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The Skeletal System

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Allied Health I Ms. Campanicki Ankle (Tarsus) Consists of 7 tarsal bones Talus Calcaneus (heel bone) Cuboid bone Navicular bone Medial cuneiform Intermediate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Skeletal System


1
The Skeletal System
  • Allied Health I
  • Ms. Campanicki

2
Intro
  • Skeletal system includes bones of the skeleton,
    and the cartilage, ligaments, and other
    connective tissues that stabilize and/or connect
    the bones

3
Functions of the Skeletal System
  • SUPPORT
  • Provides structural support and framework for
    entire body
  • STORAGE OF MINERALS AND LIPIDS
  • Mainly calcium salts and fats (in yellow marrow)
  • BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION
  • RBCs, WBCs, and other blood elements are made in
    red marrow

4
Functions of the Skeletal System
  • PROTECTION
  • Many soft tissues are surrounded by bone
  • LEVERAGE
  • Bones function as levers that change the
    magnitude and direction of the forces generated
    by skeletal muscles

5
Gross Anatomy of Bones
6
Bone Shapes
  • There are 206 bones in the human body, which are
    categorized into 6 shapes
  • 1) Long bones
  • Long and slender
  • Located in arm, thigh, leg, palms, soles, fingers
    and toes.
  • The femur (thigh bone) is largest and heaviest
    bone in the body

7
Bone Shapes
8
Bone Shapes
  • 2) Flat bones
  • Thin, relatively parallel surfaces
  • Found in roof of skull, sternum, ribs, scapula
  • Provide protection of underlying tissue
  • Large surface area for attachment of muscles
  • 3) Sutural bones (Wormian bones)
  • Small, flat, irregularly shaped
  • Found between flat bones of the skull

9
Bone Shapes
10
Bone Shapes
  • 4) Irregular bones
  • Complex shapes with short, flat, notched or
    ridged surfaces
  • Vertebrae, pelvis, some skull bones
  • 5) Short bones
  • Small and boxy
  • Wrist bones and ankle bones
  • 6) Sesamoid bones
  • Small, flat, shaped like sesame seed
  • Kneecaps, some bones in hands and feet

11
Bone Shapes
12
Bone Structure
  • There are different parts to bone
  • Diaphysis tubular shaft
  • Epiphysys expanded area at each end of the
    diaphysis
  • Metaphysis thin area that connects the
    epiphysis to the diaphysis

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Bone Structure
  • There are different parts to bone
  • Compact bone outer portion of diaphysis
  • Solid, sturdy layer that surrounds the marrow
    cavity
  • Spongy bone (cancellous) mainly found in the
    epiphysis
  • Open network of struts and plates with a thin
    covering of compact bone
  • Marrow is present here, but no marrow cavity

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16
Bone Formation and Growth
17
Bone Formation and Growth
  • Skeleton begins to form about 6 weeks after
    fertilization
  • Skeleton is cartilage
  • Portions of the skeleton dont stop growing until
    the age of 25

18
Bone Formation and Growth
  • Ossification - process of replacing other tissues
    with bone
  • 2 types
  • Endochondral ossification
  • Intramembranous ossification
  • Calcification deposition of calcium, occurs
    during ossification

19
Endochondral Ossification
  • Bones are made of hyaline cartilage in the embryo
  • Cartilage gradually converted to bone through
    endochondral ossification

20
Endochondral Ossification
  • 6 steps to endochondral ossification
  • 1) Chondrocytes increase in size, cartilage is
    reduced to struts that calcify. Chondrocytes
    die and disintegrate
  • 2) Blood vessels grow into perichondrium. Cells
    in inner layer become osteoblasts and they
    produce a thin layer of bone along shaft
    (perichondrium become periosteum

21
Endochondral Ossification
22
Endochondral Ossification
23
Endochondral Ossification Animation 1
Endochondral Ossification Animation2
24
Endochondral Ossification
  • As long as cartilage is being produced on the
    epiphyseal side, and bone is replacing cartilage
    on the shaft side, the bone will continue to get
    longer.
  • At puberty, sex hormones cause dramatic bone
    growth.
  • Epiphyseal cartilage starts to disappear and
    become an epiphyseal line

25
Dynamic Nature of Bone
26
The Dynamic Nature of Bone
  • The matrix is constantly being recycled
  • Process is called remodeling
  • Occurs throughout life
  • Osteoblasts constantly make matrix
  • Osteoclasts constantly dissolve matrix

27
Effects of Exercise on Bone
  • Osteoblasts are attracted to minute electrical
    fields, which are created when bone is stressed.
  • More matrix is produced where stress is high
  • Electrical stimulation is used in fracture
    healing
  • Bone that is not stressed will lose matrix
  • IF YOU DONT USE IT, YOU WILL LOSE IT!!!!!!!

