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Title: Monster Review


1
Monster Review
  • Unit 10

2
  • John Everett Millais
  • Ophelia
  • 1852
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Pre Raphaelite
  • Pre-Raphaelites
  • -The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in
  • John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street,
    London in 1848.
  • At the initial meeting, John Everett Millais,
    Dante Gabriel Rossetti,
  • and William Holman Hunt were present. Hunt and
    Millais were
  • students at the Royal Academy of Arts.
  • -they wanted to return to abundant detail,
    intense colors, and complex compositions
  • -influenced by John Ruskin
  • -distaste for materialism and
  • the modern industrialized world
  • -felt that everybody after Raphael
  • created artificial, academic art
  • -rejected contemporary scenes of real

Shakespeares Ophelia -Hamlet -Ophelia drowns,
oblivious in her madness -Had a friend model for
it in a heated bathtub for hours at a time, and
modeled the river off of a local river, allowing
for meticulous detail
3
  • Claude Monet
  • Impression Sunrise
  • 1872
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Impressionism

Monet once said to a student, When you go out to
paint, try to forget what objects you have before
you a tree, a house, a field, whatever. Merely
think, here is a little square of blue, here an
oblong of pink, here a streak of yellow, and
paint it just as it looks to you, the exact color
and shape, until it gives you your own naïve
impression of the scene before you.
Monet said he wished hed been born blind and
then had suddenly gained his sight so that he
could have begun to paint in this way without
knowing what the objects were that he saw before
him. -This piece shown at the first
Impressionist show in 1874
4
  • Gustave Caillebotte
  • Paris A Rainy Day
  • 1877
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Impressionism

HAUSSMANNIZATION of Paris George Haussmann
oversaw the redesign of Paris (1852)
Caillebotte did not dissolve the image into
broken color and loose brushwork like other
Impressionists He does utilize an informal,
asymmetrical composition like other
Impressionists A snapshot of a rainy day in
Paris, suggesting the ever-changing, transitory
nature of the era
5
  • Pierre-Auguste Renoir
  • Le Moulin de la Galette
  • 1876
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Impressionism
  • Industrialization put in place SET WORKING
  • HOURS, allowing people to schedule LEISURE
    ACTIVITIES
  • Here, a popular Parisian dance hall
  • Scene is dappled by sunlight and shade, creating
    an ATMOSPHERE of energy, dancing, tinkling
    glasses, laughter
  • Figures spread in all directions, in a casual
    un-posed placement of figures, which are cut off
    arbitrarily by the edges of the painting
  • Viewer is a participant
  • Classical art showed universal, timeless themes
    / Impressionism showed fleeting, candid scenes
    of a contemporary reality

6
  • Edouard Manet
  • A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
  • 1882
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Impressionism
  • Barmaid at a Parisian Café with music concerts
  • Barmaid looks back at viewer and café patrons,
    detached, disinterested, lost in thought
  • Minimal modeling and perspective rough, blurry
    brushstrokes
  • Visual discrepancies angles of the mirror, the
    barmaids reflection, and the bars reflection
    are not in harmony with each other
  • Again, Manet explores the pictorial structures of
    the two dimensional painting surface

7
  • Edgar Degas
  • Ballet Rehearsal
  • 1874
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Impressionism
  • Degas, fascinated with patterns of motion
  • Painting frame cuts off the stairs, the windows
    at the top, and dancers on the right
  • Random arrangement of figures
  • Large, off-center empty space creates the
    illusion of a continuous floor
  • Viewer participation perspective was chosen so
    that we could be standing on the same floor, in
    this room
  • Photography fascination
  • Composition inspired by Japanese
  • woodblock prints

