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Diapositiva 1

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J r y e a d e r A F B T L N M K I P D V M Los modales son un grupo de verbos funcionan de manera diferente al resto. Son invariables, por lo que tienen una misma ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Diapositiva 1


1
J r y e a d e r A
F
B
Modals
T
L
N M K I P D V M
2
Los modales son un grupo de verbos funcionan de
manera diferente al resto.
  • Son invariables, por lo que tienen una misma
    forma para todas las personas.
  • No necesitan do para formar la negativa ni la
    interrogativa.
  • Siempre van seguidos de un verbo en la forma
    base.
  • No tienen infinitivo, participio, futuro, formas
    ing, ni tiempos compuestos.
  • Los modales que vamos a estudiar son
  • Be able to, - can , - cant , - could , - dont
    have to, - have to, - may, - might ,
  • must , - mustnt , - need to , - neednt , -
    ought to , - should , - would.

3
  • Be able to y have to no comparten todas las
    características de los modales,
  • pero sí algunos de sus usos ( habilidad,
    obligación.)
  • Can , además de expresar habilidad o capacidad,
    se utiliza para dar y pedir permiso,
  • hacer peticiones e indicar posibilidad.
  • Todos estos usos en negativa se expresan con
    cant, el cual significa, además
  • deducción o certeza de que algo es imposible.
  • Can sólo puede usarse en presente, así que en
    el resto de tiempos verbales usamos
  • be able to.
  • Could se emplea para indicar habilidad en
    pasado, hacer peticiones y sugerencias
  • mas formales que con can, y expresa una
    posibilidad mas remota que con can.
  • May y might expresan posibilidad ( mas
    remota con might ) de que ocurra algo.
  • May también se usa para hacer peticiones mas
    formales que con can.

4
  • Must y have to expresan obligación o
    necesidad, pero con must la obligación
  • es mas fuerte ( como cuando la impone la ley
    o alguien de autoridad).
  • Además expresan una conclusión lógica (deber
    de, tener que)
  • Must sólo puede usarse en presente, así que en
    el resto de tiempos verbales
  • usamos have to.
  • Need to no es un modal. Así que necesita do
    en la negativa e interrogativa y
  • puede emplearse en cualquier tiempo porque se
    conjuga.
  • Neednt si es un modal y solo se usa en
    negativa para indicar que no hay
  • obligación o necesidad de hacer algo ( igual
    que have to)
  • Mustnt indica prohibición, en cambio dont
    have to significa no tener por qué,
  • es decir, ausencia de prohibición y de
    necesidad ( igual que neednt)
  • Should y ought to se usan para dar consejo y
    hacer recomendaciones.
  • Should es el mas usado. Ought to no se usa
    en negativa e interrogativa.

5
Vamos a ver todo esto más claro si los
clasificamos por sus usos ( obligación,
consejo.)
OBLIGATION
(tengo la obligación de , debo, tengo que )
  • Must They
    must wear a uniform
  • Have to (no modal) I have to finish
    this exercise

No OBLIGATION
(no hace falta que)
  • Neednt
    You neednt come if you dont want to.
  • Dont have to (no modal) You dont have
    to come if you dont want to.

  • She doesnt have to come if she doesnt
    want to.

prohibiTION
(no puedes )
  • Mustnt You mustnt
    smoke at school

6
necessity
( tienes que / es necesario )
  • need to ( no modal) You need to
    work harder if you want to pass English

Advice
(Dar consejos , hacer recomendaciones)
  • Should You should go to
    see a doctor
  • Shouldnt You shouldnt
    worry about your marks
  • Ought to You ought to study
    harder

7
Ten en
cuenta que Have to must tienen un
significado similar (obligación / debo, tengo que
) Pero Dont have to mustnt tienen un
significado muy diferente. ( Dont have to no
obligación / no hace falta que Mustnt
prohibition / no puedes )
gtyklopcgkñqwer
8
ability
( se , puedo , soy capaz de )
  • can (presente)
    I can play the piano
  • could (pasado)
    I could climb mountains
  • be able to (todos los tiempos) I
    will be able to drive a car
  • ( no modal )
    I was able to drive a car

  • I have been able to drive a car

posibility
  • may (puede que) They
    may begin acting like criminals
  • might (pudiera ser que, quizás) He might
    come
  • (posibilidad remota)
  • could (puede que) They
    could be on the train now

