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The Parts of Speech

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Title: The Parts of Speech


1
The Parts of Speech
  • Noun Verb Preposition
  • Pronoun Adverb Conjunction
  • Adjective Interjection

2
Noun
  • A noun is a word used to name a person, place,
    thing, or idea.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
3
Types of Nouns
  • 1. Proper
  • Common
  • Abstract
  • Concrete
  • Collective

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
4
Proper Noun
  • A proper noun is the name of a particular person,
    place, or thing.
  • Ex. Kay, Miami, White House

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
5
Common Noun
  • A common noun is the name of an ordinary noun.
  • Ex. city, woman, building, shoe

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
6
Abstract Noun
  • An abstract noun names a quality, a
    characteristic, or an idea.
  • Ex. beauty, strength, love, courage

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
7
Concrete Noun
  • A concrete noun names an object that can be
    perceived by the senses.
  • Ex. hat, desk, book, box

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
8
Collective Noun
  • A collective noun names a group.
  • Ex. - crowd, team, class

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
9
Possessive Case
  • The possessive case of a noun or a pronoun shows
    ownership or relationship.
  • Ownership Relationship
  • Alice Walkers poetry
    Crowfoots family
  • the students suggestions five
    dollars worth
  • your opinion my grandparents

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
10
Possessive Case
  • 1. To form the possessive of a singular noun,
    add an apostrophe and an s.
  • ex. The senators comments
  • players turn
  • To form the possessive of a plural noun ending in
    s, add only the apostrophe.
  • ex. Girls team the winners trophy

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
11
Possessive Case
  • Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal
    pronouns or with the possessive pronoun whose.
  • INCORRECT We thought the top score was
  • hers.
  • CORRECT We thought the top score was hers.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
12
Possessive Case
  • 4. To form the possessive of an indefinite
    pronoun, add an apostrophe and an s.
  • Ex. Everyones vote counts equally.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
13
Possessive Case
  • Form the possessive of only the last word in a
    hyphenated word, in the name of an organization
    or a business firm, or in a word group showing
    joint possession.
  • Ex. father-in-laws hobby
  • Lewis and Clarks expedition

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
14
Pronoun
  • A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of
    more than one noun.
  • Ex. Angelo borrowed a hammer and some nails.
    He will return them tomorrow.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
15
Types of Pronouns
  • Personal
  • Reflexive
  • Intensive
  • Relative
  • Interrogative
  • Demonstrative
  • Indefinite

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
16
Personal Pronouns
  • Singular Plural
  • 1st I, me, my, mine we,
    our, ours, us
  • Person
  • 2nd you, your, yours you, your,
    yours
  • Person
  • 3rd he, his, him they, their,
    theirs, them
  • Person she, her, hers
  • it, its

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
17
Antecedent
  • The word that a pronoun stands for is called the
    antecedent.
  • In the preceding example, Angelo is the
    antecedent of he, and hammer and nails are the
    antecedents of them.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
18
Reflexive/Intensive Pronouns
  • A reflexive or intensive pronoun is created when
    the suffix self or selves is added to the
    appropriate personal pronouns.
  • Reflexive (The pronoun stands alone.)
  • Ex. Carmen hurt herself.
  • Intensive (The pronoun is next to another noun or
    pronoun.)
  • Ex. Carmen herself was not hurt.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
19
Relative Pronoun
  • A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate
    (dependent) clause.
  • Who Which
  • Whose That
  • Whom

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
20
Interrogative Pronouns
  • An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.
  • Who Which
  • Whom What
  • Whose

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
21
Demonstrative Pronouns
  • A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, a
    place, a thing, or an idea.
  • The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these,
    and those.
  • Ex. This is our favorite song by Ella Fitzgerald.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
22
Indefinite Pronouns
  • all either much other
  • another everybody neither several
  • any everyone nobody some
  • anybody everything none somebody
  • anyone few no one someone
  • anything many nothing something
  • both more one such
  • each most

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
23
Indefinite Pronouns
  • An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place,
    idea, or thing that may or may not be
    specifically named.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
24
Adjectives
  • An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a
    pronoun.
  • To modify means to describe or make more
    definite.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
25
Articles
  • A, an, and the are articles.
  • Identify articles by placing an orange box around
    each of them.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
26
Adjectives
  • Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns by telling
    which one, what kind, how many.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
27
Which one?
  • This street
  • Those cars
  • First step
  • Last one

