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Title: Grades


1
Grades
  • Exam 40
  • Exam 1 Motivation Indv. Differences Managing
    boss
  • Exam 2 Social Networks Decision Making Culture
  • Multiple choice and/or short-essay questions
  • Articles Cases Synopses.
  • Quizzes20
  • Three quizzes
  • Book 20
  • Managementor Exercises 20
  • Speakers 23,28,30

2
Simple but Powerful Advice
  • Give views in advance, in private.
  • Pick who will speak first at random (US Supreme
    Court Justices start with junior-most member)
  • Encourage and reward disagreement.

3
Delusional Optimism
  • Due to both cognitive biases and organizational
    pressures
  • - exaggerate own talents downplay luck
  • - self-serving attributions in annual reports
  • - scenario planning tends to reward most
    optimistic appraisals.
  • - anchoring
  • - competitor neglect.
  • - pessimism often interpreted as disloyalty

4
How to Take The Outside View
  • Select a reference class
  • choose a class that is broad enough to be
    statistically meaningful but narrow enough to be
    truly comparable to project at hand-- movies in
    same genres, similar actors
  • Assess the distribution of outcomes
  • Identify the average and extremes in the refer-
    ence-class projects outcomes--the studio
    executives reference-class movies sold 40
    million in tickets on average. But 10 sold less
    than 2 mil- lion and 5 sold more than 120
    million.
  • Predict, intuitively
  • where you fall in the distribution executive
    predicted 95 million
  • Estimate reliability of your prediction
  • correlation between forecast and actual outcome
    expressed as a coefficient ranging from 0 to 1.
  • Correct the intuitive estimate for unreliability
  • less reliable the prediction, more needs to be
    adjusted towards the mean.

5
Culture Slides
  • Given the power of social influence
  • (e.g., 70 of seminary students failed to help
    man in need when told to hurry to a waiting
    class when another person in a restroom, 90
    percent washed their hands otherwise, less than
    20 percent did so)
  • I dont know what a cult is and what those
    bleary-eyed kids selling poppy really do, but Im
    probably that deeply committed to the IBM
    company
  • 20-year veteran IBM employee quoted in WSJ
  • Pepsis culture of competition 3Ms culture of
    innovation IBMs culture of service

6
Steven Hsieh on Zappos/Culture
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vbQJIJSoA96A

7
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8
Cultures Consequences
  • Influences efficacy of strategy through alignment
  • Enhances control
  • Increased commitment from employees
  • A sense of distinctive identity and a hard to
    replicate basis of distinctive competence

9
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10
"RESULTSthat's all that counts, period. Support
groups are akin to victims groups, which the
best women avoid
11
Binders full of women
  • Gender remains an issue
  • France approved a new law in 2010 that would
    force companies to increase the number of women
    serving on boards of directors by 40 by 2016
  • Norway forced companies to increase female board
    representation to 40 businesses howled.
  • Potential cost lost experienced people (but all
    male boards perform very well (LVMH, French
    luxury goods company, mostly female customers
    but almost entirely male board)
  • Potential gain social justice more creative?
    less groupthink?
  • Where to find qualified women with experience in
    core business?

12
Why Are Women Underrepresented at Top?
  • Biology?
  • Stereotypes and stereotype threats?
  • Lack of qualified women?
  • Barriers to opportunities, especially of the
    informal kind?
  • Lack of institutional support?
  • Organizational Culture?

13
What is Organizational Culture?
  • A social control system? A shared pattern of
    belief and expectations the power of peers
    control without the sense of external, binding
    constraint
  • A normative order? The culture of constructive
    confrontation at Intel. The central, cherished
    values, enshrined in prototypic people, stories,
    symbols (Pepsis culture of competition 3Ms
    culture of innovation IBMs culture of service)
  • The intended culture vs. the emergent culture

14
How is culture shaped?
  • Participation when choice is volitional,
    explicit and public, it enhances commitment
    (systems to involve people advisory boards
    etc.)
  • Symbolic action Repeat put money where mouth
    is symbols and ceremonies (Jerry Sanders pushing
    innovation at AMD revenues measured as
    Asparagus)
  • Listen
  • Reward systems and policies

15
The Art of Virtual Persusaion
16
The Legal Perspective on Diversity and
Discrimination
  • Discrimination law
  • Seeks to determine whether an individual has been
    inequitably treated because of the demographic
    category to which s/he belongs
  • Diversity law
  • Broader concept dealing with the overall climate
    of an organization and its degree of
    heterogeneity.
  • An evaluation of diversity is therefore
    likely to be more subjective than assessments of
    discrimination

17
The Business Rationale for Diversity
  • It makes legal and economic sense
    Nondiscrimination is the law
  • Coca Cola (race discrimination)
  • Home Depot (gender discrimination)
  • Texaco (race discrimination)
  • US Govt. (in 2000, 508 million case women who
    were refused employment with US Information
    Agency)
  • Walmart (gender discrimination class action
    lawsuit on behalf of 1.6 million employees
    statistical analysis showed Walmart paid less to
    women and gave them fewer promotions 70
    employees female only 30 are managers)
  • Little choice Changing demographics (Blacks
    10 Hispanics 18 Asian 20)
  • Customers diverse, then employees should be
    diverse
  • Enhanced group and organizational performance?
    Diversity richer ideas and learning employee
    attraction and retention

