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Basic Computer Understanding and Skills

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Basic Computer Understanding and Skills Instructor: Doug Bloodworth Email: digdug2_at_hotmail.com Understanding - Different Operating Systems Operating System or OS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Computer Understanding and Skills


1
Basic Computer Understanding and Skills
  • Instructor Doug Bloodworth
  • Email digdug2_at_hotmail.com

2
Basic Computer Understanding
  • Section 1 What is a computer?
  • Section 2 Different Types
  • Section 3 Different Operating Systems
  • Section 4 Different Brands
  • Section 5 Basic Components
  • Section 6 How to Buy a computer
  • Section 7 How a computer boots up
  • Section 8 Different States of a computer
  • Section 9 I bought a computer, now what?

3
Understanding - What is a computer?
  • Computers are machines that perform tasks or
    calculations according to a set of instructions,
    or programs. The first fully electronic
    computers, introduced in the 1940s, were huge
    machines that required teams of people to
    operate. Compared to those early machines,
    today's computers are amazing. Not only are they
    thousands of times faster, they can fit on your
    desk, on your lap, or even in your pocket

4
Understanding What is a computer?
  • Computers work through an interaction of hardware
    and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a
    computer that you can see and touch, including
    the case and everything inside it. The most
    important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular
    chip inside your computer called the central
    processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. It's
    the "brain" of your computerthe part that
    translates instructions and performs
    calculations. Hardware items such as your
    monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other
    components are often called hardware devices, or
    devices.

5
Understanding What is a computer?
  • The computer processes input through input
    devices like mouse and keyboard.
  • The computer displays output through output
    devices like color monitor and printer.
  • Computers have become indispensable in todays
    world. Millions of people use computers all over
    the world.
  • There are several uses of computers

6
Understanding What is a computer?
  • Word Processing - Word Processing software
    automatically corrects spelling and grammar
    mistakes. If the content of a document repeats
    you dont have to type it each time. You can use
    the copy and paste features. You can printout
    documents and make several copies. It is easier
    to read a word-processed document than a
    handwritten one. You can add images to your
    document.
  • Internet - It is a network of almost all the
    computers in the world. You can browse through
    much more information than you could do in a
    library. That is because computers can store
    enormous amounts of information. You also have
    very fast and convenient access to information.
    Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person
    sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There
    is chat software that enables one to chat with
    another person on a real-time basis. Video
    conferencing tools are becoming readily available
    to the common man.
  • Digital video or audio composition Audio or
    video composition and editing have been made much
    easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands
    of dollars of equipment to compose music or make
    a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to
    generate short or full-length films or even to
    create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a
    computer can now enter the field of media
    production. Special effects in science fiction
    and action movies are created using computers.
  • Desktop publishing - With desktop publishing, you
    can create page layouts for entire books on your
    personal computer.
  • Computers in Medicine - You can diagnose
    diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is
    used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the
    internal organs of the human body. Software is
    used for performing surgery. Computers are used
    to store patient data.
  • Mathematical Calculations - Thanks to computers,
    which have computing speeds of over a million
    calculations per second we can perform the
    biggest of mathematical calculations.
  • Banks - All financial transactions are done by
    computer software. They provide security, speed
    and convenience.

7
Understanding What is a computer?
  • Travel - One can book air tickets or railway
    tickets and make hotel reservations online.
  • Telecommunications - Software is widely used
    here. Also all mobile phones have software
    embedded in them.
  • Defense - There is software embedded in almost
    every weapon. Software is used for controlling
    the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles.
    Software is used to control access to atomic
    bombs.
  • E-Learning Instead of a book it is easier to
    learn from an E-learning software.
  • Gambling-You can gamble online instead of going
    to a casino.
  • Examinations-You can give online exams and get
    instant results. You can check your examination
    results online.
  • Computers in Business - Shops and supermarkets
    use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes
    can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is
    done using computers. One can predict future
    trends of business using artificial intelligence
    software. Software is used in major stock
    markets. One can do trading online. There are
    fully automated factories running on software.
  • Certificates - Different types of certificates
    can be generated. It is very easy to create and
    change layouts.
  • ATM machines - The computer software
    authenticates the user and dispenses cash.
  • Marriage - There are matrimonial sites through
    which one can search for a suitable groom or
    bride.

