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Gerunds and Infinitives

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Title: Gerunds and Infinitives


1
Gerunds and Infinitives
Gerunds and Infinitives
2
Gerunds The Gerund as a Noun
  • It can be subject, object, predicate, and the
    object of a preposition Her feelings were hurt /
    My hobby is running / Im good at playing tennis.
  • It can form the plural He gave his children two
    warnings.
  • It can be part of compounds writing-desk,
    walking-stick, etc.

3
Gerunds The Gerund as a Verb
  • Gerunds also have the characteristics of verbs in
    that they may
  • Be used with adverbs or adverbials He disliked
    drinking heavily.
  • Form the passive The seat-belt saved him from
    being hurt.
  • Take an object or predicative complement Tom
    likes painting walls. / After reading the letter,
    she left the room

4
Other uses of the Gerund (1)
  • The gerund as part of a prepositional adjunct A
    great variety of verbs preposition / adverb
    combinations such as be for / against, give up,
    keep on, look forward to, put off take the
    gerund Im looking forward to hearing from you
    in the near future.
  • The gerund after prepositions They were thinking
    about going on holiday to London at Christmas. /
    After leaving school she started to work.

5
Other uses of the Gerund (2)
  • The gerund as the object or adjunct of a verb or
    verbal phrase The most important verbs used in
    this construction are avoid, deny, escape,
    fancy, finish, give up, its no good, its no use
    ,cannot help, keep (on), put off, feel like,
    cant stand, imagine, risk, suggest, enjoy, go
    on, carry on, etc. He cant avoid criticising
    her / Do you fancy coming to the pictures with
    me? / He has given up smoking / Its no good
    convincing him. He wont change his mind.

6
Other uses of the Gerund (3)
  • After verbs of the senses both the gerund and the
    bare infinitive can be used, but theres a
    difference in meaning. Lets compare these pairs
    of sentences
  • She heard the alarm clock go off It expresses a
    complete action, the subject has heard the whole
    ringing of the clock.
  • He saw the builders building the block of flats.
    It means that the subject has only seen part of
    the action, he has only seen them building the
    flats whenever he walked by that area. It
    expresses incompleteness.

7
Other uses of the Gerund (4)
  • After verbs denoting physical activity, such as
    to go and to come They go skiing every winter /
    I went shopping with my mother last week / I
    wanted him to come riding.
  • After the verbs waste / spend (money / time) She
    spends a lot of time doing her homework / I have
    wasted hours waiting for the bus.

8
Other uses of the Gerund (5)
  • When the subject of the ing form is different
    from the subject of the main clause, two
    constructions are possible either the genitive /
    possessive or the accusative Do you mind him /
    his studying with us?
  • After nouns in the possessive case. In formal
    English, nouns denoting persons are put into the
    possessive case I couldnt stand my
    sister-in-laws criticizing my children.

9
Other uses of the Gerund (6)
  • The use of the perfect gerund instead of the
    present when we are referring to a past action
    He was accused of having driven under the
    influence / He was accused of driving under the
    influence.
  • There are some verbs which can be followed by the
    infinitive or gerund without any difference in
    meaning. The most common ones are start, begin
    I started studying / to study English when I was
    a little girl. However, when the verb is in the
    continuous form the to-infinitive is preferred
    Im beginning to concentrate now.

10
Other uses of the Gerund (7)
  • There are some other verbs which can also be
    followed by the to-infinitive or gerund with a
    slight difference in meaning. Lets compare these
    two sentences
  • I like going to the beach. It expresses a general
    or habitual action.
  • I like to go to the beach early in the morning.
    It expresses specific or isolated actions.

11
Other uses of the Gerund (8)
  • There are some other verbs which can also be
    followed by the to-infinitive or gerund, but
    their meaning change according to whether they
    are used in one way or another. These verbs are
    to remember, to forget, to try, to stop, to
    regret, to mean. Lets exemplify these uses in
    the following group of sentences.

12
REMEMBER
  • Remember to buy the newspaper on your way back
    home. It reminds somebody to do something he /
    she may easily forget or it also refers to
    something that one must do in the future.
  • I remember visiting my grandmother when I was a
    little girl. Somebody did something in the past
    and now he / she remembers what he / she did.

13
FORGET
  • He has forgotten to take his coat with him. The
    person does not remember to do something.
  • I havent forgotten meeting my husband. The
    person remembers something he / she did in the
    past. This use is generally in the negative form.