18
Diversity Paradigms
  • Discrimination and fairness US Army
  • Access and Legitimacy U.S. investment bank
    expanding to India hires Indians
  • Learning and effectiveness Law firm where
    minority attorneys brought in minority business
    but also expanded the kind of work that the
    company as a whole took on (i.e., changed
    business strategy)

19
Women and Glass Ceiling
  • Are people less worried about appearing sexist
    than racist?
  • Catalyst (2006) At nations largest 500
    companies
  • women are 50 of managers, but only hold 15.4 of
    senior exec. jobs, down from 16.4 in 2005
  • women received 48 of law degrees, but account
    for only 17.9 of partners
  • in 2007, the median pay for women was .82 percent
    of that for men.
  • Outperform go beyond expectations
  • Develop style with which men are comfortable
    (Marlyn Monroe or Iron Maiden)
  • Seek out challenging assignments
  • Find mentors

20
The Psychology of Tokenism
  • Visibility (tokens capture disproportionate share
    of attention)
  • Polarization (exaggeration of differences)
  • Assimilation (Tokens attributes are distorted to
    fit preexisting generalizations)

21
The Significance of Numbers for Social Life
  • Simmel (1950)
  • Kanter (1977) relative proportions not a matter
    of innate biological differences, or even of
    culture its a structural issue of relative
    proportions.
  • Tokens Treated as representatives of a
    category, as symbols rather than as individuals.

22
Friendship Network at an Ivy League University in
1988
23
Skewed, Tilted, and Balanced Groups
  • Skewed groups (1000 to 8515) difficult for
    tokens to generate alliances or gain power.
  • Tilted (6535)minority members can become
    potential allies can affect group culture
    become individuals differentiated from each other
    and from the majority.
  • Balanced (6040 to 5050) culture and
    interaction reflect balance majority and
    minority turn into potential subgroups outcomes
    depend upon other structural factors than mere
    group membership.

24
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25
Spencer OwensDiscrimination and Fairness
Perspective (We are all the same differences do
not matter)
  • SOs Discrimination and Fairness perspective
  • Approach
  • Diversity as moral imperative
  • Eliminate discrimination treat everyone the same
  • Progress assessed by examining recruitment and
    retention goals.
  • Results
  • Pressures to assimilate
  • Differences undiscussable conflict suppressed
  • People feel alienated and devalued
  • Performance undermine
  • Access and Legitimacy perspective
  • Approach
  • Use diversity to connect with market segments
  • Progress measured by achieving recruitment and
    retention goals in boundary or visible positions
  • Results
  • Experience regarded as limited or specialized
  • Career paths limited people feel exploited
  • Differences neither analyzed nor leveraged

26
Integration and Learning Approach
  • Approach
  • Cultural differences as resource for learning
    (different perspectives and experiences)
  • Use differences to enhance work processes and
    core work
  • Progress measured by power traditionally
    underrepresented groups have to change the
    organization and its work.
  • Result
  • Differences embraced, discussed, disputed,
    evaluated
  • People feel valued and respected
  • Cultural competencies learned and shared
  • Work enhanced by insights, knowledge, skills
    grounded in peoples experiences.

27
Eight Preconditions for Making Shift to
Integration-and-Learning
  1. Leadership must understand that diverse workforce
    will embody different perspectives and approaches
    to work, and must value variety of opinion and
    insight.
  2. Leadership must recognize both learning
    opportunities and the challenges that the
    expression of different perspectives presents.
  3. The organizational culture must create
    expectation of high standards of performance for
    everyone.
  4. Organizational culture must stimulate personal
    development.
  5. Organizational culture must encourage openness.
  6. Organizational culture must make workers feel
    valued.
  7. Organization must have a well articulated and
    widely understood mission.
  8. Organization must have a relatively egalitarian,
    non bureaucratic structure

28
Deloitte and Touche
  • 1991 Heavily recruiting women since 1980 50 of
    new hires women but only 8 of candidates for
    partner were women
  • We prided ourselves on our open, collegial work
    environment
  • 1992 Deloittes Initiative for Retention and
    Advancement of Women
  • Launched by CEO Tim Cook Product is our talent
  • Worried about it seeming like Affirmative Action
  • Six Steps
  • Made Senior Management Front and Center (not an
    HR thing)
  • Make an airtight business case (Where will new
    partners come from?)
  • Let the world watch you (press conference
    external advisory council article in WSJ)
  • Begin with dialogue (dont assume you know views)
  • Flexible but quantitative accounting (asked for
    numbers are top women receiving proportionate
    share of plum assignments?
  • Promote work-life balance

29
END DISCUSSION OF CULTURE HERE
30
How to Avoid Dysfunctional Group Decision-Making?
  • Groups Bigger and more diverse better?
  • Problems in groups
  • Individual effects Anchoring Availability
    Confirmation Sunk-cost
  • Social Effects Dont want to disturb cohesion
    assumption that group is smarter desire to seem
    fair and reasonable give in to high-status
    people
  • How overcome?