8
Understanding What is a computer?
  • News-There are many websites through which you
    can read the latest or old news.
  • Classmates-There are many alumni websites through
    which you can regain contact with your
    classmates.
  • Robotics - Robots are controlled by software.
  • Washing Machines - They operate using software.
  • Microwave Oven - They are operated by software.
  • Planning and Scheduling - Software can be used to
    store contact information, generating plans,
    scheduling appointments and deadlines.
  • Greeting Cards - You can send and receive
    greetings pertaining to different occasions.
  • Sports Software is used for making umpiring
    decisions. There are simulation software using
    which a sportsperson can practice his skills.
    Computers are also to identify flaws in
    technique.
  • Aero-planes Pilots train on software, which
    simulates flying.
  • Weather analysis Supercomputers are used to
    analyze and predict weather.

9
Understanding - Different Types
  • Different types of ComputersBased on the
    operational principle of computers, they are
    categorized as analog computers and hybrid
    computers.
  • Analog Computers These are almost extinct today.
    These are different from a digital computer
    because an analog computer can perform several
    mathematical operations simultaneously. It uses
    continuous variables for mathematical operations
    and utilizes mechanical or electrical energy.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vqt6RVrmvh-o
  • Hybrid Computers These computers are a
    combination of both digital and analog computers.
    In this type of computers, the digital segments
    perform process control by conversion of analog
    signals to digital ones.

10
Understanding - Different Types
  • Hybrid Computers Examples
  • bomb site on a WW2 bomber. Instead of using ones
    and zeros, it had a series of continuous gears
    into which factors the airplane's speed and
    altitude that could be used to factor the exact
    time to drop the bombs.
  • the computer used in hospitals to measure the
    heartbeat of the patient. Hybrid Machines are
    generally used in scientific applications or in
    controlling industrial processes

11
Understanding - Different Types
  • Following are some of the other important types
    of computers.
  • Mainframe Computers Large organizations use
    mainframes for highly critical applications such
    as bulk data processing and ERP. Most of the
    mainframe computers have the capacities to host
    multiple operating systems and operate as a
    number of virtual machines and can thus
    substitute for several small servers.
  • Microcomputers A computer with a microprocessor
    and its central processing unit is known as a
    microcomputer. They do not occupy space as much
    as mainframes. When supplemented with a keyboard
    and a mouse, microcomputers can be called as
    personal computers. A monitor, a keyboard and
    other similar input output devices, computer
    memory in the form of RAM and a power supply unit
    come packaged in a microcomputer. These computers
    can fit on desks or tables and serve as the best
    choices for single-user tasks.

12
Understanding - Different Types
  • Personal computers come in a variety of forms
    such as desktops, laptops and personal digital
    assistants. Let us look at each of these types of
    computers.
  • Desktops A desktop is intended to be used on a
    single location. The spare parts of a desktop
    computer are readily available at relative lower
    costs. Power consumption is not as critical as
    that in laptops. Desktops are widely popular for
    daily use in workplaces and households.
  • Laptops Similar in operation to desktops, laptop
    computers are miniaturized and optimized for
    mobile use. Laptops run on a single battery or an
    external adapter that charges the computer
    batteries. They are enabled with an inbuilt
    keyboard, touch pad acting as a mouse and a
    liquid crystal display. Its portability and
    capacity to operate on battery power have served
    as a boon for mobile users.

13
Understanding - Different Types
  • Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) It is a
    handheld computer and popularly known as a
    palmtop. It has a touch screen and a memory card
    for storage of data. PDAs can also be effectively
    used as portable audio players, web browsers and
    smart phones. Most of them can access the
    Internet by means of Bluetooth or Wi-Fi
    communication.
  • Minicomputers In terms of size and processing
    capacity, minicomputers lie in between mainframes
    and microcomputers. Minicomputers are also called
    mid-range systems or workstations. The term began
    to be popularly used in the 1960s to refer to
    relatively smaller third generation computers.
    They took up the space that would be needed for a
    refrigerator or two and used transistor and core
    memory technologies. The 12-bit PDP-8
    minicomputer of the Digital Equipment Corporation
    was the first successful minicomputer.

