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Making A Living

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Chapter 5 Making A Living Subsistence Patterns The ways societies transform the material resources of the environment into food, clothing, and shelter They develop in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Making A Living


1
Chapter 5
  • Making A Living

2
Subsistence Patterns
  • The ways societies transform the material
    resources of the environment into food, clothing,
    and shelter
  • They develop in response to
  • seasonal variation in the environment.
  • environmental variations such as drought, flood,
    or animal diseases.

3
Subsistence Strategies
  • Factors
  • Population density the number of people
    inhabiting an area of land
  • Productivity the yield per person per unit of
    land
  • Efficiency the yield per person per hour of
    labor invested

4
Major Subsistence Strategies
  • Foraging
  • Pastoralism
  • Horticulture
  • Agriculture
  • Industrialism

5
Subsistence Strategies
  • Until about 10,000 years ago, humans lived by
    foraging.
  • As tools improved, foragers spread out and
    developed diverse cultures, arriving in the
    Americas and Australia about 25,000 years ago.

6
Subsistence Strategies
  • About 10,000 years ago, human groups in the Old
    World, and 4,000 years later in the New World,
    began to domesticate plants and animals.
  • The domestication of plants and animals supported
    increased populations and sedentary village life
    became widespread.

7
Subsistence Strategies
  • The Industrial Revolution involved the
    replacement of human and animal energy by
    machines.
  • In a typical nonindustrial society, more than 80
    of the population is involved in food production
  • In a highly industrialized society, 10 of the
    people produce food for the other 90.

8
Subsistence Strategy
  • Each subsistence strategy
  • supports a characteristic level of population
    density.
  • has a different level of productivity.
  • has a different level of efficiency.

9
Foraging
  • Relies on food naturally available in the
    environment
  • Strategy for 99 of the time humans have been on
    earth
  • Limits population growth and complexity of social
    organization

10
Pastoralism
  • Caring for domesticated animals which produce
    meat and milk
  • Involves a complex interaction among animals,
    land, and people
  • How can you get all the protein and nutrients
    from raising animals?
  • Found along with cultivation or trading relations
    with food cultivators

11
Horticultural
  • Horticulture is the growing of crops of all kinds
    with relatively simple tools and methods.
  • Typically a tropical forest adaptation that
    requires cutting and burning the jungle to clear
    fields

12
Agriculture
  • Production of plants using plows, animals, and
    soil and water control
  • Associated with
  • Sedentary villages
  • Occupational diversity
  • Social stratification

13
Transitions to Industrial Economy
  • Affected many aspects of society
  • Population growth
  • Expanded consumption of resources
  • International expansion
  • Occupational specialization
  • Shift from subsistence strategies to wage labor

14
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15
Globalization
  • Industrialism today has outgrown national
    boundaries.
  • The result has been great movement of resources,
    capital, and population, as the whole world has
    gradually been drawn into the global economy.

16
Bringing it Back Home Globalization and Food
Choice
  • In the past most of the food choices on our
    tables were locally grown.
  • Today, some 80 of the fruit consumed in the U.S.
    is produced in only two states Washington and
    California.
  • In the fiscal year 2007, the U.S. imported 70
    billion dollars worth of food.

17
Bringing it Back Home Globalization and Food
Choice
  • Fruits and vegetables are available year-round
    from places as far away as India.
  • This global food network exerts a high price and
    a high carbon footprint.
  • The average tomato produces three times as much
    carbon dioxide than a locally-grown one.

18
Market Foragers?
19
Bringing it Back Home Globalization and Food
Choice
  • You decide
  • What cultural, social, personal, and other
    obstacles do you see as standing in the way of or
    opening possibilities for changes in Americas
    food habits?
  • What are some of the changes in American culture
    and society that might result from changes in
    Americas food practices?
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