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Immigrants and Urbanization


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Title: Immigrants and Urbanization

Immigrants and Urbanization
Class discussion Imagine that
  • The year is 1880. New York Citys swelling
    population has created a housing crises.
    Immigrant families crowd into apartments that
    lack light, ventilation, and sanitary facilities.
    Children have no where to play except the streets
    and are often kept out of school to work and help
    support their families. You are a reformer who
    wishes to help immigrants improve their lives.

Discussion Turn and Talk
  • 1. What would you do to improve conditions?
  • 2. What skills do newcomers need to make it?
  • 3. How might immigrants respond to help from an
  • 4. How do you think youd react?

Why Did The Immigrants Come Here?
  • Between 1870 1920, about 20 million Europeans
    immigrated to the U.S.
  • 1. Escape religious persecution
  • 2. Improve their economic situation (jobs) (Birds
    of passage)
  • 3. Experience greater freedom in the U.S.
  • 4. Escape difficult conditions (famine, land
    shortages from rising population)

Which of the following is a reason why the
immigrants did NOT come to America?
  1. To escape persecution
  2. To improve their economic situation
  3. To educate their children in better American
  4. To escape difficult conditions

A Difficult Journey Turn and Talk
  • What main issues do you think the immigrants
    faced when coming into the USA?
  • Which of these do you think would be most
    difficult for you if you were an immigrant?
  • How do you think they were treated?
  • What do you think was the overall American view
    on immigration at this time? (similar or
    different from today?)

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Ellis Island
  • Most European immigrants to the U.S. arrived in
    New York and had to pass through immigration
    station located on Ellis Island in New York
  • Immigrants were carefully health screened and
    could only bring 100lbs of belongings

Ellis Island - NY
Do you think that Americans were excited or upset
over immigration?
  1. Excited
  2. Upset
  3. Not sure

Passing Inspection
  • Officials at Ellis Island decided whether the
    immigrants could enter the country.
  • 1. Check for serious health problems
  • 2. Document checks
  • What do you think the requirements for entering
    the country should have been?

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What Were the Requirements for Admission?
  • 1. Proving they had never been convicted of a
  • 2. Demonstrating that they were able to work.
  • 3. Showing that they had some money at least 25
    (1909 standard)
  • Lets look at an example

Here Are The Exact Questions Used
  • 1.What is your name?
  • 2. Have you ever been to the America before?
  • 3. Do you have any relatives here? If the answer
    was yes, then asked where they lived.
  • 4. Is there anyone who came to meet you at Ellis
  • 5. Who paid for your passage?
  • 6. Do you have any money? ( If the answer was yes
    then immigrant was told Let me see it.)
  • 7. Do you have a job waiting for you in America?
  • 8. Do you have a criminal record?

Edward Ferro An Italian Immigrant
  • The language was a problem of course, but it was
    overcome by the use of interpretersIt would
    happen sometimes that these interpreters some
    of them were really softhearted people and
    hated to see people being deported, and they
    would, at times, help the aliens by interpreting
    in such a manner as to benefit the alien and not
    the government. (I Was Dreaming to Come to

Angel Island
  • Not all immigrants came through Ellis Island
  • Angel Island - Immigration station for the Asian
    immigrants arriving on the West Coast- San
  • Inspection process more difficult than on Ellis
    Island. (filthy conditions, harsh questioning)

Cooperation For Survival
  • Think about Finding a place to live, a job,
    understanding the language and culture in a new
  • Many immigrants settled in communities with other
    immigrants from same country.

Immigration Restrictions
  • America started to be called a MELTING POT -
    Many cultures races had blended
  • But, many immigrants refused to give up their

The Rise of Nativism
  • Some Americans didnt like so many immigrants
    living in the U.S.
  • NATIVISM- preference for native-born Americans.
  • Nativism
  • 1. Gave rise to anti-immigrant groups
  • 2. Led to a demand for immigration restrictions.

Anti-Asian Sentiment
  • Chinese immigrants worked for low wages this
    took jobs from native born Americans
  • Labor groups pressured politicians to restrict
    Asian immigration.
  • CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT1882 - Banned all but a few
    Chinese immigrants
  • Not lifted until 1943.

Section 2 Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to
  • 1. Describe the movement of immigrants to cities
    and the opportunities they found there.
  • 2. Explain how cities dealt with housing,
    transportation, sanitation, and safety issues.
  • 3. Describe some of the organizations and people
    who offered help to urban immigrants.

Section 2 The Challenges of Urbanization
Urban Opportunities
  • Many immigrants settled in cities in the early
    1900s work
  • Cities began to become overcrowded
  • Urbanization - the rapid growth of cities.
  • Farmers also moved into the city new technology
    less farming jobs

Americanization Movement
  • Our government wanted to help immigrants learn
    more about the USA
  • Americanization Movement Was designed to
    assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into
    the dominant culture.
  • Schools taught them English, American history,
    and government.

