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Understanding SNPs and Cancer

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Understanding Cancer and Related Topics Understanding Cancer – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding SNPs and Cancer


1
Understanding Cancer and Related
Topics Understanding Cancer
2
Different Kinds of Cancer
Leukemias Bloodstream
Some common carcinomas
Lung Breast (women) Colon Bladder Prost
ate (men)
Lymphomas Lymph nodes
Some common sarcomas Fat Bone Muscle
3
Naming Cancers
Cancer Prefixes Point to Location
Prefix Meaning adeno- gland chondro- cartilage ery
thro- red blood cell hemangio- blood
vessels hepato- liver lipo- fat lympho- lymphocyte
melano- pigment cell myelo- bone
marrow myo- muscle osteo- bone
4
Loss of Normal Growth Control
Normal cell division
Cell Suicide or Apoptosis
Cell damageno repair
Cancer cell division
Fourth orlater mutation
Third mutation
Second mutation
First mutation
Uncontrolled growth
5
Apoptosis
6
Example of Normal Growth
Dead cells shed from outer surface
Epidermis
Cell migration
Dividing cells in basal layer
Dermis
7
The Beginning of Cancerous Growth
Underlying tissue
8
Tumors (Neoplasms)
Underlying tissue
9
Invasion and Metastasis
1 Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and
blood vessels
2 Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory
system to distant sites
3 Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location
10
Malignant versus Benign Tumors
Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring
tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to
different sites
Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only
locally and cannot spread by invasion or
metastasis
Time
11
Angiogenesis
  • Animation (short)
  • A little deeper

12
Why Cancer Is Potentially Dangerous
Brain
Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream
Liver
Melanoma(initial tumor)
13
Microscopic Appearance of Cancer Cells
14
Population-Based Studies
Regions of Highest Incidence
U.K. Lung cancer
JAPAN Stomach cancer
CANADA Leukemia
U.S.Colon cancer
CHINA Liver cancer
BRAZIL Cervical cancer
AUSTRALIA Skin cancer
15
Tobacco Use and Cancer
Some Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
16
Low-Strength Radiation
High
Dallas
Skin Cancer Incidence
Pittsburgh
Detroit
Low
Most
Least
Annual Sunshine (UV radiation)
17
High-Strength Radiation
High
Leukemia Incidence
Low
Most
Least
X-ray Dose(atomic radiation)
18
Viruses
Virus inserts and changes genes forcell growth
Cancer-linked virus
19
Examples of Human Cancer Viruses
Some Viruses Associated with Human Cancers
20
Heredity and Cancer
All Breast Cancer Patients
Inherited factor(s)
Other factor(s)
21
Genes and Cancer
Viruses
Radiation
Chemicals
Heredity
Chromosomes are DNA molecules
22
DNA Structure
Chemical bases
A
T
C
G
DNA molecule
23
DNA Mutation
A
G
C
T
A
A
C
T
A
C
DNA
Normal gene
A
G
C
G
A
A
C
T
A
C
Single base change
A
G
G
C
G
C
T
A
A
C
A
C
T
Additions
C
T
A
G
A
A
C
T
A
C
Deletions
24
Oncogenes
Normal cell
Normal genes regulate cell growth
Oncogenes accelerate cell growth and
division
Cancer cell
Mutated/damaged oncogene
25
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Normal genes prevent cancer
Normal cell
Remove or inactivate tumor suppressor genes
Cancer cell
Damage to both genes leads to cancer
Mutated/inactivated tumor suppressor genes
26
Cancer Prevention
Carcinogenic chemicals
Carcinogenic radiation
Cancer viruses or bacteria
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