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Understanding Verb Tense

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Title: Understanding Verb Tense


1
Understanding Verb Tense
What are the verb tenses? Present and present
perfect Past and past perfect Future and future
perfect Consistency of tense Modals Review
A Review B
2
What are the verb tenses?
Verbs do a lot of work in sentences. They show
actions and states of being. They even take
different forms to show time.
flies
flew
will fly
3
What are the verb tenses?
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the
action or state of being expressed by the verb.
Perfect tenses indicate that something happened
or existed before a specific point in time.
Present
Future
Past
Past
Future
Present
Present Perfect
Future Perfect
Past Perfect
Gwen plays guitar in a jazz band.
She has played in the band for three years.
Gwen will play in a concert tomorrow.
She will have played in ten concerts by April.
Gwen played last year as well.
She had played violin before then.
4
What are the verb tenses?
The tenses of verbs are formed from the four
principal parts of verbs.
Base Form
smile
choose
Present Participle
is smil
is choos
ing
ing
Past
smile
d
cho
se
Past Participle
have smile
d
have cho
sen
5
What are the verb tenses?
Each tense has a progressive form, which is used
to express continuing action or state of being.
am, are, is talking
Present progressive
was, were talking
Past progressive
will (shall) be talking
Future progressive
has, have been talking
Present perfect progressive
had been talking
Past perfect progressive
Future perfect progressive
will (shall) have been talking
6
What are the verb tenses?Present and present
perfect
The present tense expresses an action or a state
of being that is occurring now, at the present
time.
Today we honor our veterans.
Polly is marching in the parade.
(Progressive form)
7
What are the verb tenses?Present and present
perfect
The present tense is also used in these ways
8
What are the verb tenses?Present and present
perfect
The present perfect tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that
    occurred at an indefinite time in the past
  • is usually formed using the helping verb have or
    has plus the past participle

Mike has been in several parades.
He has played the drum in all of them.
9
What are the verb tenses?
A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb) is
used with a main verb to create a verb phrase.
Helping verb
Main verb
I was reading a book by Sandra Cisneros.
I was reading a novel by Sandra Cisneros.
I was reading a novel by Sandra Cisneros.
Some commonly used helping verbs include is, are,
has, had, did, does, can, could, should, and will.
10
What are the verb tenses?Present and present
perfect
The present perfect tense is also used to express
an action or state of being that began in the
past and continues into the present. In this
case, perfect means complete.
Mr. Lee has taught music at our school since
2004.
(Progressive form)
Yoko has been taking flute lessons for six years.
11
What are the verb tenses?Past and past perfect
The past tense expresses an action or a state of
being that occurred in the past but did not
continue into the present.
The two friends shared the large swing.
They were swinging for a long time.
(Progressive form)
12
What are the verb tenses?Past and past perfect
The past perfect tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that
    ended before another past action or state of
    being occurred
  • is usually formed using had plus the past
    participle

After Maria had gone home, Kim was bored.
She asked her dad about the time that he had been
a lifeguard at the beach.
13
What are the verb tenses?Future and future
perfect
The future tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that will
    occur
  • is usually formed using will or shall plus the
    base form

My family will ride the train to Chicago.
We will be arriving at five oclock.
(Progressive form)
14
What are the verb tenses?
We can also express future action in other ways.
Grammar Gal Says...
We are going to make our own costumes.
They are about to begin the awards ceremony.
I have a test tomorrow.
15
What are the verb tenses?Future and future
perfect
The future perfect tense
  • expresses an action or a state of being that will
    end before another future action or state of being
  • is usually formed using will have or shall have
    plus the past participle