14
Understanding - Different Types
  • Supercomputers The highly calculation-intensive
    tasks can be effectively performed by means of
    supercomputers. Quantum physics, mechanics,
    weather forecasting, molecular theory are best
    studied by means of supercomputers. Their ability
    of parallel processing and their well-designed
    memory hierarchy give the supercomputers, large
    transaction processing powers.
  • Wearable Computers A record-setting step in the
    evolution of computers was the creation of
    wearable computers. These computers can be worn
    on the body and are often used in the study of
    behavior modeling and human health. Military and
    health professionals have incorporated wearable
    computers into their daily routine, as a part of
    such studies. When the users hands and sensory
    organs are engaged in other activities, wearable
    computers are of great help in tracking human
    actions. Wearable computers are consistently in
    operation as they do not have to be turned on and
    off and are constantly interacting with the user.

15
What Computer type am I?
16
What Computer type am I?
17
What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
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What Computer type am I?
25
What Computer type am I?
26
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Operating System or OS -- is software, consisting
    of programs and data, that runs on computers,
    manages computer hardware resources, and provides
    common services for execution of various
    application software. The operating system is the
    most important type of system software in a
    computer system. Without an operating system, a
    user cannot run an application program on their
    computer, unless the application program is self
    booting.

27
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • An OS has brand Name
  • Each Brand has different versions of OS
  • Can anyone name a brand name of an OS?

28
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Common Brands. Windows or Mac
  • Others UNIX / Linux, Google Chrome OS, Novel
  • Before Windows, Microsoft used Dos. Dos was a
    non- GUI OS (Graphical User Interface)
  • Window versions Windows CE, Windows 3.x, Windows
    95, Windows 98, Windows 98 SE, Windows ME,
    Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows
    Vista, Windows 7

29
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Mac versions Apple DOS 3.1, Apple System 1-7,
    Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9, Mac OS 10, Mac OS X
  • Unix/Linux got its start in 1957-- Bell Labs
    found they needed an operating system for their
    computer center that at the time was running
    various batch jobs. The BESYS operating system
    was created at Bell Labs to deal with these needs.

30
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Unix/Linux has many variations or brands that
    have evolved since then
  • Brands BSD, FreeBSD, SCO/Caldera, Red Hat,
    Solaris, Linux
  • Linux was not started until 1991, but it is the
    most noted UNIX OS

31
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Todays computers are
  • Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows
    for multiple users to use the same computer at
    the same time and different times.
  • Multiprocessing - An operating system capable of
    supporting and utilizing more than one computer
    processor.
  • Multitasking - An operating system that is
    capable of allowing multiple software processes
    to run at the same time.
  • Multithreading - Operating systems that allow
    different parts of a software program to run
    concurrently.

32
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Operating System or OS -- is software, consisting
    of programs and data, that runs on computers,
    manages computer hardware resources, and provides
    common services for execution of various
    application software. The operating system is the
    most important type of system software in a
    computer system. Without an operating system, a
    user cannot run an application program on their
    computer, unless the application program is self
    booting.

33
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Operating System or OS -- is software, consisting
    of programs and data, that runs on computers,
    manages computer hardware resources, and provides
    common services for execution of various
    application software. The operating system is the
    most important type of system software in a
    computer system. Without an operating system, a
    user cannot run an application program on their
    computer, unless the application program is self
    booting.

34
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Operating System or OS -- is software, consisting
    of programs and data, that runs on computers,
    manages computer hardware resources, and provides
    common services for execution of various
    application software. The operating system is the
    most important type of system software in a
    computer system. Without an operating system, a
    user cannot run an application program on their
    computer, unless the application program is self
    booting.

35
Understanding - Different Operating Systems
  • Operating System or OS -- is software, consisting
    of programs and data, that runs on computers,
    manages computer hardware resources, and provides
    common services for execution of various
    application software. The operating system is the
    most important type of system software in a
    computer system. Without an operating system, a
    user cannot run an application program on their
    computer, unless the application program is self
    booting.