8
Edgar Degas The Tub 1886 Pastel 1x11.5 Impressio
nism
A master of line, captured here in his pastel
drawing Major objects are outlined, then covered
in hatching marks Visual discrepancies flat
shelf, lack of pitcher foreshortening, 3d
bather
9
James Abbott McNeill Whistler Nocturne in Black
and Gold (The Falling Rocket) 1875 Oil on
Canvas Impressionism -John Ruskin accused him of
flinging a pot of paint in the publics
face -Whistler sued Ruskin for Libel -Whistler
won, but the court awarded him a penny and
charged him court costs that ruined him
financially -felt that harmonies of color and
form in art, paralleled harmonies of notes and
chords in music -more interested in showing
atmospheric effects and color sensations than the
details of a scene
10
Vincent Van Gogh The Night Cafe 1888 Oil on
Canvas Post-Impressionism
Instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I
have before my eyes, I use color more arbitrarily
so as to express myself forcibly. -Van Gogh in a
letter to his brother
-insisted on the expressive value of
color -thickness, shape, and direction of his
brush strokes add a tactile element to his
work -this scene was meant to convey an
oppressive atmosphere a place where one can
ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime. I
have tried to express the terrible passions of
humanity by means of red and green. The room is
blood red and dark yellow with a green billiard
table in the middle there are four citron-yellow
lamps with a glow of orange and green.
Everywhere there is a clash and contrast of the
most disparate reds and greens in the figures of
little sleeping hooligans, in the empty, dreary
room, in violet and blue.-Van Gogh
11
Paul Gauguin Where Do We Come From, What Are
We? 1897 Oil on Canvas Post-Impressionism
-moved to Tahiti to find more provocative
subjects -a summary of his artistic methodscolor
choices influenced by popular native color
schemes patches of pure flat color -A tropical
landscape populated by native women and children
1. baby, and three young women those who are
closest to that eternal mystery
2. two women, talking about destiny
6. animals with whom we share the world a goat,
a cat, and kittens
3. A puzzled man
lt-puffin, a symbol of the afterlife/the unknown
4. a youth plucking the fruit of experience
7. a beautiful young woman broods, and an old
woman prepares to die
5. A child eats the fruit, overlooked by an idol
emblem of our need for the spiritual
12
Georges Seurat A Sunday on La Grande
Jatte 1884-1886 Oil on Canvas Pointillism Optica
l Color Mixing
13
Paul Cezanne Mont Sainte-Victoire 1902-1904 Oil
on Canvas Post Impressionism
-felt that impressionism lacked form and
structure -tried to show form and depth without
chiaroscuro or perspective -cool colors recede,
warm color advance -juxtapose yellow next to
blueone side will advance, the other will
recede -felt that everything in nature could be
reduced to a cube, a cone, and a sphere
14
Edvard Munch The Cry 1893 Oil, Pastel, and Casein
on Cardboard German Expressionist -an inner
crypsychological -simplified man in foreground,
simplified to an almost skeletal form, emits a
primal scream -curvilinear lines echo the curves
of his mouth and face, making the scream
reverberate I was walking along a path with two
friends the sun was setting suddenly the sky
turned blood red I paused, feeling exhausted,
and leaned on the fence there was blood and
tongues of fire above the blue-black fjord and
the city my friends walked on, and I stood
there trembling with anxiety and I sensed an
infinite scream passing through nature.
15
Auguste Rodin The Burghers of Calais 1953-1959 Rea
lism -in 1347 the English seized Calais,
France. Six of the citizens of Calais agreed to
offer their lives in return for the English
kings promise to lift the siege and spare the
rest of the populace. -figures show quiet
defiance, resignation, despair on their
faces -figures arranged in the round,
appearing to wander aimlessly -created without a
base, so figures would be at the viewers eye
level -patron was offended put it on a base,
and off in a remote corner
16
33-1 Henri Matisse Woman with the Hat 1905 Oil on
Canvas Fauvism -The paintings included in this
exhibit were simplified, with shocking unexpected
colors. A critic called the artists there,
Fauves or wild beasts. -Like Van Gogh, they
tried to liberate color from its descriptive
function and use it as an expressive and
structural tool. -Matisses wife, Amelie
-rejected colors that simply aim to imitate
nature used pure colors of high intensity to
generate a stronger reaction
17
  • 33-2
  • Henri Matisse
  • Red Room (Harmony in Red)
  • 1908-1909
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Early 20th Century
  • -A maid in a warm, comfortable, dining room of a
    wealthy home
  • -Bright bold colors contrast intensely
  • Color was not given to us so that we may imitate
    nature. It was given to us so that we can
    express our own emotions.
  • Flat, simplified forms, resembling a rich
    luxurious tapestry