By the time you receive this letter, she will
have returned home.
After this trip, he will have been to Chicago
three times.
16
What are the verb tenses?
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
1. Lia will begin the yard work later. Lia will
have begun the yard work by noon.
2. Jamie lived there for three years. Jamie has
been living there for three years.
3. Some of the girls were practicing
karate. Some of the girls have practiced karate.
17
What are the verb tenses?
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
1. Lia will begin the yard work later. Lia will
have begun the yard work before eating lunch.
future perfect tense
future tense
Expresses an action (beginning the yard work)
that will be complete before some future action
takes place (lunch).
Expresses an action (beginning the yard work)
that will occur in the future (later).
18
What are the verb tenses?
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
2. Jamie lived there for three years. Jamie has
been living there for three years.
past tense
present perfect progressive
The action (lived) occurred in the past and did
not continue into the present.
The action (has been living) was occurring in the
past and continues into the present.
19
What are the verb tenses?
Identify the tense of each verb in bold. Be
prepared to explain the difference in meaning
between the sentences in each pair.
3. Some of the girls were practicing
karate. Some of the girls have practiced karate.
present perfect tense
past progressive
The action (practicing) was occurring in the past
and did not continue into the present.
The action (practiced) occurred in the past and
continues into the present.
20
What are the verb tenses?
On Your Own
Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as
indicated in parentheses. 1. I do not miss the
bus. (Change to future.) 2. Were they at the
party? (Change to past perfect.) 3. By then,
Keith had returned. (Change to future
perfect.) 4. The team will practice for an hour
with no break. (Change to future perfect
progressive.) 5. My sister dances well. (Change
to past.)
End of Section
21
What are the verb tenses?
Answers
Change the tense of the verb in each sentence, as
indicated in parentheses. 1. I do not miss the
bus. (Change to future.) 2. Were they at the
party? (Change to past perfect.) 3. By then,
Keith had returned. (Change to future
perfect.) 4. The team will practice for an hour
with no break. (Change to future perfect
progressive.) 5. My sister dances well. (Change
to past.)
1. I will not miss the bus.
2. Had they been at the party?
3. By then, Keith will have returned.
4. The team will have been practicing for an hour
with no break.
5. My sister danced well.
22
Consistency of tense
Do not change needlessly from one tense to
another.
To describe events that occur at the same time,
use verbs in the same tense.
past tense
past tense
Sara peeked over the fence and saw a cornfield.
present tense
present tense
Sara peeks over the fence and sees a cornfield.
23
Consistency of tense
For events that occur at different times, use
verbs of different tenses to show the sequence of
events.
past tense
past perfect tense
The pitcher wished that he had practiced more
before the game.
The action of wishing happened after the action
of practicing was complete.
24
Consistency of tense
For events that occur at different times, use
verbs of different tenses to show the sequence of
events.
past tense
present tense
Yesterday, Nina told us that her brother
works every week at the senior center.
The action of telling occurred at a specific time
in the past. The action of working occurs now.
25
Consistency of tense
Change each sentence to make the verb tense
consistent. Be prepared to explain your answers.
Hint One sentence is already correct (C).
1. Kira caught the ball and throws it to first
base.
2. Lily lives next door now but will soon move to
another town.
3. My cousin has broken his leg, so I helped him
get around.
26
Consistency of tense
Change each sentence to make the verb tense
consistent. Be prepared to explain your answers.
Hint One sentence is already correct (C).
Possible Answer
1. Kira caught the ball and threw it to first
base.
The actions occur at the same time, so the verbs
should both be in the same tense.
27
Consistency of tense
Change each sentence to make the verb tense
consistent. Be prepared to explain your answers.
Hint One sentence is already correct (C).
2. Lily lives next door now but will soon move to
another town.
C
The action of living takes place now, but the
action of moving will happen later.
28
Consistency of tense
Change each sentence to make the verb tense
consistent. Be prepared to explain your answers.
Hint One sentence is already correct (C).
Possible Answer
3. My cousin had broken his leg, so I helped him
get around.
The action of breaking the leg happened before
the action of helping.
29
Consistency of tense
On Your Own
Proofread the paragraph for unnecessary changes
of verb tense. Change the verbs to make the
tenses consistent. (1) I was in my room
Saturday morning, planning to study for two
hours. (2) To my surprise, Nancy Chang drops by.
(3) She dashed into the house, runs up the
stairs, and calls my name. (4) What she wanted
was a fishing companion. (5) As I get my fishing
gear together, I was so happy. (6) On our way to
the lake, we notice some dark clouds. (7) We
wished we checked the weather first.
End of Section
30
Consistency of tense
Possible Answers
(1) I was in my room Saturday morning, planning
to study for two hours. (2) To my surprise, Nancy
Chang drops by. (3) She dashed into the house,
runs up the stairs, and calls my name. (4) What
she wanted was a fishing companion. (5) As I get
my fishing gear together, I was so happy. (6) On
our way to the lake, we notice some dark clouds.
(7) We wished we checked the weather first.
ran
dropped
called
got
noticed
had
31
Modals
A modal is a helping verb that is joined with a
main verb or an infinitive to express an attitude
toward the action or state of being of the main
verb.
Helping verbs used as modals Helping verbs used as modals Helping verbs used as modals Helping verbs used as modals Helping verbs used as modals
can could may might must
ought shall should will would
32
Modals
The modal can or could is used to express
ability.
Tammy can play point guard in the second half.
The team could have made better shots.
33
Modals
The modal may is used to express permission or
possibility.
Yes, you may borrow my sweater.
Permission
My clothes closet may be too full.
Possibility
The modal might is used to express possibility.
I might give some of my clothing to charity.
34
Might/May
Often, the possibility expressed by might is less
likely than the possibility expressed by may.
Grammar Gal Says...
The mechanic said the brakes may need work.
likely
We might finish early, but I doubt it.
less likely
35
Modals
The modal must is used most often to express a
requirement. Sometimes, must is used to express
an explanation.
Requirement
We must conserve energy in our homes.
Explanation
My brother must have left the lights on.
36
Modals
The modal ought is used to express an obligation
or a likelihood.
Reggie ought to study harder for math quizzes.
Obligation
The next quiz ought to be more difficult than the
last one.
Likelihood
37
Modals
The modal will or shall is used to express future
time.
I shall enter my painting in the contest.
After reviewing the entries, the panel will
announce the winner.
38
Will/Shall
While will and shall are both used to express
future time, shall can be used in another wayto
express intention.
Grammar Gal Says...
Tim will look at your car tomorrow.
future time
Tim shall look at your car tomorrow.
intention
39
Modals
The modal should is used to express a
recommendation, an obligation, or a possibility.
Terrell should leave soon to catch the bus.
Recommendation
All students should get to school on time.
Obligation
Should you arrive late, please go to the office
first.
Possibility
40
Modals
The modal would is used to express the
conditional form of a verb. In other words, it is
used to express a situation that is contrary to
fact.
If the weather had been more pleasant, they would
have gone on a picnic.
Mrs. Chang would be happy to prepare food if you
bring the plates and forks.
41
Modals
Would can also be used to express future time in
a subordinate clause when the main verb in the
independent clause is in the past tense.
past tense verb
modal expresses future time
They promised us that they would bring the music.
Main clause
Subordinate clause
42
Modals
Would is sometimes used to express
  • an action that was repeated in the past