31
Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant
  • GE plant in NY, 60 miles from Manhattan
  • Designed to produce 540-820 megawatts
  • Initial estimated cost 65 million
  • Final cost 6billion
  • After 11 years (73-84), never opened!
  • Construction flaws
  • Labor unions
  • Public concerns over safety
  • Escalation of commitment, or failed persistence?

32
Blowing Up
33
Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant
  • GE plant in NY, 60 miles from Manhattan
  • Designed to produce 540-820 megawatts
  • Initial estimated cost 65 million
  • Final cost 6billion
  • After 11 years (73-84), never opened!
  • Construction flaws
  • Labor unions
  • Public concerns over safety
  • Escalation of commitment, or failed persistence?

34
Escalation of Commitment The Flip Side of
Persistence
35
Reducing Escalation of Commitment
  • Set minimum targets for performance, and force
    decision makers to compare against these targets
  • Stimulate opposition using devils advocacy
  • Rotate managers through roles
  • Reduce ego-involvement
  • Provide and study more frequent feedback about
    project completion and costs
  • Reduce risk and penalties for failure
  • Make explicit the costs of persistence

36
The Asch Effect
Comparison Lines Card
Standard Line Card
1 2 3
37
Asch Effect What are the implications of the
Asch effect for managers?
  • Strong social effects on what we see and do.
  • How to organize meeting and debates
  • Find ways of getting people to express their
    views and opinions in ways that prevent those
    views being swayed by perceived group opinions.
  • Emphasize that you are not interested in yes
    men.
  • The importance of people who dont get along with
    others Socrates was turned into an outcast but
    should not have been.
  • Crucially Once one person dissents, the
    likelihood of others speaking up goes up
    dramatically.

38
Milgram Obedience to authority (1974)
  • Ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and
    without any particular hostility on their part,
    can become agents in a terrible destructive
    process. Moreover, even when the destructive
    effects of their work become patently clear, and
    they are asked to carry out actions incompatible
    with fundamental standards of morality,
    relatively few people have the resources needed
    to resist authority
  • http//www.bing.com/videos/search?qMilgramShock
    ExperimentFormVQFRVPviewdetailmidE49E9EE093C
    EC55FE564E49E9EE093CEC55FE564
  • What percentage of ordinary, law-abiding, Yale
    students would deliver the maximum 450 volt
    shock?
  • lt 10 lt 50 gt 50 gt 60

39
  • "the essence of obedience consists in the fact
    that a person comes to view themselves as the
    instrument for carrying out another person's
    wishes, and they therefore no longer see
    themselves as responsible for their actions. Once
    this critical shift of viewpoint has occurred in
    the person, all of the essential features of
    obedience follow"

40
Groupthink
  • Groupthink When you feel a high pressure to
    conform and agree and are unwilling to
    realistically view alternatives
  • What are some of the reasons or factors that
    promote groupthink?
  • What can be done to prevent groupthink?

41
Symptoms of Groupthink and Decision Making
Figure 10-6
  • Decision-making Defects
  • Few alternatives
  • No reexamination of preferred alternatives
  • No reexamination of rejected alternatives
  • Rejection of expert opinions
  • Selective bias of new information
  • No contingency plans
  • Symptoms of Groupthink
  • Invulnerability
  • Inherent morality
  • Rationalization
  • Stereotyped views of opposition
  • Self-censorship
  • Illusion of unanimity
  • Peer pressure
  • Mindguards

42
Groupthink Implications for Managers
  • Assign to each member the role of critical
    evaluator this role involves playing Devils
    Advocate by actively voicing doubt and
    objections.
  • Use subgroups and bring in outside experts for
    exploring the same policy decisions.
  • Use different groups with different leaders to
    explore the same question.

43
Groupthink Implications for Managers
  • Assign to each member the role of critical
    evaluator this role involves playing Devils
    Advocate by actively voicing doubt and
    objections.
  • Use subgroups and bring in outside experts for
    exploring the same policy decisions.
  • Use different groups with different leaders to
    explore the same question.

44
Groupthink Implications for Managers
  • Assign to each member the role of critical
    evaluator this role involves playing Devils
    Advocate by actively voicing doubt and
    objections.
  • Use subgroups and bring in outside experts for
    exploring the same policy decisions.
  • Use different groups with different leaders to
    explore the same question.

45
Reducing Escalation of Commitment
  • Set minimum targets for performance, and force
    decision makers to compare against these targets
  • Stimulate opposition using devils advocacy
  • Rotate managers through roles
  • Reduce ego-involvement
  • Provide and study more frequent feedback about
    project completion and costs
  • Reduce risk and penalties for failure
  • Make explicit the costs of persistence
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