14
TRY
  • He tried to read for a bit. It means the same as
    to attempt.
  • When you have hiccups, try holding your breath,
    if it doesnt work try drinking some water. The
    subject makes an experiment or do something to
    see if it has an effect.

15
STOP
  • He stopped to buy a bunch of flowers to his
    mother. It expresses purpose.
  • He has stopped smoking. He has not continued
    doing what he / she did.

16
REGRET
  • I regret to tell you that you havent passed your
    driving test. The introductory subject is sorry
    that one must do something. At the same time that
    the introductory subject is regretting what he /
    she is saying the that-clause subject knows about
    the information.
  • He regrets not going to university. Someone is
    sorry that one has (not) done something in the
    past, that is, he didnt go to university and now
    he regrets it.

17
MEAN
  • I meant to call you, but in the end I forgot to.
    It means the same as intend.
  • Working as an air-hostess means travelling a lot.
    It means the same as involve.

18
PREFER/RATHER
  • We can have the following structures
  • I prefer to visit Chaplin exhibition rather than
    (to) go to the EOI (Present tense)
  • I prefer visiting Chaplin exhibition to going to
    the EOI (Present tense)
  • I prefer tea to coffee (one thing to another
    thing)
  • I would prefer to go skiing rather than (to) go
    fishing but
  • I would rather go skiing than go fishing.

19
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (1)
  • The infinitive with to is used
  • After certain verbs which can be followed by
    to-infinitive or by a noun or pronoun in the
    accusative plus a to infinitive, that is, the
    structure can be verb to-infinitive I want to
    go to the pictures, or verb object to
    infinitive I want him to come with me to the
    pictures, where HIM act as the subject of the
    infinitive.
  • The following verbs, among others, admit these
    constructions to wish, to like, to love, to
    hate, to prefer, to tell, to ask, to beg, to
    advise, to forbid, to invite, to persuade, to
    order, to expect, to allow.

20
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (2)
  • After several verbs (hear, feel, see, and make)
    in the passive voice She was made to open her
    suitcase at the airport. Where him acts as the
    subject of the infinitive.
  •   Although in the active voice we use the bare
    infinitive
  • We made her open the case.

21
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (3)
  • To express the infinitive of purpose
  • I went to the theatre to book the tickets. The
    corresponding negative is often constructed with
    in order not to or so as not to
  • I came in quietly in order not to/so as not to
    wake up the children.

22
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (4)
  • After nouns, when the infinitive functions as a
    modifier of the noun
  • A book to read.
  • After adjectives, when the infinitive functions
    as a modifier of the adjective
  • This word is easy to spell.

23
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (5)
  • After certain adverbs such as enough and too
    This suitcase is too big for me to carry.
  • After verbs such as to know, to teach, to learn,
    to show followed by an interrogative word
    infinitive (with the value of a subordinate noun
    clause) I know where to go.

24
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (6)
  • In the construction For a noun or pronoun in
    the accusative infinitive This coffee is very
    hot for her to drink.
  • With the immediate future (going to) Im going
    to eat in a Japanese.
  • With to have to / ought to / used to He has to
    wake up now if he doesnt want to miss the
    train./ I used to visit my grandparents on Sunday
    when I was a child.
  • With the structure to be to to express a command
    or arrangement He is to go right now.

25
Full Infinitive or Infinitive with to (7)
  • In impersonal passive sentences The Official
    Language School is believed to have a great
    number of students.
  • There are also a number of independent
    constructions which also use the to-infinitive
    To sum up, To start with, etc.

26
Bare/Plain Infinitive or Infinitive Without to (1)
  • With verbs of perception, such as to hear, to
    see, to watch, to feel, to notice, to observe, to
    overhear I saw Pablo and Javier enter.
    Nevertheless, in the passive the infinitive is
    used with to They were seen to enter.

27
Bare/Plain Infinitive or Infinitive Without to (2)
  • With some other verbs and expressions that govern
    a bare infinitive, for instance, to make, to let,
    had better, had rather, had sooner, need hardly,
    cannot but, etc.
  • Javier made Pablo cry / You had better start
    studying right now if you want to pass your
    English test.

28
Bare/Plain Infinitive or Infinitive Without to (3)
  • In noun predicate clauses, when the subject is a
    pseudo-cleft sentence, both constructions are
    possible
  • What youve done is (to) spoil our plans.

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