18
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19
33-6 Vassily Kandinsky Improvisation 28 1912 Oil
on Canvas Der Blaue Reiter (the blue
rider, Part of the German Expressionist
Movement) -Der Blaue Reiter formed in Munich
Name selected for Kandinskys and Franz Marcs
mutual interest in blue and horses -Kandinskys
interest in non-representational images was
fueled by his interest in spirituality and music
(which reject the material world) -wrote
Concerning the Spiritual in Art, a treatise on
using color, form, line and space to convey
feelings
-Yellow warmth, terrestrial, painful,
aggressive -Blue cold, celestial, calm -White
clarity, a silence full of possibilities -Black
obscurity, nothingness without possibility,
death -Red warmth, living, agitated, immense
force, power
20
33-9 Pablo Picasso Les Demoiselles
dAvignon 1907 Oil on Canvas Cubism -The young
ladies of Avignon (Avignon Street in Barcelona,
the red light district) -Originally included
male clients -Picasso pushes Cezannes treatment
of form and space to a new level -influenced by
Iberian Sculptures he saw in Spain, and African
Masks
21
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22
  • 33-10
  • Georges Braque
  • The Portuguese
  • 1911
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Analytic Cubism
  • -invented by Braque and Picasso
  • - Analytic Cubism is essentially the fragmenting
    of three-dimensional forms into flat areas of
    pattern and color, overlapping and intertwining
    so that shapes and parts of the human anatomy are
    seen from the front and back at the same time.

23
33-12 Pablo Picasso Still Life with
Chair-Caning 1912 Oil on Canvas Synthetic
Cubism -Synthetic Cubism seeks to accomplish the
same goals as analytic cubism, but with collage
materials, adding an element of surface texture
and low relief
24
33-19 Giacomo Balla Dynamism of a Dog on a
Leash 1912 Oil on Canvas Futurism -not painting
a fixed object in space, but the sensation of
motion - a galloping horse has not 4 legs, but
20
25
Futurism
  • Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of
    everything old, especially political and artistic
    tradition. "We want no part of it, the past", he
    wrote, "we the young and strong Futurists!" The
    Futurists admired speed, technology, youth and
    violence, the car, the airplane and the
    industrial city, all that represented the
    technological triumph of humanity over nature,
    and they were passionate nationalists. They
    repudiated the cult of the past and all
    imitation, praised originality, "however daring,
    however violent", bore proudly "the smear of
    madness", dismissed art critics as useless,
    rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept
    away all the themes and subjects of all previous
    art, and gloried in science.

26
33-20 Umberto Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity
in Space 1913 Oil on Canvas Futurism -applying
the ideas of conveying movement to
sculpture -included multiple views, like cubism
27
33-23 Marcel Duchamp Fountain 1950 Ready-made
glazed sanitary china with black
paint Dadaism -DADA a cultural movement that
began in Zurich, Switzerland, during World War I
and peaked from 1916 to 1922 -one of the pieces
which he called ready-mades (also known as found
art), because he made use of an already existing
objectin this case a urinal -Whether Mr. Mutt
made the fountain with his own hands or not has
no importance. He CHOSE it. He took an article of
life, placed it so that its useful significance
disappeared under the new title and point of view
created a new thought for that object.
-Duchamp described his intent with the piece was
to shift the focus of art from physical craft to
intellectual interpretation
28
  • 33-29
  • Marcel Duchamp
  • Nude Descending the Staircase, No. 2
  • 1912
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Philadelphia Museum of Art
  • -NY Times called the exhibit pathological and
    demanded it be closed. Called it a menace to
    public morality
  • -a single figure in motion, resembling a series
    of overlaid film stills
  • -Cubist/Futurist
  • explosion in a shingle factory

