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The Cell cont.

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The Cell cont. Chapter 7 Sections 3 & 4 Cell Boundaries Cell Membrane A thin flexible barrier that surrounds all cells. It contains pumps and channels made of proteins. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cell cont.


1
The Cell cont.
  • Chapter 7
  • Sections 3 4

2
Cell Boundaries
  • Cell Membrane
  • A thin flexible barrier that surrounds all cells.
  • It contains pumps and channels made of proteins.
  • It regulates what enters leaves the cell.
  • It provides protection and support.

3
Cell Boundaries
  • Cell Wall
  • A strong supporting layer around the cell
    membrane that is usually made of tough fibers.
  • It provides protection for the cell.
  • Plants, algae, fungi, many prokaryotes have
    cell walls.

4
Cell Boundaries
  • Cytoplasm
  • It contains a solution of many different
    substances in water.
  • A solution is a mixture of 2 or more substances.

5
Homeostasis
  • Ideal conditions a balance (feedback system)
  • Sweat, shiver, heart rate (to deliver more
    Oxygen).

6
Particle Transport
  • Passive Transport
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Facilitated Diffusion
  • Active Transport

7
Passive Transport
  • Moves down a gradient particles move from Higher
    concentration to lower concentration
  • Energy is not required

8
Diffusion
  • A process that occurs because molecules
    constantly move collide with one another.
  • Particles move from an area of high concentration
    to an area of low concentration.
  • Energy is not used or required.

9
Diffusion
  • Equilibrium when the concentration of the
    solute is the same throughout a system. All
    organisms move towards maintain equilibrium.
  • When this is reached, particles of a solution
    will continue to move across the membrane in both
    directions.
  • Done by Osmosis Diffusion

10
Osmosis
  • The diffusion of water through a selectively
    permeable membrane.
  • Energy is not used or required.
  • Isotonic- same strength- movement of water in
    water out. Equal concentration
  • Hypertonic- above strength- water out.
  • Hypotonic- below strength- water in. (soil hypo
    to root hyper)

11
Osmosis
  • Osmotic Pressure- pressure that is caused during
    osmosis on the hypertonic side of a selectively
    permeable membrane.
  • The cell contains salts, sugars, proteins, and
    other molecules and when put into fresh water, it
    will almost always be hypertonic and cause the
    cell to swell and possibly burst.

12
Facilitated Diffusion
  • The process in which channels facilitate or help
    make it easier for certain molecules to cross the
    cell membrane.
  • Protein channels- they are made of protein help
    move materials from one side to the other side.
  • Energy is not used or required.

13
Active Transport
  • A process in which cells must sometimes move
    materials in the opposite direction against the
    concentration difference.
  • Energy is required. (ATP)
  • A pump is used to take large molecules and force
    them through the membrane.
  • Against a gradient

14
Active Transport
  • Endocytosis- wraps or absorbs taking into cell
    by infolding or pocketing.
  • Phagocytosis- enguls it after surrounding it
    cell eating
  • Pinocytosis- take up liquid.
  • Exocytosis- discharge of large particles
    surrounding fusing with cell membrane.

15
Diversity of Cellular Life
  • Unicellular organisms
  • Multicellular organisms

16
Unicellular Organisms
  • Consists of a single cell.
  • It carries out all of the essential functions
    that a larger organism does such as grow,
    respond, react to environment, reproduce,
    transform energy.
  • Ex. yeast, algae, bacteria.

17
Multicellular Organisms
  • Are made up of many cells.
  • The cells are specialized to perform different
    tasks.
  • Ex. muscle cells, blood cells, pancreatic
    cells.
  • Cell specialization when cells have different
    jobs in an organism. Ex- blood cells transport
    oxygen, muscle cells contract and relax muscles.

18
Levels of Organization
  • Individual cells- the first level of
    organization.
  • Tissues- similar cells grouped together to
    perform a particular function. Ex.- muscle,
    epithelial, nervous, connective.
  • Organs- a group of tissues that work together.
    Ex.- heart, stomach, lungs.
  • Organ systems- a group of organs that work
    together to perform a specific function. Ex.-
    nervous system, digestive system, circulatory
    system.
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