Urban Problems
  • There became serious shortages in housing.
  • New types of housing were created
  • 1)Row house apartment type homes
  • 2)Tenement Multifamily urban houses often
    overcrowded unsanitary
  • Sanitation was a problem

Mass Transit
  • Transportation also became a huge issue.
  • Cities developed Mass Transit transportation
    systems designed to move large numbers of people
    along fixed routes.
  • More were needed to keep up with demand

Urban Problems Sanitation
  • Cities had hard time supplying safe drinking
  • People threw garbage out their windows.
  • Horse manure piled up on the streets
  • Sewage flowed in streets.
  • By 1900, many cities built sewers created
    sanitation departments.

Crime Problems
  • Pickpockets and thieves flourished (stealing to
  • NYC police was relatively small and didnt make
    much impact on crime.

Fire Problems
  • The city had limited supply of water.
  • Most city apartments were made of wood
  • People also used candles and kerosene lamps for
  • Paid fire departments were first created in 1853
  • The automatic fire sprinkler was also created in

The Great Chicago Fire 1871
  • Fire burned for 24hrs.
  • An estimated 300 people died
  • 100,000 were left homeless
  • More than 3 square miles of the city center was
  • Property loss was estimated at 200 million.
  • 17,500 buildings were destroyed.

Reformers Help the Poor
  • Social Gospel movement - Early reform program
  • Leaders preached that people reached salvation by
    helping the poor
  • They established Settlement Houses -
  • Community centers located in slums that gave
    support system for poor immigrants.

Section 3 Politics in the Gilded Age
Political Machines
  • Since cities were so crowded, the local
    government couldnt control everything
  • During late 1800s, many cities were run by a
    Political Machine - an organized group, headed by
    a city boss, that controlled activities in a
  • Offered services to voters businesses in
    exchange for political or financial support.

The Role of the Political Boss
  • What else did the bosses do
  • 1. Controlled access to jobs
  • 2. Built parks, sewer systems, and waterworks.
  • 3. Gave money to hospitals, schools, and
  • So that..people would vote for them!!

Why do you think that people supported the
political machines?
  1. Support
  2. Protection
  3. Services
  4. All of the above

Immigrants and Bosses
  • The immigrants liked the idea of political
    machines and bosses. Why?
  • 1. Many of the bosses were immigrants themselves
    they spoke their language and battled the same
  • 2. They helped the immigrants with Naturalization
    full American citizenship.
  • 3. Helped them get jobs and houses
  • And in return VOTES!!!

Why did the bosses often relate well to the
  1. They liked to be in control
  2. They were once immigrants themselves
  3. They didnt
  4. None of the above

Election Fraud and Graft
  • Many Bosses got rich through GRAFT-the illegal
    use of political influence for personal gain.
  • Example By helping a person find work on a
    construction project for the city, a political
    machine could ask the worker to bill the city for
    more than the actual cost of materials and labor.
  • The worker then kicked back a portion of the
    earnings to the machine.

The NY City Courthouse was built using Graft money
Why do you think that people allowed the bosses
to do illegal activities?
  1. Because they were getting things in return
  2. They personally liked the bosses
  3. They didnt like the government
  4. All of the above

The Tweed Ring
  • Boss Tweed (William M. Tweed) became the head of
    Tammany Hall- NYCs powerful Democratic
    political machine.
  • Between 1869-1871 Boss Tweed led a group of
    people (Tweed Ring) in defrauding the city for
    millions of dollars.

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What Did Tweed Do? Story Time!
  • The NYC Courthouse was being built. The project
    cost tax payers 13 million, while the actual
    cost was only 3 million! The difference went to
    the Tweed Ring. It is estimated that the Tweed
    Ring stole between 30-200 million dollars from

Ultimately, who did the Tweed Rings actions hurt
  1. Boss Tweed
  2. The city
  3. The government
  4. The taxpayers

EventuallyThey Got Busted!
  • In 1871 the ring was broken.
  • Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and
    extortion and was sentenced to 12 years in jail.
  • His sentence got reduced to 1 year but he got in
    trouble again and was arrested.
  • While serving this sentence, he escaped to went
    to Spain.

  1. What is the significance of the word LAW on the
    torn piece of paper?
  2. What affect do you think Nast wanted to have on
    his audience?

  • National politics were also corrupt Its all
    about who you know.
  • Patronage giving of government jobs to people of
    the same party who had helped a candidate get
  • Shouldnt the job go to the most qualified?

Civil Service
  • Civil Service- Government jobs
  • Reformers proposed that civil service jobs would
    go to the most qualified, regardless of political

Why was the civil service system a better
system than the spoils system?
  1. It wasnt
  2. It allowed political bosses to control the job
  3. It allowed the most qualified to get hired
  4. It benefited only the wealthy

President Hayes
  • President Rutherford B. Hayes attempted to reform
    civil service
  • Some members of Republican party objected
  • He decides not to run for re-election (no

Garfields Assassination
  • Stalwarts opposed change in patronage system.
  • Reformers supported changing the system
  • New President James Garfield attempts to reform
    the patronage system and is assassinated
  • Chester A. Arthur Garfields VP - Becomes the new

Why was Garfield assassinated?
  1. He wasnt liked by the political machines
  2. He had ties to the reform movement
  3. He didnt deserve to be the President
  4. None of the above

Chester A. Arthur in Action
  • Arthurs first message to the Congress was to
    pass the Pendleton Civil Service Act - Created a
    civil service commission to give government jobs
    based on merit, not politics
  • This caused politicians to turn to big businesses
    for money