36
Understanding - Basic Components
  • http//videos.howstuffworks.com/howstuffworks/23-c
    omputer-tour-video.htm
  • Motherboard
  • CPU Central Processing Unit
  • RAM Random Access Memory
  • Video Card -
  • Power Supply
  • Hard disk or drive
  • Optical Drive

37
Understanding - Basic Components
38
Understanding - Basic Components
  • http//www.videojug.com/film/what-components-are-i
    nside-my-computer
  • Hardware and Software -- All of these components
    are usually found within the tower of a desktop
    computer. They are referred to as "hardware".
    Hardware can be thought of as the actual physical
    components that go into the computer. "Software"
    refers to the programs and systems that operate
    within the hardware.

39
Understanding - Basic Components
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Understanding - Basic Components
  • The Motherboard -- The motherboard is the heart
    of the computer. It is the largest and most
    fundamental component of a PC and every other
    component is attached to it in some way. This is
    because all the different components use the
    motherboard to communicate and work with each
    other.The motherboard has a series of slots,
    sockets and connectors for attaching the
    components of a PC. In most cases, the memory,
    accessory cards, and CPU are installed directly
    onto the motherboard. The drives and peripherals
    communicate with the motherboard through wired
    connections.There are a wide range of
    motherboards to choose from. They differ in
    features, speed, capacity and the CPU supported.
    They also differ in size, shape and layout, this
    is commonly referred to as the "form factor"

43
Understanding - Basic Components
  • The CPU -- CPU stands for Central Processing
    Unit. This is the brain of the computer and is
    often referred to as the "processor" or the
    "chip". It is found under a heat sink and fan and
    sits directly on the motherboard.The CPU
    directs, coordinates and communicates with the
    other components and performs all of the
    "thinking". It's not really thinking, what a CPU
    actually does is perform mathematical
    calculations. It is the software that people
    write that translates those calculations into
    useful functions for us.

44
Understanding - Basic Components
  • RAM -- RAM stands for Random Access Memory, and
    comes as modules in predefined amounts. It is
    also found directly on the motherboard and
    usually in one, two or four slots. The memory
    chips store information, temporarily, for short
    term use by the CPU. RAM is used to store
    information for files that are actually being
    used by the CPU at any given time. The
    computer's RAM memory is an entirely different
    thing from the hard disk "memory". The hard disk
    stores information "permanently" for long term
    use.

45
Understanding - Basic Components
  • The Graphics Card -- The graphics card or video
    card translates information into the graphics and
    text that appear on the monitor screen. Most
    motherboards now include a slot specifically
    designed for the graphics adapter called the AGP
    slot. This stands for Advanced Graphics
    Port.Modern graphics adapters usually
    incorporate some memory right on the card to
    improve their performance.

46
Understanding - Basic Components
  • The Power Supply -- This supplies power to the
    other components, which is why it has so many
    wires coming out of it. It is usually positioned
    at the back top corner of the computer case. The
    power supply has a fan built into it to keep
    itself and the computer cool.

47
Understanding - Basic Components
  • The Hard Disk -- A hard disk - which is also
    called a "hard drive" - is much like a filing
    cabinet. The programs and data are stored on the
    hard disk and the computer accesses them as they
    are needed. When the computer accesses the hard
    drive, it is reading and moving the stored
    information into the RAM memory. That memory is
    the temporary workspace. However, the original
    file is still on the hard disk and is left
    undisturbed until the file is saved.When the
    computer stores or "saves" information, it writes
    the data to the hard disk. That process results
    in the old file being replaced or modified with
    the new information. If you save data to a new
    file, or install new software, the information is
    written to the disk in an available, unused
    portion of the disk.