ADD TO MONSTER REVIEW/STUDY GUIDE
29
33-41 Kathe Kollwitz Woman with Dead
Child 1903 Etching German Expressionist -explored
mother and dead child image in
depth -transformed image of Mary and
Christ into a universal image of maternal
mourning -grace and reverence of the
traditional religious image has changed to
animalistic passion -Used her son Peter as a
model -Peter was killed a few years later at
age 21 in WWI
30
33-44 Giorgio de Chirico Melancholy and Mystery
1914 Oil on Canvas Surrealism -Showing the long
shadows and silent streets of an autumn
afternoon in Italy -Nietzshe Foreboding that
underneath this reality in which we live and
have our being, another and altogether
different reality lies concealed
31
  • Rene Magritte
  • The Treachery of Images
  • 1928-1929
  • Oil on Canvas
  • Surrealism
  • -The painting is not a pipe, but rather an image
    of a pipe, which was Magritte's point
  • The famous pipe. How people reproached me for
    it! And yet, could you stuff my pipe? No, it's
    just a representation, is it not? So if I had
    written on my picture "This is a pipe," I'd have
    been lying! Magritte

Magritte used the same approach in a painting of
an apple he painted the fruit realistically and
then used a framing device to deny that the item
was an apple
32
33-49 Frida Kahlo The Two Fridas 1939 Oil on
Canvas Surrealism -did not consider herself a
Surrealist -lifelong battle against illness and
tumultuous personal relationships -two sides
of her personality, linked by clasped hands and
an artery (on one end forceps, on the other end a
portrait of her husband Diego Rivera) -two sides
of Mexico Traditional dress and European
(communist) dress -Exposed heart is a symbol of
the Aztecs, the last independent rulers of Mexico
33
33-55 Piet Mondrian Composition in Red, Blue and
Yellow 1930 Oil on Canvas De Stijl (The Style)
  • -Painting was a devotional experience for him.
  • Tenets of this doctrine
  • Coloration must be in the primary colors of red,
    blue and yellow or the non-colors of black, gray
    and white.
  • Surfaces must rectangular planes or prisms.
  • Aesthetic balance must be achieved and this is
    done through the use of opposition.
  • Compositional elements must be straight lines or
    rectangular areas.
  • Symmetry is to be avoided.
  • Balance and rhythm are enhanced by relationships
    of proportion and location.

34
Created for the 1937 Worlds Fair in
Paris -Picassos ANTI-WAR response to the Nazi
bombing of the town of Guernica that same year
33-73 Pablo Picasso Guernica 1937 Oil on
Canvas http//www.youtube.com/watch?veV-hdEsC7eY
35
  • The shape and posture of the bodies express
    protest.
  • Picasso uses black, white, and grey paint to set
    a somber mood and express pain and chaos.
  • Flaming buildings and crumbling walls not only
    express the destruction of Guernica, but reflect
    the destructive power of civil war.
  • The newspaper print used in the painting reflects
    how Picasso learned of the massacre.
  • The Bull either Franco , the horrors of Fascism
    or as general symbol of brutality and darkness
  • Tiny flower in front regeneration and hope.
  • The light bulb in the painting represents the
    sun.
  • The broken sword near the bottom of the painting
    symbolizes the defeat of the people at the hand
    of their tormentors.

36
33-78 Grant Wood American Gothic 1930 Oil on
Beaverboard Regionalism
-Gothic Revival style cottage with a distinctive
upper window -farmer standing beside a woman who
may be his spinster daughter or his wife -woman
is dressed in a colonial print apron mimicking
19th century Americana -couple is shown in the
traditional roles of men and women -man's
pitchfork symbolizing hard labor -flowers over
the woman's right shoulder suggesting domesticity
37
  • Avant Garde
  • Art Nouveau
  • Industrialism
  • Color Theory
  • Hue
  • Saturation
  • Intensity
  • John Ruskin
  • Ready Made art
  • Dadaism
  • Futurism
  • Analytic Cubism
  • Synthetic Cubism
  • Suprematism
  • Natural Architecture
  • Regionalism
  • German Expressionism
  • Fauvism
  • De Stijl
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