28
Effects of Hormones and Nutrition on Bone
  • YOU NEED CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE SALTS!!!!!!!
  • Vitamin D - helps make calcitrol, which helps
    body absorb calcium
  • Vitamin C helps with collagen synthesis and
    with osteoblast differentiation
  • Vitamin A osteoblast activity
  • Vitamins K, B12 protein fiber production

29
Effects of Hormones and Nutrition on Bone
  • Growth hormone (in pituitary gland) stimulates
    bone growth
  • Sex hormones stimulate osteoblasts
  • Estrogen causes faster epiphyseal closure than
    testosterone, which is why women are shorter than
    men

30
Fracture Repair
  • Damage to bone tissue is known as a fracture
  • 4 steps to repair
  • 1) Extensive bleeding occurs and a fracture
    hematoma forms
  • 2) An external callus forms
  • Enlarged collar of cartilage and bone on surface
    of bone
  • An internal callus forms in the marrow cavity

31
Fracture Repair
32
Fracture Repair
  • 3) Osteoblasts replace the cartilage with spongy
    bone in external and internal callus
  • Broken ends of bone are united
  • 4) Continued remodeling of bone by osteoblasts
    and osteoclasts.
  • Lasts from 4 months to over a year
  • Bone is thicker and stronger than original

33
Fracture Repair
Fracture Repair Animation
34
Types of Fractures
  • Fractures can be open (compound) or closed
    (simple)

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36
Types of Fractures
37
Types of Fractures
38
Skeletal System
  • Axial Skeleton

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40
Introduction
  • Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage (ribs
    sternum)

41
  • Function
  • 1. framework that supports organs
  • 2. surface area for muscle attachment

42
Skull
  • Protects the brain and guards the entrance to the
    digestive and respiratory tract
  • Cranial Bones occipital, parietal (2), frontal,
    temporal (2), sphenoid ethmoid bones
  • Cranial bones protect the brain

43
Skull
  • Facial bones
  • Function protect and support entrances to
    digestive respiratory tracts
  • Superficial bones maxillary, nasal, zygomatic,
    Mandible. Allow for attachment of muscles that
    control facial expressions and help in
    manipulation of food

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51
Skull
  • Facial bones (cont)
  • Deeper facial bones palatine vomer (separates
    oral and nasal cavities)
  • Several bones of skull have sinuses
  • Air filled chambers
  • Function
  • 1. helps to make bones lighter
  • 2. has a mucus membrane that helps moisten and
    clean air

52
  • Sutures immoveable joints that are connections
    b/n skull bones
  • 4 major sutures
  • 1. lamboidal suture across posterior surface
    of skull. Separates occipital bone from the 2
    parietal bones.
  • 2. coronal suture attaches frontal bone to
    parietal bones on either side
  • 3. saggital suture from lamboidal suture to
    coronal suture b/n the 2 parietals
  • 4. squamosal suture on each side of the skull
    boundary b/n temporal and parietal bones
  • Cranial and Facial Bones see handout

53
  • Orbital and nasal complexes
  • 1. Orbital complex formed form cranial and
    facial bones which surround each eye
  • 2. Nasal complex surrounds nasal cavity

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56
  • Skulls of Infants and Children
  • Right before birth, brain enlarges and bones
    cannot keep up. So at birth some bones are
    connected by fibrous connective tissue. Flexible
    so brain is not damaged.
  • Fontanels fibrous areas b/n cranial bones
  • Also called the SOFT SPOT

57
Vertebral Column
  • Adult vertebral column 26 bones 24 vertebrae,
    sacrum coccyx
  • Function
  • 1. support
  • 2. bears weight of head, neck and trunk
  • 3. transfers weight to appendicular skeleton
  • 4. protects spinal cord
  • 5. maintains upright position

58
  • Divided into
  • 7 cervical
  • 12 thoracic (articulates with ribs)
  • 5 lumbar
  • 1 sacrum
  • 1 coccyx
  • With development, sacrum is made up of 5
    vertebrae until 25 than 1

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61
  • Cervical vertebrae
  • 7 of them
  • C1 atlas nod head yes
  • C2 axis rotation to say no