48
Understanding - Basic Components
  • The Optical Drive -- The optical drive is often
    called a DVD drive, or a CD drive. It sits at the
    front of the computer for ease of access, and
    uses a laser to read and write information to
    CD's and DVD's

49
Understanding - How to Buy a computer
  • What is important to any computer purchase?
  • Ram if money is tight, buy more RAM by choosing
    a lesser CPU or smaller hard drive. For Window7
    buy 2 GB 4 GB.
  • CPU or processor a multi-core CPU is mandatory
    today in desktops and laptop. CPU speed is less
    important today because they are all very fast.
    http//www.cpubenchmark.net/common_cpus.html
  • 3. Hard drive Get the largest you can (250
    500 GB). The fastest hard drives is not always
    better. Computers dislike heat, slower hard
    drives product less heat and last longer in home
    environments. SATA hard drive 7200RPM is a good
    choice.
  • What is important to you as a individual?
  • What do I want this computer for general
    home/school computer (internet, email, Office
    suite software, some video/audio use), High use
    AutoCad or Multimedia with audio and video
    editing, or Gaming. Gaming computers are like
    hot-rod car fast, strong, and expensive. Most
    general home/school computers can do most games
    very well.
  • Desktop, Laptop, or minicomputer (Tablet, IPAD,
    Multimedia phone)?
  • Desktop will generally out last a laptop,
    faster and perform better than laptop, and
    cheaper to work on and find replacement parts.
  • Laptop Always buy the 3 year warranty on
    laptops. If you keep Laptop cool, they last
    longer. Handle your power supply cord gently
    over time, it will need replacing. Laptops are
    nice on portability, but just expect to replace
    it sooner than a desktop
  • Minicomputer very convenient and fun. They are
    not full functioning PCs. Fun to have in
    addition to your desktop or laptop. Example
    (your desktop have your music file on it, you
    your minicomputer to play files from it)

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51
Understanding - How to Buy a computer
  • Unless you have a geek in the family, I would not
    recommend buying a used computer.
  • Know who you are buying from Wal-Mart does not
    make computers, so if you have trouble after your
    30 days are up, what do you do?
  • Buying from a local company can have it
    advantages in support, but you will pay more.
  • Buying from major brands like HP and Dell is
    nice to. They offer you 24 hour support, online
    self-help, online training and instruction,
    online computer analysis, etc.

52
Understanding - How to Buy a computer
  • Do you need a blue-ray player? They drive the
    cost up on computers, so ask yourself will I ever
    use it.
  • Most monitors companies offer will meet your
    needs. There are many types and quality of
    monitors, but most new computers come with a
    descent 18-20 inch monitor.
  • An external USB drive is nice to have for bakups.
    Of course you can use your DVD writer or online
    service for backups.
  • Printers The all-in-one printers (Copier, Scan,
    and Print) are the way to go. For printing
    pictures, I recommend using a commercial service.
    It is hard to buy photo paper and ink for what
    companies can do it for you.

53
Understanding - How to Buy a computer
  • Today, most computers come with everything you
    need. There are not a lot of accessories that
    people need to buy extra
  • Make sure it comes with a wired Optical Mouse and
    wired keyboard. Wireless is nice, but you will
    soon get tired of replacing batteries
  • Most computes have a standard sound card and
    speakers, which meets most peoples needs
  • Web-Cam very nice in saving long distance calls

54
Understanding - How to Buy a computer
  • For Desktops, you might want to consider a
    wireless adapter (just incase you can hardwire
    it)
  • Have fun.

55
Understanding - How a computer boots up
56
Understanding - Different States of a computer
57
Understanding - I bought a computer, now what?
58
Basic Computer Skills
  • Section 1 What is My Desktop?
  • Section 2 Basic Desktop Navigation
  • Section 3 Start button
  • Section 4 My Files
  • Section 5 Customizing Your Desktop
  • Section 5 Control Panel
  • Section 6 Administration Tools
  • Section 7 Working With Folders and Files
  • Section 8 Working With Programs
  • Section 9 Managing Windows
  • Section 10 Logging On and Off Windows
  • Section 11 Protecting Your computer

59
Basic Computer Skills Cover
  • Use a mouse to point, click and double-click
  • Keyboard and typing tips
  • Opening and closing software files
  • Accessing a CD-ROM
  • Locating a saved file
  • How to copy and paste files or text

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