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
28
What kind?
  • Brown shoes
  • Large animal
  • Narrow road
  • Nice person

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
29
How many?
  • Ten boxes
  • Several boxes
  • Fewer mistakes
  • Many students

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
30
Adjectives
  • Adjectives usually precede the words they modify.
  • Ex. The wild and graceful deer ran through the
    forest.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
31
Adjectives
  • For emphasis, however, adjectives are sometimes
    placed after the words they modify.
  • The deer, wild and graceful, ran through the
    forest.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
32
Adjective Suffixes
  • Common adjective suffixes include
  • -able (tolerable) -en (wooden)
  • -ible (possible) -ful (thankful)
  • -ate (desolate, separate) -less (hopeless)
  • -esque (picturesque) -some (lonesome)
  • -ous

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
33
Prepositions
  • A preposition is a word used to show the relation
    of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the
    sentence.
  • Think about the squirrel and the tree!!!!

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
34
Prepositions
  • About at but (concerning)
  • Above before by
  • Across behind concerning
  • After below down
  • Against beneath during
  • Along beside except
  • Amid besides for
  • Among between from
  • Around beyond in

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
35
More Prepositions
  • into since until
  • like through unto
  • of throughout up
  • off to upon
  • on toward with
  • over under within
  • past underneath without

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
36
Conjunctions
  • A conjunction is a word that joins words or
    groups of words.
  • There are three kinds of conjunctions
  • 1. coordinating conjunctions
  • 2. correlative conjunctions
  • 3. subordinating conjunctions

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
37
Coordinating Conjunctions
  • A coordinating conjunction connects words or
    groups of words used in the same way.
  • and or yet
  • but nor so
  • for

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
38
Correlative Conjunctions
  • Correlative conjunctions are pairs of
  • conjunctions that connect words or groups of
    words used in the same way.
  • Both . . . and
  • Either . . . or
  • Neither . . . nor
  • Not only . . . but
  • Whether . . . or

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
39
Subordinating Conjunctions
  • A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinate
    (dependent) clause and connects it to an
    independent clause.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
40
Subordinating Conjunctions
  • after because since
  • although before so that
  • as even though than
  • as if how that
  • as much as if though
  • as though in order that unless
  • as well as provided until

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
41
More Subordinating Conjunctions
  • when
  • whenever
  • where
  • wherever
  • whether
  • while
  • why

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
42
Verbs
  • A verb is a word used to express action or a
    state of being.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
43
Forms of Be
  • There are eight forms of the verb BE.
  • am was be
  • is were been
  • are being

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
44
Linking Verbs
  • am appear grow seem taste
  • is become look smell turn
  • are feel remain sound
  • was stay
  • were
  • be
  • been
  • being

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
45
Verb Phrases
  • A verb phrase consists of a main verb and at
    least one helping verb. As many as three helping
    verbs may precede the main verb.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
46
Helping Verbs
  • am could do have can will
  • is would did has may shall
  • are should does had might
  • was must
  • were
  • be
  • been
  • being

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
47
Action Verbs
  • Action verbs fall into two categories
  • Transitive
  • Intransitive

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
48
Transitive Verbs
  • A transitive verb is an action verb that takes an
    object (a word that tells who or what receives
    the action. The object is either a noun or
    pronoun.)
  • Ex. Everyone (in the school) cheered the
    football team.
  • To find the object, ask who? or what? after
    the verb.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
49
Intransitive Verbs
  • An intransitive verb is an action verb that does
    not take an object.
  • Ex. The gorilla smiled.
  • Suddenly, the child next door screamed.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
50
Adverbs
  • An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an
    adjective, or another adverb.

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
51
Adverbs
  • Most adverbs end in ly.
  • Common adverbs include
  • no very still
  • not almost too
  • never always well
  • nt

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
52
Adverbs
  • An adverb may tell how, when, where, or to what
    extent (how often or how much).
  • Ex. She drives carefully. (tells how she
    drives)
  • She drives early and late. (tells
    when)
  • She drives everywhere. (tells where)
  • She can almost drive. (tells to what
    extent)
  • She drives daily. (tells how often)

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
53
Interjection
  • An interjection is a word that expresses emotion
    and has no grammatical relation to other words in
    the sentence.
  • Examples Oh! My goodness! Hurry!
  • Interjections are followed by an exclamation
    point. (!)

Kimmeavy, James L. and John E. Warriner.
Elements of Writing Complete Course. Austin
Holt, 1998.
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