Every day she would wake early and feed the hens.
  • an invitation or offer

Would you like a nice, fresh salad?
  • a polite request

Would you please bring me those books?
43
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences. Be prepared to tell what is expressed
by the modal.
1. The weather report said it may snow.
2. I tried, but I could not learn the program.
3. All participants must return their permission
slips by Friday.
44
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences.
1. The weather report said it may snow.
The modal may expresses possibility.
45
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences.
2. I tried, but I could not learn the program.
The modal could expresses ability.
46
Modals
Identify the modal in each of the following
sentences.
3. All participants must return their permission
slips by Friday.
The modal must expresses a requirement.
47
Modals
On Your Own
Supply an appropriate modal for each sentence. 1.
Jen _____ have cleaned out the garage
yesterday. 2. _____ you please help Merrill with
that large box? 3. You _____ probably guess what
I am about to say. 4. If the train had been
faster, we _____ have arrived sooner. 5. Im not
certain, but I think Dad _____ be cooking stew
for dinner tonight.
End of Section
48
Modals
Possible Answers
Supply an appropriate modal for each sentence.
1. Jen must have cleaned out the garage yesterday.
2. Would you please help Merrill with that large
box?
3. You can probably guess what I am about to say.
4. If the train had been faster, we would have
arrived sooner.
5. Im not certain, but I think Dad might be
cooking stew for dinner tonight.
49
Review A
Change the tense of each boldface verb to the
tense indicated in parentheses.
1. The otter swam to the edge of the pond.
(present perfect)
2. Our class will read Shakespeares Macbeth.
(future progressive)
3. The three sisters regularly meet for lunch.
(past)
4. Each student chooses a lab partner. (past
perfect)
5. Wasps were entering the house through the torn
screen. (present)
50
Review A
Change the tense of each boldface verb to the
tense indicated in parentheses.
1. The otter has swum to the edge of the pond.
(present perfect)
2. Our class will be reading Shakespeares
Macbeth. (future progressive)
3. The three sisters regularly met for lunch.
(past)
4. Each student has chosen a lab partner. (past
perfect)
5. Wasps enter the house through the torn screen.
(present)
51
Review B
Supply an appropriate modal, helping verb, or
main verb to complete each sentence correctly.
The hints in parentheses will help you.
1. Colleen _____ almost reach the light bulb.
(shows ability)
2. Jack _____ repair the bicycle tomorrow.
(future tense)
3. Most of the girls _____ already left. (present
perfect)
4. I _____ attend the concert if only I had more
time. (shows a condition)
5. Tamara opens the refrigerator and _____
inside. (consistent tense)
End of Section
52
Review B
Supply an appropriate modal, helping verb, or
main verb to complete each sentence correctly.
The hints in parentheses will help you. (Some
answers may vary.)
1. Colleen can almost reach the light bulb.
(shows ability)
2. Jack will repair the bicycle tomorrow. (future
tense)
3. Most of the girls have already left. (present
perfect)
4. I would attend the concert if only I had more
time. (shows a condition)
5. Tamara opens the refrigerator and looks
inside. (consistent tense)
53
The End
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