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63
  • Throracic
  • 12 of them
  • Contain facets for rib articulation
  • Lumbar
  • 5 largest
  • Bear most weight
  • Sacrum
  • Fused components of 5 sacral vertebrae
  • Coccyx
  • tailbone

64
Thoracic Cage
  • Ribs
  • 12 pairs
  • First 7 true. Connected to sternum
  • Ribs 8-12 false b/c do not attach directly to
    sternum
  • Ribs 11 12 floating. Attach to vertebrae
  • Sternum (breast bone) flat
  • Manubrium articulates with clavicles first
    pair of ribs
  • Body ribs 2-7
  • Xiphoid process smallest part

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66
The Skeleton
  • Appendicular Skeleton

67
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Allows us to move and manipulate objects
  • Includes all bones besides axial skeleton
  • the limbs
  • the supportive girdles

68
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Pectoral Girdle

69
Pectoral Girdle
  • Also called the shoulder girdle
  • Connects the arms to the body
  • Positions the shoulders
  • Provides a base for arm movement
  • Consists of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the
    clavicle (collarbone)

70
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Upper Limb

71
Upper Limb
  • Consists of arms, forearms, wrists, and hands
  • Note arm (brachium) 1 bone, the humerus

72
Upper Limb
  • Humerus
  • Also called the arm
  • The long, upper arm bone
  • Articulates with the pectoral girdle and forearm

73
Upper Limb
  • Humerus
  • Features
  • Head articulates with glenoid fossa
  • Medial and lateral epicondyles
  • Olecranon fossa

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Upper Limb
  • Forearm
  • Consists of 2 long bones
  • ulna (medial)
  • Olecranon process
  • radius (lateral)

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Upper Limb
  • Wrist
  • 8 carpal bones
  • 4 proximal carpal bones (starting Laterally)
  • Scaphoid bone
  • Lunate bone
  • Triquetrum
  • Pisiform bone
  • 4 distal carpal bones (starting Laterally)
  • Trapezium
  • Trapezoid bone
  • Capitate bone
  • Hamate bone

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Upper Limb
  • Hand (Metacarpals)
  • 5 long bones of the hand
  • Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medial
  • Fingers/Thumb
  • Pollex (thumb)
  • 2 phalanges (proximal, distal)
  • Fingers
  • 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

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Appendicular Skeleton
  • Pelvic Girdle

82
Pelvic Girdle
  • Also known as the hip
  • Made up of 3 fused bones
  • ilium
  • ischium
  • pubis

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Pelvic Girdle
  • Acetabulum
  • Also called the hip socket
  • Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and
    pubis
  • Articulates with head of the femur

85
Pelvic Girdle
  • Ilium
  • Iliac crest
  • Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
  • Ischium
  • Pubis
  • Pubic symphysis

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Pelvic Girdle
  • Differences between male and female pelvic
    girdles.
  • Female pelvis
  • smoother
  • lighter
  • less prominent muscle and ligament attachments
  • Modifications for Childbearing
  • Enlarged pelvic outlet
  • Broad pubic angle (gt 100)
  • Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx
  • Wide, circular pelvic inlet
  • Broad, low pelvis
  • Ilia project laterally, not upwards

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89
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Lower Limb

90
Lower Limb
  • Consists of
  • Femur (thigh)
  • Patella (kneecap)
  • Tibia and fibula (leg)
  • Tarsals (ankle)
  • Metatarsals (foot)
  • Phalanges (toes)

91
Lower Limb
  • Femur
  • Largest, heaviest bone
  • Features
  • Head articulates with acetabulum

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Lower Limb
  • Patella (knee cap)
  • A sesamoid bone
  • Formed within tendon of quadriceps muscles

94
Lower Limb
  • Tibia (shin bone)
  • Medial bone in lower leg
  • Supports body weight
  • Features
  • Tibial tuberosity
  • Medial Malleolus medial ankle bone

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Lower Limb
  • Fibula
  • Lateral bone in lower leg
  • Does not support body weight
  • Features
  • Head
  • Lateral Malleolus lateral ankle bone

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Lower Limb
  • Ankle (Tarsus)
  • Consists of 7 tarsal bones
  • Talus
  • Calcaneus (heel bone)
  • Cuboid bone
  • Navicular bone
  • Medial cuneiform
  • Intermediate cuneiform
  • Lateral cuneiform

99
Lower Limb
  • Feet (Metatarsals)
  • 5 long bones of foot
  • Numbered IV, medial to lateral
  • Toes (phalanges)
  • Hallux
  • big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal)
  • Other 4 toes
  • 3 phalanges (distal, middle, proximal)
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