9
Deduction / certainty
  • must ( Im sure.estoy segura)
    That must be your mother

  • (Esa debe ser tu
    madre)
  • cant (Its imposibleestoy segura que no)
    That cant be true

  • (Eso no puede ser
    verdad)

10
Modales perfectos
  • could have participio (se pudo haber hecho
    algo, pero no se hizo)
  • It was a stupid thing to do. You could have
    hurt yourself.
  • couldnt have participio ( certeza de que algo
    no pudo haber ocurrido)
  • Eric couldnt have broken the vase. He wasnt
    at home.
  • may / might have participio ( suposición de un
    hecho pasado)
  • Elsa may / might have taken the wrong bus
  • must have participio (conclusión lógica de un
    hecho pasado)
  • I hear youve been to Scotland. That must
    have been interesting

11
  • should / ought to have participio (quejarnos
    de lo que ocurrió o

  • lamentarnos de que no se haya

  • cumplido lo que esperábamos)
  • You should have warned me earlier
  • You ought to have studied harder
  • shouldnt have participio (nuestra opinión
    crítica sobre algo pasado,

  • algo que no debería haber ocurrido)
  • You shouldnt have eaten so much
  • would have participio ( se quiso haber hecho
    algo en el pasado,

  • pero no se pudo)
  • I would have gone to the party, but I was
    too busy

12
Choose the correct answer.
1. The doctor says I might / must get more
exercise. 2. You look great in brown. You should
/ can wear it more often. 3. His arm is broken,
so he isnt able to / may not write. 4. Tomorrow
is a holiday, so we mustnt / dont have to get
up early. 5. When you are on a diet, you ought
to / could drink a lot of water. 6. He stopped
the car so he should / could rest for a while.
13
Choose the correct continuation.
1. You may borrow the book. a. Ive
finished reading it. b. Its a good
idea. 2. Greg shouldnt marry Katie. a.
Shes already married. b. He doesnt
love her. 3. She mustnt drive home.
a. She drank beer at the party b. Her
brother took the car. 4. I dont have to cook
dinner. a. Ive never learned to cook.
b. Were going out for a meal.
14
Complete the sentences with the modals below.
may must cant could should
1. You come to us for dinner. I wont
accept no for an answer. 2. I have a
piece of cake, please? 3. He reach it.
Hes not tall enough. 4. You always brush
your teeth before you go to sleep. 5. I
make people laugh when I was young.
must
May
cant
should
could
15
Replace the words in bold with the words below.
neednt mustnt ought to have to
might couldnt
1. Tess should help her mother more. 2.
Im not sure, but she may be French. 3.
In some countries, girls are forbidden to uncover
their faces in public. .. 4. You dont have to
explain. 5. You must be careful not to
offend them. 6. Im sorry we werent able
to come.
ought to
might
mustnt
neednt
have to
couldnt
16
Choose the correct answer.
  • The restaurant isnt as busy as I expected.
  • We mustnt have / might not have /
    neednt have reserved a table.
  • Jay looks happy.
  • He could have / must have / ought to have
    passed his driving test.
  • Im so tired this morning.
  • I couldnt have / neednt have / shouldnt
    have gone to bed so late.
  • 4. You could have / must have / may have called
    to tell us you were coming.

17
Choose the correct answer.
1. I cant / dont have to / neednt see without
my glasses. 2. Theres school tomorrow, so we
could / have to / are able to be home early
tonight. 3. Its cold. I think you can / are able
to / ought to take a sweater. 4. Well look after
you. You neednt / cant / may not be afraid. 5.
The doctors say Uncle Jeff doesnt have to /
might not / mustnt work so hard.
18
(No Transcript)
19
  • Choose the correct continuation

1. He must have known we were coming. a. He
prepared a delicious meal. b. He looks so
surprised. 2. You shouldnt have eaten so
quickly. a. You dont want to be sick.
b. You will be sick. 3. They could
have bought it. a. They had enough money.
b.They didnt have enough
money. 4. She might have called. a. I am at
home. The phone didnt ring. b. I wasnt at
home. I dont know. 5. My parents couldnt have
seen that film. a. They would have told me.
b. They arent going out
tonight.
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