are you looking for?

  • Physical visual surface qualities of plant
  • Pastels Look sheik smooth
  • Dark colors Look rough
  • Use related textures so . . .
  • They blend well and are pleasing to the eye

Focal Point
  • The spot that 1st attracts your eye. Where
    movement begins.
  • It is usually the largest or the boldest material
    placed low in the design.
  • It is only varied slightly in color to prevent
    losing motion
  • The lines should meet at this point

  • Form
  • Refer to H.O. pg121
  • - In groups of two
  • -Come up with a line, a mass, a filler a green
  • you could use for each design form
  • -They need to be different for each one.

Bow CreationH.O. pg 141
  • Loop around the thumb pinch shiny side up
  • 2. Then make a loop pinch shiny side up tween
    forefinger thumb
  • 3. Twist so shiny side is up again hold tight
  • 4. Repeat 4 to 6 times
  • 5. With a floral wire, go through the first loop
    around your thumb
  • 6. And pinch the wire underneath the bow twist

Wiring Taping
  • HO pgs 144, 145, 146
  • 1. Twist Wrap method
  • 2. Pierce method
  • 3. Insert method
  • 4. Hook method
  • 5. Wrap-Around method
  • 6. Leaf form
  • 7. Cluster form
  • 8. Fern form

  • Basic bout design includes
  • Wire, floral tape, flowers, greens, CG
  • Could also use note card, glue, ribbon,
  • The carnation or rose should be wired with the
    pierce method, leave about 1-2 of wire.
  • The leaf if wired should be done with the
    appropriate method.
  • Place the leaf behind the flower and begin
    wrapping the stems together with floral tape,
    stretching and twisting as you go. Then mist
    with C G and you are finished.

  • You will need
  • Flowers, glue, ribbon, wristlet, accessories,
    faux leaflets CG
  • Place a SMALL amount of floral glue on a piece or
    cardboard, (it dries quickly) dab faux leaflets
    flowers directly in glue apply directly to
  • Next, place the bow in the center of the
    corsage (or flower), this is your focal
  • You will then add leaflets and flowers
    under and around the bow (or flower).
  • Finally spray with anti-transparent place
    in a corsage box, then in the cooler.

  • You will need
  • Foliage leatherleaf, asparagus, pine bows
  • Line Flowers liatris, stock, delphinium, curly
  • Mass Flowers roses, lilies, sunflowers,
  • Filler Flowers babys breath, limonium, statice
  • Needed for a container arrangement
  • Container, oasis waterproof tape

Vase Arrangements
  • H.O. pg 131
  • Step One Fill vase with
    H2O Preservative
  • Step Two Insert greenery which will form
    a anchor.
  • Step Three Place line flowers into vase to
    establish height.
  • Step Four Place mass flowers randomly by
    working away from primary flowers towards
    the rim.
  • Step Five Insert filler flowers, to
    complement flowers.
  • Step Six Evaluate design from all
    angles and be sure its

Container Arrangement
  • H.O. pg 132, 133, 134
  • Step one Choose a arrangement to reflect the
  • Step two Cut pre-soaked oasis to snugly fit
    container. Need to be 1 above container
  • (for heavy flowers 2).
  • Step three Secure the oasis to the container
    with oasis tape.
  • Step four Insert heavy stems important
  • ex sunflowers or teddy bears.
  • Step five Pre-green the arrangement cover
  • oasis with leather leaf ferns
  • Step six Wire any flowers that require
  • additional support. Be sure to
  • cut all stems on an angle
  • insert at least 1into oasis.